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Bring all the age's armoury to use on me, and come! Wliy seek to slay your lovers by your awesome majesty? Be even more unbridled than the breeze of spring, and come!

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You broke with me; and now you pledge yourself to other men But come! The pledge of loyalty is never kept. Parting and meeting - each of them has its distinctive joy Leave me a hundred times; turn back a thousand times, and come! The mosque is all awareness. Mind you never go that way The tavern is all ecstasy. So be aware, and come! He says, Add these too to your own armoury. Only if you inflict upon me all the suffering you can shall I know the joy of bearing it. Would you die thirsty-lipped among religions' mirages?

Thirsty, there on the river's bank I will give up my life If I suspect its ripples are the creases on its brow m The night of parting stretches on beyond endurance. Why is it I complain against you without cause? My baseless complaints make you angry, and your anger is a joy to me. You cannot be a burden to your friends So let the poetry you write be written for yourself QJ She wears a dress of katan , and in her simplicity With every breath condemns the moonlight for exposing her 01 Let me be blunt; my lips thirst for your kiss and your embrace Clear from my path the net of all your subtle kindnesses ta The world holds wine and beauty in such measure, you would think God sent into the world first Adam, and then paradise ca If wine is banned, the Holy Law does not prohibit wit No praise when I excel?

Well then, no censure when I sin a Moonlight does that to katan and there is no sense in upbraiding it for doing what it cannot help doing. It is she herself, her own beauty, that has this effect. Henceforth his one desire Is to retire into his niche and there to worship God ta To measure out the wine has been declared unlawful, saki.

The lightning cannot be content to occupy a single place What wonder if harsh thoughts of her cannot dwell in my heart? Exert yourself to the full, and do whatever little you can do to change your fate. Be content to gaze on them Meaning eludes you? Be content with what your eyes can see! Look for fair women's coiling tresses and exulting pride How long must we be mirrors longing for the sight of you?

Come forth in all your radiance. Enslave us with a glance Look in the scar of yearning and see bliss reflected there c You seek the brightest night? Then go and find the darkest day Hold fast the little time you have and learn to treasure it Spring mornings are not in your grasp? Then seek the moonlit night a,b What cannot be fully understood may nevertheless be enjoyed.

And increased understanding may come with enjoyment. Paradise is no salve to heal the sadness of my heart It was not made to match the desolation that is me m I die for her - and fear that she such are her doubts of me May think I wash my hands of life because I yearn for peace I gaze at her; she thinks it is because I have no shame She turns away; I think it is because she feels too shy a She is so shy that she does not normally appear before me even in a dream b She is constant - constant in cruelty. And probably we are both wrong! The spring has come!

See how the flowers all in bloom Reveal their forms more boldly than the city's courtesans She hears my grief, and for a while retires into herself What captivating sympathy! The object of creation was mankind, and nothing else We are the point round which the seven compasses revolve m All pleasures and all griefs that come, come linked to one another The bright day sends dark night away, and then itself departs Don't hurry on; stay, raise and kiss the dust of those who knew the way A thousand such as you have passed along the path of poetry a She presents a picture of compassion for me, but this is really a means of captivating me all the more.

I must accept the fowler's callousness think the circle of the snare the circle of my nest Your feet are trapped in snares your fancy lays for them. In truth b Each world tells you the story of another world beyond The springtime comes, and breaks the bridle of your self-possession - The rose's every vein a whip to lash the steed of love Ghalib, don't ask again why I wander so restlessly c 1 said.

My forehead seeks a threshold to bow down upon Ci 1 do not blame the flower-seller; he plies his trade. In each of these, members of the Shia sect support one party and members of the Sunni sect the other. The ordinary man would demand redress on Judgement Day; for the lover this is out of the question, rt is his pride and joy in the strength of his love, not cowardice and timidity, that keeps him silent.

I put my foot down so softly that the thorn does not pierce it, because I fancy that it pains the thorn to do so. So your heart too may one day be transformed into something delicate enough to be affected by my grief. Those it loved were ever cruel to it It saw their sweet deceptions and said, 'These are kindnesses!

Alas for all those hopes I had - they are no longer there I can beguile my heart if you will promise to be cruel The pride I felt that you were true - that is no longer there In love of you, fair robber, my heart gave you all it had The fear of loss, the hope of gain - these are no longer there a Once I would have rejoiced in my good fortune.

Now I value much more highly my freedom from all such ambitions. Turmoil attracts me; what is this good news of paradise? It is not life that, given once, cannot be given again - it's wine! Lahrasp, where has your glory gone? And Parvez, where are you? I need no alluring promises of paradise to keep me happy. Man will have wine in paradise, but may not drink it here in this world. An item on a list, and nothing more The liveliness of my own thought is me, from top to toe My being's warp and woof is constant movement - nothing more Shine forth!

I am the atom And you, with all your beauty, are the sun, and nothing more Yes, colour, charm, significance it has - but I must say That Ghalib's verse is only a selection - nothing more LO Brought to the city from the west, it is abundant here Your faith will buy a draught of it; wine is no longer dear The lamp holds only dregs of oil, the wine-cup only lees None of the joys of night remain - and now my guest has come! But if the particle shines in the sun s light! The sun is only doing what it is there to do.

But intikbab , besides 'selection', can also mean 'the choicest, the cream, the best, the most outstanding 1 , and Ghalib is implying , "Yes, it's an intikhab - in this sense too. Yet she must be forgiven She steals hearts without knowing it - and that excuses her We did not know the full force of the strong wine of her beauty We were misled by seeing how the Brahman was unmoved All know the power of sighs and lamentation; but don't fear My struggle with myself still keeps me fully occupied a Poetry is now my only source of joy. Beautiful women and wine are like a garden in flower, but these 1 no longer have.

Poetry is compared to flte willow - a tree that bears no font. We saw that he was unaffected by the idol's beauty, and thought that we too could withstand the influence of her beauty. Alas that we forget that the Hindu Brahman, like the Muslim shaikh, does not love the god he worships. We have the capacity to love - and should have known that our idol's beauty was bound to enslave us in love's bonds.

All my strength is engaged in the struggle I wage within myself. What if you suffered? Can you speak of it on Judgement Day? We travel fast and do not seek the water and the shade Don't speak to us of Tuba's tree and Kausar's flowing stream The words I hide within my breast are not those of a preacher Words to be spoken at the stake, not spoken from the pulpit How strange it felt to be involved in dealings with this madman! She is not to be resisted, and not to be cajoled b The lightning flame of love strikes fast, and you have not time to resist it. They cannot be fitted ' into any of the recognised categories.

That is, I know, with absolute certainly, but there is nothing to show to the world at large. I rejoice, therefore, that at least something in this changing world is constant. The bright flames of the furnace display an eternal autumn. The drop merged in the ocean in a sense becomes the ocean. The eye may not see it, but it is so. You know that roses will flower on the branch even though there is as yet nothing to be seen.

The thief knows what he is doing, but the holy one cannot even summon the alertness to safeguard his property , and do what he has to do. My mount can go no further, and my legs have gone to sleep a I am a lover; what have name and fame to do with me? The case is special; what have general rules to do with me? He who drinks wine unceasingly, alone with his beloved b Knows well the worth of houris and of streams of paradise We who are crushed by grief drink wine to heal the pain of grief c What have 'permitted' and 'forbidden' things to do with us? This may be open, but don't fail to notice that right beside it a dragon guards the main gate.

I can spread my wings in it' But what can cure the hurt you suffered held fast in the snare? Good conduct is from You; we do not ask to be rewarded And if we sin, that is Your doing.

Why then take revenge? If Ghalib has not sold his cloak and his Quran together Why is he asking us. What is the price of ruby wine? Do not forget the experience, and the lessons of past suffering in present relative comfort. The suggestion is also here that security bought at the price of loss of freedom is bought too dearly. If he asks payment, I can pawn the robes of pilgrimage Pure wine comes from the west, and beauties come from Tartary Baghdad and Bastam?

These are the names that do not signify Who says my verse is so inspired it brings God's message to mankind? Yet you and God can surely say my verse is nonetheless inspired a I am naive enough to think that you will be kind to me. But that shows my maturity. People tell me that it is to the naive that you are kind.

I have the maturity to grasp this, and so make myself naive. But it is a naive and foolish hope I entertain! The ought to feel more keenly for the life-long sufferings he has endured, which were in no way inevitable and were deliberately inflicted. My concern is with good wine and with beautiful women. Dreams are to hearten those whose gaze wanders from face to face c What need has he to dream who gazes spellbound upon yours? Don't romanticise the past or ovenate the importance of particular figures in it. Rejoice that all that the past has achieved has been inherited by the present.

Do not despise me if I stumble as I journey on Don't think me strange if 1 go headlong making my own way a i. God - the only true reality - is immune to the effects of anything men do. He hopes that she will soon realise that it is himself he is speaking of.

TheblaA coiling pungent smoke that rises from his distressed and burning heart is transformed in his imagination into the black coiling fragrant trees of his beloved. The Brahmin worships idols as the lover worships his beloved. I have loved and worshipped to the limit, says Ghalib. Now 1 will revive Azar's art and make an idol representing my beloved more beautiful than anyone has ever made before.

And to fall in love is to become able to perceive all reality clearly for the first time. The remaining verses lament the passing of the glory and the beauty of ancient, pre-Islamic Iran, where fire was worshipped, wine was drunk, there were idols in the temples, and the blowing of conches accompanied worship. Ghalib claims he is the heir to all tlus, and that his poetry has the power to re-create it.

In the first couplet on p 70 'tongue implies a tongue able to speak the pure Persian of pre-Islamic times. Ghalib prided himself on this ability, cf. Ralph Russell and Khurshidul Islam, Ghalib: Life and Utters, pp. Friday, the day of congregational prayer, is the most important day in the week.

How light at heart the fool is as he comes from her assembly! See how men vie with one another, seeking His approval See in what ways they set themselves to realise their aim The father goes unhesitating into Namrud's fire The son lies down and bares his throat beneath his father's knife Ghalib, rejoice! These baseless hopes, these thoughts of coming pleasures Are non-existent threads that weave the tapestry of life a He speaks to condemn them! The grime of the illusion of existence b Cleanse yourself!

But God is in everything. And 'infidels' who love Him are as one with 'believers' who love him. Cease to regard yourself as essentially different from them, and your 'unbelief - i. She thinks that lovers are supposed to find joy in the sorrows of love, and thinks I do find it.

I feel like one deprived of the light of the sun. She thinks I do not want the sunlight, preferring to sit in the shade of her wall. I submit with ease b They speak of you: Lovers have no peace of mind even with their beloved a The second line is a direct quotation from the first story of the Gulistan of Sadi, where two ministers - one good and one bad - accompany the king on a visit to a prison. A man condemned to death rails at the king in a language he does not understand. He asks the good minister what the man has said. The minister says, said that the Quran declares that God will be merciful to the merciful.

I feel no jealousy a I want the thorns along the way to pierce my dear friends' feet Q. Bring me an autumn leaf Companion of my begging days, get up and go out quickly Pawn anything - your life, your clothes - and bring abundant wine O God, You have brought forth all this from what was non-existent a Bring me a kiss or two, brought from the comer of her mouth a. In poetic convention the beloved's mouth is so dainty as to be almost non-existent, but at any rate it does exist.

When You could bring forth all the universe out of nothing, can You not produce even a couple of kisses from her mouth? Then take it and get going The king bestows a jar of it? Then hoist it on your back Sweet basil springs from the green flask; the wine sings c as you pour it Let your eyes feast on it, listen intently to its song Ply me assiduously with wine, that I may lose awareness Play music to me, that 1 may return to consciousness All seven couplets arc to be taken together.

Someone - not Ghalib as the last couplet shows - is asking a friend to bring the wine, and in the last couplet the poetry that makes life worth living, and not to stint whatever effort it may cost to supply these things. This whole ghazal portrays a beloved who has now herself fallen in love, and experiences for the first time the kind of pain which she herself has been accustomed to inflict a Women stain their hands with henna when there are joyful occasions such as weddings to celebrate. C The brightness of her eyes once struck her lovers down; now their brightness comes from the tears in them.

Her fire was once that of power and anger; now it comes from a heart burning with anguish. What can you do with one who hides herself in her own home? What can you do with loves in which nothing is happening? It is not true you cannot find the pathway through the waste What can you do with those who turn away and will not see?

Full text of "Selection from the Persian Ghazals of Ghalib"

Ghalib, the task of kings is to ensure that justice rules What can you do with one whose rule ensures the opposite? He made injustice serve the need of men's desire for beauty b Shed blood that it might be the rouge adorning the world's face m O God, why waste the gift of paradise upon the pious?

They never felt love's cruelty. Their hearts were never crushed a. Beauty exists to inspire love and turmoil in the world. A love to which nothing is happening means one in which the beloved never appears. Do not give your eager heart to these activities You cannot put your trust in scholars or in worshippers One vainly prattles on, the other labours vainly on Words, words are all the stock in trade of this censorious tribe Mere colour are the ways of those who wear the dark blue cloak So leave the highway, roam the wastes, and as you journey on Shun all the hidden snares of wine and love; remain aware Rapt beauty offers easy kisses?

Mind you do not take them Wine-sellers offer their wine cheap? Then do not buy from them This poem of 18 couplets is a connected whole and is a sort of manifesto of Ghalib's beliefs. The full meaning of some of the couplets is not entirely clear, but taken as a whole, it is forceful and unambiguous. The first four couplets stress the inadequacy, if not the actual harmfulness, of looking to theology or the conventional religious life for an adequate code of living.

The remaining couplets say, in effect, Turn your back on orthodox religion. Forget yourself completely, but use all your resources to assimilate what is valuable in every deep experience, neither giving yourself up to the easy, thoughtless enjoyment of love and wine nor rejecting what is to be learnt from those who sincerely, and not hypocritically, obey the letter of the religious law. There is a creative power at work in the universe which will help you to reach a stage when all significant human experience, both of pleasure and of pain, appears to you, not in different hues, but as a single clear, transparent reality - a reality which you can assimilate within yourself, but which cannot be described in words.

Where must I go? I said, This is the sky My eyes beheld a troubled dream: This is the world My fancies threw dust in my eyes: I said, This is the desert The drop of water spread: This is the boundless sea I saw flames leaping in the wind: Spring is coming They danced themselves to ashes, and I said. Autumn has come The drop of blood became a clot: I knew it as my heart A wave of bitter water rolled: I said, This my speech In exile I felt lost: This country is my country I felt the snare's noose tightening: This is my nest She sat in pride close to my side: She is my heart Capriciously she rose and left: I said, There goes my soul The general tenour of the ghazal is, '1 accept every experience and turn it into something positive.

She favours me She came close for a while. She has her doubts of me She was intent on slaying me. Alas for me, that I Declared she was indifferent, said that she was unkind To make her feel obliged to me for all I did for her She was my host, and yet I told myself. She is my guest I journeyed on beyond each stage I set myself to cover I saw the Kaba as the tracks of those who had gone on My hopes told me, She likes to try my powers of endurance You severed all our ties: Why think about your destination? But it rejoices in the force of the river in flood and in its power to change all around it, and can sec itself apart from itself, with its joy expressed in its reflection that dances on the surface of the swirling water.

You too must develop the same power. As in many other verses, Ghalib is saying that one should know that there is no final goal to man's spiritual and intellectual journey and that the man who would develop his potentialities to the full must always journey on. Our usefulness does not end when our youthful vigour ends. Even at the last there is something we can do to help forward the beauty and the movement of life. The owl, which haunts places, is a bird of ill omen and here stands for all the distressing experiences of life, while the legendary huma typifies the highest good fortune that a man can hope to attain.

Ghalib says, 'Welcome and rejoice in all human experience. She thinks I do not want the sunlight, preferring to sit in the shade of her wall. I submit with ease b They speak of you: Lovers have no peace of mind even with their beloved a The second line is a direct quotation from the first story of the Gulistan of Sadi, where two ministers - one good and one bad - accompany the king on a visit to a prison.

A man condemned to death rails at the king in a language he does not understand. He asks the good minister what the man has said. The minister says, said that the Quran declares that God will be merciful to the merciful. I feel no jealousy a I want the thorns along the way to pierce my dear friends' feet Q. Bring me an autumn leaf Companion of my begging days, get up and go out quickly Pawn anything - your life, your clothes - and bring abundant wine O God, You have brought forth all this from what was non-existent a Bring me a kiss or two, brought from the comer of her mouth a.

In poetic convention the beloved's mouth is so dainty as to be almost non-existent, but at any rate it does exist. When You could bring forth all the universe out of nothing, can You not produce even a couple of kisses from her mouth? Then take it and get going The king bestows a jar of it? Then hoist it on your back Sweet basil springs from the green flask; the wine sings c as you pour it Let your eyes feast on it, listen intently to its song Ply me assiduously with wine, that I may lose awareness Play music to me, that 1 may return to consciousness All seven couplets arc to be taken together.

Someone - not Ghalib as the last couplet shows - is asking a friend to bring the wine, and in the last couplet the poetry that makes life worth living, and not to stint whatever effort it may cost to supply these things. This whole ghazal portrays a beloved who has now herself fallen in love, and experiences for the first time the kind of pain which she herself has been accustomed to inflict a Women stain their hands with henna when there are joyful occasions such as weddings to celebrate. C The brightness of her eyes once struck her lovers down; now their brightness comes from the tears in them.

Her fire was once that of power and anger; now it comes from a heart burning with anguish. What can you do with one who hides herself in her own home? What can you do with loves in which nothing is happening? It is not true you cannot find the pathway through the waste What can you do with those who turn away and will not see? Ghalib, the task of kings is to ensure that justice rules What can you do with one whose rule ensures the opposite? He made injustice serve the need of men's desire for beauty b Shed blood that it might be the rouge adorning the world's face m O God, why waste the gift of paradise upon the pious?

They never felt love's cruelty. Their hearts were never crushed a. Beauty exists to inspire love and turmoil in the world. A love to which nothing is happening means one in which the beloved never appears. Do not give your eager heart to these activities You cannot put your trust in scholars or in worshippers One vainly prattles on, the other labours vainly on Words, words are all the stock in trade of this censorious tribe Mere colour are the ways of those who wear the dark blue cloak So leave the highway, roam the wastes, and as you journey on Shun all the hidden snares of wine and love; remain aware Rapt beauty offers easy kisses?

Mind you do not take them Wine-sellers offer their wine cheap? Then do not buy from them This poem of 18 couplets is a connected whole and is a sort of manifesto of Ghalib's beliefs. The full meaning of some of the couplets is not entirely clear, but taken as a whole, it is forceful and unambiguous. The first four couplets stress the inadequacy, if not the actual harmfulness, of looking to theology or the conventional religious life for an adequate code of living. The remaining couplets say, in effect, Turn your back on orthodox religion. Forget yourself completely, but use all your resources to assimilate what is valuable in every deep experience, neither giving yourself up to the easy, thoughtless enjoyment of love and wine nor rejecting what is to be learnt from those who sincerely, and not hypocritically, obey the letter of the religious law.

There is a creative power at work in the universe which will help you to reach a stage when all significant human experience, both of pleasure and of pain, appears to you, not in different hues, but as a single clear, transparent reality - a reality which you can assimilate within yourself, but which cannot be described in words.

Where must I go? I said, This is the sky My eyes beheld a troubled dream: This is the world My fancies threw dust in my eyes: I said, This is the desert The drop of water spread: This is the boundless sea I saw flames leaping in the wind: Spring is coming They danced themselves to ashes, and I said. Autumn has come The drop of blood became a clot: I knew it as my heart A wave of bitter water rolled: I said, This my speech In exile I felt lost: This country is my country I felt the snare's noose tightening: This is my nest She sat in pride close to my side: She is my heart Capriciously she rose and left: I said, There goes my soul The general tenour of the ghazal is, '1 accept every experience and turn it into something positive.

She favours me She came close for a while. She has her doubts of me She was intent on slaying me. Alas for me, that I Declared she was indifferent, said that she was unkind To make her feel obliged to me for all I did for her She was my host, and yet I told myself.

Mirza Ghalib Famous Poetry Collection In Urdu - Mirza Ghalib Poetry In Urdu 2 Lines - Part-1

She is my guest I journeyed on beyond each stage I set myself to cover I saw the Kaba as the tracks of those who had gone on My hopes told me, She likes to try my powers of endurance You severed all our ties: Why think about your destination? But it rejoices in the force of the river in flood and in its power to change all around it, and can sec itself apart from itself, with its joy expressed in its reflection that dances on the surface of the swirling water. You too must develop the same power. As in many other verses, Ghalib is saying that one should know that there is no final goal to man's spiritual and intellectual journey and that the man who would develop his potentialities to the full must always journey on.

Our usefulness does not end when our youthful vigour ends. Even at the last there is something we can do to help forward the beauty and the movement of life. The owl, which haunts places, is a bird of ill omen and here stands for all the distressing experiences of life, while the legendary huma typifies the highest good fortune that a man can hope to attain. Ghalib says, 'Welcome and rejoice in all human experience.

Don't be like them Don't hide within yourself. Come out into the open. Don't look for grief in burning or for joy in flowering In the hot wind's embrace, and with the breeze of morning, dance! Ghalib, rejoice that there is one in whose bonds you are tied Flourish; welcome distress; and in the ties of bondage, dance a Only if you reduce yourself to dust, that is, humble yourself completely before the object of your love, can you hope to experience love's full ecstasy.

Establish your own values and live by them, and never mind if the conventional arc shocked. The self-consciously good express an anger, and the hypocrites, love, which they don't really feel. Don't be like them; show what you really are. For the day may come When love gives it instead a grasp that closes on the cup Now cruelty rewards your every act of love for her See, Ghalib, what she gives in recompense for all you give m To put my lips to yours and die - this is my whole desire To tell one's love, the telling must possess a certain charm Unless I pass the Kaba, I see nothing.

I set out To journey from the temple looking backwards all the way a. Wisdom, gain, loss - i. The man who can commit himself, even though it be to false ideals, may one day learn to transfer the commitment to true ones.


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No one has yet managed to attain to this way of telling his love. Both are stages on an unending journey. But it is a journey on which you must never lose sight of what you have learned at every stage of it. Yes, that was mistaken To hope for kisses from your lips was wrong. Yes, that was wrong All know you have a tongue that aoes not speak. But have you also a A heart that does not know? No, that is wrong. Yes, that is wrong Q I live my life, but cant get wine. So where's the joy? You can, but you don't drink. But where's the joy?

Lost in desire to see her coming through the door - Promises? That is enough for me. Whether you say that you know it, and whether you respond to my love, does not matter. Life without a beloved is pointless. She or God, or it alone gives you the capacity to enjoy life's beauty to the full. And she He, it alone, like a brigand who plunders all your wealth, destroys your attachment to material things, and provides the joy of life. Rising dust in the desert could have signalled the approach of a fast -riding brigand.

The desire to see her is an all-sufficient source of joy. I can; she doesn't want me to. The tree is high, and I can't find a stone to throw Until the fruit falls at my feet, then where's the joy? Fettered to wife and children. You are killing me I didn't ask to have them; and so where's the joy? You have the power to set me up in Rizvan's place I'm lost in dreams; I don't want work. How can plucked flowers feel the joy the breeze of morning brings? Unless your eyes see turmoil what use are your eyes to you? Unless the dagger pierce your heart, what joy can your heart feel? If she doesn't want me to do it, I can't do it.

A stone to throw at the fmit and bring it down. For Ghalib's attitude to his wife and children, see Ghalib: He fulfilled all his obligations to them, but often felt that they were an encumbrance he could well have done without. I don't want to be anyone's servant. Since I reject them both. Brahmin and shaikh are now at one Belief and unbelief unite - and this has brought me peace of mind Alas!

How happy 1 would be in winter, sitting by the fire With wine and meat and witty friends gathered together in one place Morning has come with all its charm. Ghalib, awake from heedless sleep! The good have gathered in the mosque, the revellers among the flowers a They made me swift of gait and put a sharp pick in my hands My power makes me take pity on the mountain and the waste Q Colour and fragrance graced you once, and I had all 1 needed Your colour and your fragrance faded; all 1 had is gone I need the power of wings, and in these heavy bonds I die Fast in the snare of suffering, my power and strength are gone a Since I reject the formalised religion of both mosque and temple, shaikh and Brahmin are united in their hostility to me.

The 'religions' they represent are equally bad, just as the Muslim who truly loves his God and the 'infidel' who truly loves his are equally good. Why are they passed and gone? Make up your mind: Like Majmin and Farhad, respectively. But my regard for the things that I shall injure act as they did holds me back.

Why have you made despondent Ghalib poet in a land Where none knows what distinguishes Naziri from Qatil? The scanty clothes that cover her, more scanty still as, moist with shame Sweat soaks them to transparency and she lies bare in my embrace Discretion washed away by wine, no more aware of hers and mine Holding her face against my breast she hides herself in my embrace Now sleeping, happy, at my side, no sound, no word comes from her lips Now with her head laid on my arm, rubbing her chin in my embrace She came unbidden with the dawn, the tie-strings of her robe undone Bearing her letter from the king unopened still in her embrace a.

The letter would have been a summons to her to come. The really heroic holy war is war against all that is evil in against infidels are nothing by comparison. How could we then lament? Who will taste the-joys I freely offer? Though my wine grows old I sell it cheap a My pious friend, do not despise the bunch of grapes 1 give you Do you not know it means that I have lost a cup of wine? The saki's eyes poured wine for every drinker in one cup b I made it serve the needs of faith and unbelief alike m I take a kiss, and then say I am sorry.

Thus I make Some innovations in the rules of social intercourse The mosque is ruined; so I bring its stones into the city- c And build myself a house there in the unbeliever's lane 1 fashion my own faith and make my faith my own reward d 1 carve the stone to make an idol, and then worship it a,b. Better to destroy it and the lifeless kind of religion that it represents and use the materials to serve the needs of men who arc truly alive.

These are associated with wine-drinking. Come in, and shut the door And post a guard in the lane so that none may come any more The governor sends to reprove us? Let us not feel any fear The long sends gifts? Go back with empty hands! Come, change the laws that have governed the turning of the skies P I shun the company of men in striving to perfect myself My soul a melody that seeks a dwelling in a lute P O you who sing the praises of the poets of Iran Why do you rate our debt so high to them who gave so little?

In India are men the fragrance of whose poetry Is borne away and spread abroad like musk upon the breeze Grief-stricken Ghalib does not rank with them; and yet he too Sits there with them and shares their friendship and their poetry a,b,c These verses form a single whole. Ok jt LX X? Why this pretence of clemency, for God's sake? And where in paradise the spice of fear it will not last 9 He i.

Then settle for Islam. To rove around is pointless; you cannot be an ocean A stream? Go to the garden. Make for the wastes It's good to live in comfort; good too is light abounding b Lodge then, within the Kaba; and be the temple's guest First grant to me a harvest, and then come and destroy it c Be lightning on my harvest and rain upon my fields m I quarrel with my friends - 1 am so innocent! About a friend whose friendship I have never tried Just see my shame!

They counted my good deeds and found None but a single fast I kept - and broke with wine a It is God who decrees which you shall be. At least give me some kindness first! Today is Id, and dawn has come. Pure wine, where have you gone? The fragrance of the rose, the dew - these do not suit my cell Cold wind, where do you rage? First, it is designed to obviate the need for constant repetition in the notes of explanations of words, concepts and literary allusions which occur repeatedly in the poems.

Secondly, it gives key words to help you find a verse which you do not remember in full. And thirdly, since readers will, I hope, include those who already have some acquaintance with the Persian originals, I include, though more sparingly, key words in the original text which may serve the same purpose for them. Quotations from the Quran are from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's translation. In explaining literary allusions, I have not explained everything which might have needed explaining in a work of wider range, but only those relevant to the couplets in this selection.

Finding key words for important recurring concepts is not easy and if you cannot find an entry under the word you would have used, look for others of similar meaning. I have not aimed to include every possible key word or every possible reference but I hope that you will find here, if not all, at any rate most of what you are looking for.

Numbers refer to pages. During his life, he fought two wars against his rivals and was finally murdered by a member of a rival seel. The cage is the symbol of the constraints within which the true lover in all senses of the word must live, whether in bondage to his beloved or constrained by the hostility of society at large.

The captive bird feels different things at different times, sometimes accepting his lot , sometimes pining for his former freedom 36,58,94, blisters - a symbol of the suffering of the lover as he treads the desert paths of love, 40 blood - the grief of love crushes the heart to blood and this blood comes out in the tears of blood the lover sheds. Yazid claimed the caliphate. Husain rejected his right to rule and gathering his kinsmen and supporters, set out to do battle with him. When he and his seventy-two companions reached Karbala on the banks of the Furat Euphrates , they were surrounded by Yazid's forces and cut off from the water but fought on until only a few women and children were left alive.


  1. Crash, Leaders Guide: Prayers from the Collision of Heaven and Earth.
  2. Account Options.
  3. Shel Silverstein Made Me Do It.
  4. Frequently bought together.
  5. He is called khalil 'friend [of God] 1 , a title which God himself bestowed on him. He is famous for his hospitality, 70, Id, idol, Ghabb fashions his own, Idris - identified by some with the biblical Enoch. Legend says that he did not die but was raised to heaven, 12 ilham and vahi,6 To put Ibrahim's devotion to the test.

    God commanded him to sacrifice Ismail. Both father and son gladly prepared themselves- to obey but at the last moment God substituted a ram for sacrifice, 70 jah, 39 Jam - another name for Jamshed q. He is said to have invented wine and the wine cup. He had and is said by some to have invented a wonderful wine cup in the depths of which he could see everything that went on in the world. Its turmoil and the awe which it inspires makes it a metaphor for any awesome or terrible occasion a day on which one forgives.

    Glialib has numerous verses about it and some of these express dissatisfaction about it and what it represents. In any case, one needs to go beyond the Kaba which, to those who know this, simply indicates the way forward. Khizar - an ancient prophet of Islam who never dies because he found and drank the water of life ab e hayat.

    He lives away from people and appears to travellers who have lost their way and guides them onto the right path. Its brilliance, speed and destructive power are all stressed. He fell in love with Lai la when both were' children. When their love became known steps were taken to prevent them meeting and Qais went mad hcncc his nickname and went roaming about the desert wastes.

    Sometimes Laila passed that way riding in a litter on a site -camel and Majnun would run after it. Laila returned his love but her lather married her to another man. She died of grief and when Majnun heard the news, he rushed to her tomb and died there. Itself beautiful, it reflects also the beauty of the beloved who gazes into it, lost in Ute contemplation of her own beauty. The beauties of nature are the mirror of God's beauty.

    Mirrors are made of burnished steel. Its gatekeeper, Rizwan q. There will be milk and honey in abundance The wine of purity - will flow in the stream of Kausar and the Tuba tree will offer its delicious fruits Beautiful women houris will gratify every desire. Ghalib is sceptical about its supposed joys and its inadequancy either to match the joys of this life or compensate for its sufferings.