Guide Critical geographies of childhood and youth

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In an early article, Holloway and Valentine termed these 'spatial discourses' [2]. There is now a journal dedicated to work in the subdiscipline: Children's Geographies [5] which will give readers a good idea of the growing range of issues, theories and methodologies of this developing and vibrant sub-discipline. Another relevant journal is Children, Youth and Environments, [6] published as an interdisciplinary tri-annual with a worldwide readership.

For some years, critics argued that scholarship in children's geographies was characterised by a lack of theoretical diversity [7] and 'block politics'. For instance, in a series of articles, John Horton and Peter Kraftl have challenged a sense of 'what matters' in scholarship with children - from the material objects, emotions and affects that characterise 'participation' [14] to the ways in which our embodied engagements with place in childhood are carried forward into adulthood, thereby scrambling any neat notion of 'transition' from childhood to adulthood.

Recently, there has been vibrant debate about the political value of nonrepresentational approaches to childhood.

Some scholars argue that nonrepresentational theories encourage a focus upon the banal, everyday, ephemeral and small-scale at the expense of understanding and critically interrogating wider-scaled and longer-standing processes of marginalisation. A second key conceptual trend has been in work on Subjectivity , children's Political geography and emotion.

For instance, Louise Holt [20] uses the work of Judith Butler to critically examine the emergence of the infant as a 'subject' through power relations that are often gendered, as well as infanthood is a stage in the lifecourse that is subject to particular kinds of social construction. | Critical geographies of childhood and youth, Peter Kraftl, John Horton, Faith Tucker |

Elsewhere, there has been a surge in interest in children's political geographies, which has to some extent been informed both by developments in nonrepresentational theory and in theories of subjectivity. Central to this scholarship especially in the work of Tracey Skelton, [21] Kirsi Pauliina Kallio [22] and Jouni Hakli has been a move beyond a traditional concern with children's participation in decision-making processes to highlight the range of ways in which they may be 'political' - from 'micropolitical' engagements with ethnic or social in the school or the street to critical considerations of major policy documents such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Louise Holt's work on subjectivity [23] also connects with a wider, ongoing interest in the Emotional geography of childhood and youth Bartos, , [24] Blazek, [25] , which, although overlapping with interests in nonrepresentational children's geographies, also has its roots in feminist theory. Notably, such approaches informed seminal texts that were important to the early development of children's geographies, particularly in Sarah Holloway's work on parenting and local childcare cultures.

The array of spaces and places experienced by children includes, but are not restricted to, homes, schools, playgrounds, neighbourhoods, streets, cities, countries, landscapes of consumption, and cyberspace.

Education, Childhood and Youth Studies at the University of Portsmouth

Although schools are such a relatively large institution in society, it has been noted that this environment has received little recognition in comparison to institutions of health Collins and Coleman, Research in children's geographies has been central to the development of scholarship on 'geographies of education'. For many commentators, this work - which spans Social geography , Cultural geography , Political geography and Urban geography - does not yet constitute an identifiable subdiscipline of human geography.

This work has burgeoned in recent years, with a number of special issues dedicated to education and emotion, [36] embodiment [37] and the cultural geographies of education. As they argue, children's geographers have not only undertaken a huge range of research in schools, but that work has been central in developing geographers' understandings of both education spaces more widely, and schools in particular.

Although schools are a relatively large institution in society, it has been noted that this environment has received little recognition in comparison to institutions of health Collins and Coleman, The implications of home schooling have largely been a field of assumptions, taking after common myths Romanowki, , [40] although later work by geographers has examined in considerable detail the significance of space, place. Whilst the majority of research by children's and youth geographers on education has focussed on institutions like schools and universities, [43] that work has been challenged in a number of ways by scholarship on the geographies of alternative education.

Examining a diverse range of non-State-funded, explicitly 'alternative' education spaces in the UK like Homeschooling , Waldorf education , Montessori education , Forest school learning style and Care farming , Peter Kraftl examines the connections and disconnections between 'mainstream' and 'alternative' education sectors. In doing so, alternative educators are attempting to create 'alter-childhoods' - alternative constructions, imaginations and ways of treating childhood that are knowingly different from a perceived mainstream.

As children grow they look to the influential adults in their lives for guidance parents, caregivers and teachers. Most researchers and adults alike agree that communication is key to healthy child development across all modal environments, especially within schools Lasky, ; Hargreaves, ; Hargreaves and Fullan, ; Hargreaves and Lasky, Where there may be a lack of influential adults, children may look to older age groups within the school environment to observe acceptable behaviours and attention seeking behaviours.

However, other research disputes that the experience is as helpful as it claims to be, suggesting child-mentoring situations often fall short or are only temporarily beneficial Spencer, ; Pryce, The outcomes of this mobilization have both been constructive and destructive in the availability of material to learning children Sancho, [49] and more extrapersonal interactions among children. The educational benefit of I. Interactive Computer Technology in the classroom has been a subject supported by various researchers Aviram and Talmi, The school is an institution in which children observe one another and experiment continuously with their self-image Hernandez, The centrality of schools to social geography is pivotal.

The connection between nation-building and public education has held the view that schools shape the knowledge and identities of children Collins and Coleman, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Critical geographies of childhood and youth

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Hybrid childhoods and some critical reflections on children's emotional geographies". Emotion, Space and Society. Approaches to Human Geography. Six overlapping points about Children's Geographies". Everyday, affective politics of participation".

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Samenvatting This comprehensive book shows how geographical concepts—such as place, scale, mobility, and boundary making—can be put to use by social scientists and practitioners focused on young people.

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Drawn from cases in Africa, the United States, and the United Kingdom, the essays collected here demonstrate that local and national concerns remain central to many youth programs, while also highlighting the increasingly globalized nature of youth policy. Informed by cutting-edge theoretical approaches in human geography, sociology, anthropology, and youth work, Critical Geographies of Childhood and Youth will aid anyone working in those fields.

Recensie s An outstanding critical analysis of youth policy that puts geography centre-stage.

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Drawing on diverse case studies, the book interweaves theory and practice - listening to and informing practitioner, academic and young people's perspectives. Rachel Pain, University of Durham This edited collection is a welcome addition to literature within children's geographies due to its unique focus on policy and professional practice in relation to children and young people.

Social and Cultural Geography Welcome addition to literature within children's geographies due to its unique focus on policy and professional practice Sarah Mills, Department of Geography Loughborough University Critical reading for a robust understanding of the lives of children and young people. At its core, this book is about the relevance of studying children's geographies. It adds an important policy dimension to the growing literature on children's geographies, arguing that discourses on policy are almost always spatialized.