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You can get the remaining amount to reach the Free shipping threshold by adding any eligible item to your cart. This scarce antiquarian book is a facsimile reprint of the original.

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Due to its age, it may contain imperfections such as marks, notations, marginalia and flawed pages. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting,. Because we believe this work is culturally important, we have made it available as part of our commitment for protecting, preserving, and promoting the world's literature in affordable, high quality, modern editions that are true to the original work.

We will send you an SMS containing a verification code. Please double check your mobile number and click on "Send Verification Code". Enter the code below and hit Verify. Free Shipping All orders of Don't have an account? Update your profile Let us wish you a happy birthday! Make sure to buy your groceries and daily needs Buy Now. Let us wish you a happy birthday! In painting it generally took the form of an emphasis on austere linear design in the depiction of classical themes and subject matter, using archaeologically correct settings and costumes.

Neoclassicism arose partly as a reaction against the sensuous and frivolously decorative Rococo style that had dominated European art from the s on. But an even more profound stimulus was the new and more scientific interest in classical antiquity that arose in the 18th century. Neoclassicism was given great impetus by new archaeological discoveries, particularly the exploration and excavation of the buried Roman cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii the excavations of which began in and , respectively.

And from the second decade of the 18th century on, a number of influential publications by Bernard de Montfaucon , Giovanni Battista Piranesi , the Comte de Caylus, and Robert Wood provided engraved views of Roman monuments and other antiquities and further quickened interest in the classical past. The new understanding distilled from these discoveries and publications in turn enabled European scholars for the first time to discern separate and distinct chronological periods in Greco-Roman art, and this new sense of a plurality of ancient styles replaced the older, unqualified veneration of Roman art and encouraged a dawning interest in purely Greek antiquities.

He claimed that in doing so such artists would obtain idealized depictions of natural forms that had been stripped of all transitory and individualistic aspects, and their images would thus attain a universal and archetypal significance. Neoclassicism as manifested in painting was initially not stylistically distinct from the French Rococo and other styles that had preceded it. This was partly because, whereas it was possible for architecture and sculpture to be modeled on prototypes in these media that had actually survived from classical antiquity, those few classical paintings that had survived were minor or merely ornamental works—until, that is, the discoveries made at Herculaneum and Pompeii.

Each of these painters, though they may have used poses and figural arrangements from ancient sculptures and vase paintings, was strongly influenced by preceding stylistic trends. A more rigorously Neoclassical painting style arose in France in the s under the leadership of Jacques-Louis David. Just before and during the French Revolution , these and other painters adopted stirring moral subject matter from Roman history and celebrated the values of simplicity, austerity, heroism, and stoic virtue that were traditionally associated with the Roman Republic, thus drawing parallels between that time and the contemporary struggle for liberty in France.

This style was ruthlessly austere and uncompromising, and it is not surprising that it came to be associated with the French Revolution in which David actively participated. Neoclassicism as generally manifested in European painting by the s emphasized the qualities of outline and linear design over those of colour, atmosphere, and effects of light.

Widely disseminated engravings of classical sculptures and Greek vase paintings helped determine this bias, which is clearly seen in the outline illustrations made by the British sculptor John Flaxman in the s for editions of the works of Homer, Aeschylus, and Dante.

These illustrations are notable for their drastic and powerful simplification of the human body , their denial of pictorial space, and their minimal stage setting. This austere linearity when depicting the human form was adopted by many other British figural artists, including the Swiss-born Henry Fuseli and William Blake, among others. Neoclassical painters attached great importance to depicting the costumes, settings, and details of their classical subject matter with as much historical accuracy as possible.

This worked well enough when illustrating an incident found in the pages of Homer, but it raised the question of whether a modern hero or famous person should be portrayed in classical or contemporary dress. Classical history and mythology provided a large part of the subject matter of Neoclassical works. The poetry of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid, the plays of Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, and history recorded by Pliny, Plutarch, Tacitus, and Livy provided the bulk of classical sources, but the most important single source was Homer.


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To this general literary emphasis was added a growing interest in medieval sources, such as the pseudo-Celtic poetry of Ossian, as well as incidents from medieval history, the works of Dante, and an admiration for medieval art itself in the persons of Giotto, Fra Angelico , and others. Indeed, the Neoclassicists differed strikingly from their academic predecessors in their admiration of Gothic and Quattrocento art in general, and they contributed notably to the positive reevaluation of such art.

Finally, it should be noted that Neoclassicism coexisted throughout much of its later development with the seemingly obverse and opposite tendency of Romanticism. But far from being distinct and separate, these two styles intermingled with each other in complex ways; many ostensibly Neoclassical paintings show Romantic tendencies, and vice versa. This contradictory situation is strikingly evident in the works of the last great Neoclassical painter, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres , who painted sensuous Romantic female nudes while also turning out precisely linear and rather lifeless historical paintings in the approved Neoclassical mode.

Hamilton —Scottish painter, archaeologist, and dealer—spent most of his working life in Rome, and his paintings include two series of large and influential canvases of Homeric subjects. West and the Swiss-born Kauffmann were the most consistent exhibitors of history pieces in London during the s. James Barry and Fuseli also were important.

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Blake, poet and painter, was a Neoclassicist to some extent. As well as being a painter, Vien was a friend of the archaeologist Caylus and a director of the French Academy in Rome. Anne-Louis Girodet de Roucy , known as Girodet-Trioson, won a Prix de Rome but stopped painting after when he inherited a fortune and turned to writing. The famous pupil was Ingres, who was important as a Neoclassicist in his subject paintings but not in his portraits. He was himself appointed Dresden court painter in In he met Winckelmann, and subsequently he became a prominent figure in Roman Neoclassical circles.

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Mengs is important both as a painter and as a theorist. After Unterberger, the most interesting painter was Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein , who executed both portraits and subject pieces. He was a director of the art academy in Naples and supervised the publication of engravings of the Greek vases in the collection of Sir William Hamilton , the British ambassador to Naples, who was a notable connoisseur. One of the earliest Neoclassicists and one of the foremost painters of his generation in Italy was Batoni.

His style blends Rococo with Neoclassical elements, and his work includes classical subject pieces as well as portraits in contemporary dress, the sitter posing with antique statues and urns and sometimes amid ruins. The painter Domenico Corvi was influenced by both Batoni and Mengs and was important as the teacher of three of the leading Neoclassicists of the next generation: These artists worked mostly in Rome , the first two making reputations as portraitists, Landi especially being noted for good contemporary groups.

Rome was indeed the city where the principal Italian painters of this period were most active. One such was Felice Giani, whose many decorations include Napoleonic palaces there and elsewhere in Italy especially Faenza and in France. He was also a fine portraitist. One of his pupils was Giuseppe Bossi. Other good examples of Neoclassical decorative schemes outside Rome are in Florence Pitti Palace by the Florentine Luigi Sabatelli and by Pietro Benvenuti, who was born at Arezzo, and in Venice Palazzo Reale by Giuseppe Borsato, who was born in that city and was both painter and architect.

Another painter of the time, though only given to a mildly Neoclassical style, was Domenico Pellegrini, born near Bassano, who traveled widely. The principal Neoclassicists in the south were the Sicilians Giuseppe Velasco, who did important frescoes in palaces in Palermo, and Giuseppe Errante. David was very influential in Brussels, where he retired late in life. Romanticism is a term loosely used to designate numerous and diverse changes in the arts during a period of more than years roughly, — , changes that were in reaction against Neoclassicism but not necessarily the classicism of Greece and Rome or against what is variously called the Age of Reason , the Augustan Age , the Enlightenment, or 18th-century materialism.

In the sense of a personal temperament Romanticism had always existed, but in the sense of an aesthetic period it signified works of art whose prime impulse and effect derived from individual rather than collective reactions.

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Romanticism can generally be said to have emphasized the personal, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative, the spontaneous, the emotional, and even the visionary and transcendental in works of art. The Romantic movement first developed in northern Europe with a rejection of technical standards based on the classical ideal that perfection should be attained in art.

It was writers and poets who gave initial expression to Romantic ideas; painters, while subject to similar feelings, acquired fundamental inspiration from the literature of the period. There was an increasing awareness generally of the way the various arts interacted.

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Romantic critics agreed that experience of profound inner emotion was the mainspring of creation and appreciation of art. Received ideas, and especially aesthetic values sanctioned by the authority of official institutions, were distrusted, and the individual was pitted against society.

The artist asserted the right to evolve his own criteria of beauty and in so doing encouraged a new concept of artistic genius. The genius whom the Romantics celebrated was one who refused to conform, who remained defiantly independent of society, and whose chief virtues were novelty and sincerity. This sometimes led to bizarre and extravagant projects in which the intention to shock, excite, and involve struck a melodramatic, almost hysterical note that failed to convince by its very lack of restraint.

As in the literature of the period, tragic themes predominated in Romantic painting, and interest turned sharply from classical history and mythology to medieval subjects, although an interest in the primitive was sometimes common to both. The fascination with the Middle Ages combined with strong nationalist tendencies, disposing artists to a concern with the history and folklore of their own countries. At the same time they often sought themes or styles that were distant in place as well as time. Accounts of foreign travel and the literary works of Dante, Shakespeare, Byron, Goethe, Sir Walter Scott , and the supposed Celtic bard Ossian greatly influenced painters.

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Study of medieval culture imbued some painters with a Christian ideal of simplicity and moral integrity. A salient feature of Romantic sensibility was awareness of the beauties of the natural world. An almost reverential affection, animated by the belief that the divine mind was immanent in nature, engendered at times a Christian or theistic naturalism.

The artist was seen as the interpreter of hidden mysteries, to which end imaginative insight must combine with absolute fidelity and sincerity. In Britain and Germany especially, the moral implications inherent in the appreciation of natural or artistic beauty tended to outweigh aesthetic considerations. Interest in transitory phenomena led painters to devote themselves to an accurate study of light and atmosphere and their effects on the landscape. Concern to preserve the spontaneity of the immediate impression brought about a revolution in painterly technique, with the rapid notation of the sketch carried into the final conception.

Whether emphasizing expressive or purely visual considerations, the landscape paintings of the period display dazzling colour. Curiosity about the external world and a spirit of what might be called scientific inquiry led many painters to explore the minutiae of nature. Technological advance also excited artistic interest, though painting was affected less than architecture and the decorative arts; and the humanitarian sympathy and generosity so vital to the Romantic spirit gradually effected a reconciliation between art and life.

The political and social upheavals of the 19th century involved many painters in revolutionary movements and stimulated a solicitude toward the helpless and downtrodden that found most passionate and powerful expression in the works executed during and immediately after the Revolutions of James Barry, the brothers John and Alexander Runciman, John Brown, George Romney, and the Swiss-born Henry Fuseli favoured themes—whether literary, historical, or purely imaginary—determined by a taste for the pathetic, bizarre, and extravagantly heroic. Mutually influential and highly eclectic , they combined, especially in their drawings, the linear tensions of Italian Mannerism with bold contrasts of light and shade.

Though never in Rome, John Hamilton Mortimer had much in common with this group, for all were participants in a move to found a national school of narrative painting. Empiricism and acceptance of the irrational, however, were not mutually exclusive , and each profoundly affected attitudes toward nature. Susceptible to the ideas of Blake and other radical theorists and animated by a growing spirit of inquiry into natural phenomena, painters slowly abandoned the picturesque desire to compose and became willing to be moved, awestruck, and terrified by nature unadorned.

Early artists of the sublime , such as Alexander Cozens or Francis Towne, worked largely in watercolours and solved the problem of scale by abstraction—use of broad areas of colour to suggest the vast scope of natural forces—an approach developed by Thomas Girtin and John Sell Cotman.

Turner , were going still further. Both men, while admiring the classical landscapes of Claude Lorrain and Poussin, believed that personal feeling was the mainspring of artistic activity and felt an almost mystical sympathy for the natural world. They made atmosphere almost palpable and painted everything from clouds to lichens with astonishing technical diversity. For Constable, light clarified and enlivened, and his nostalgia for the Suffolk countryside is personal and explicit. With Turner, light increasingly diffused the objects illuminated , and only a more literary expression satisfied his concept of the sublime, drawing him to mountain grandeur, raging seas, storms, and conflagrations.

In portraiture an interest in extremes of mood found most eloquent expression in the work of Sir Thomas Lawrence , who combined in portraits such as those of Richard Payne Knight ; Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester and Pope Pius VII ; Royal Collection, Windsor Castle brilliant freedom of handling, at times approaching exhibitionism, with dramatic expression and setting, at times almost melodramatic. History painting, too, was transformed: The authentic, domestic treatment of biblical themes at the hands of William Dyce and the Pre-Raphaelites see below contrasts sharply with the earlier apocalyptic fantasies of John Martin and Francis Danby.

Painting as a vehicle for social or moral comment was provided by Sir Luke Fildes and Frank Holl, in whose work a tendency to sentimentality is redeemed by a genuine regard for the sufferings of the poor. The Pre-Raphaelite movement, echoing that of the Nazarenes a group of religiously minded painters who sought to revive medieval workshop practices; see below , reiterated many earlier Romantic ideals.

Literary inspiration and a passion for the Middle Ages were tempered for the Pre-Raphaelites by a moral outlook that recoiled from sophistication and virtuosity and demanded rigorous studies from natural life.

These painters handled literary, historical, biblical, and contemporary themes with the same sincerity and fidelity that yielded the sparkling precision of Pre-Raphaelite landscape. Their earnest pursuit of truth, whether in depicting painful social realities or concentrating on the foreground blades of grass in a landscape, entailed a denial of many orthodox artistic pleasures. Together with Ford Madox Brown , the Pre-Raphaelites sustained the devotion to colour and light in painting that underlies the finest endeavours of English Romanticism.

In Germany also there was a reaction against classicism and the academies, and, as elsewhere, it involved all aspects of the arts. Again, as elsewhere, theory preceded practice: Wackenroder advocated a Christian art closely related to the art of the early German masters and provided the artist with a new role as interpreter of divine inspiration through his own feelings. The painter Philipp Otto Runge had been reared on 17th-century German mysticism, and he proved susceptible to the ideas of writers such as Wackenroder when introduced to them in Dresden at the very end of the 18th century.

In Dresden he formed a close association with the leading German landscape painter Caspar David Friedrich. Like Friedrich he was fascinated by the potential symbolic and allegorical power of landscape, which he used as a vehicle for religious expression.