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None of the Indian villages were like the villages I had known. No narrow roads; no dark, overhanging trees; no huts; no earth yards with hibiscus hedges; no ceremonial lighting of lamps; …; no flowers along gutters or ditches where frogs croaked the night way. But highways and clover-shaped exits and direction boards: The striking change of the island leads me to the conclusion that the former periphery has lost its originality and turned into a replication of the centre. This happens ironically after the independence of the colony from the Empire. A black dash of crows flew home against the sky.

A tree lizard scuttled up the bark licking grubs with its lightning tongue. Cicadas hissed rhythmic as cymbals…. This was a beautiful island. As sweet with promise as the honey that would soon flow from the combs. Now the fairy tale Jamaica transforms into a place of imprisonment for the ex-RAF man. He foresees the coming shortages, because of the war.

Unfortunately, the change that occurres in Trinidad and that Gilbert foresees in future Jamaica is also similar. Both former colonies lose their magic for our narrators and turn into a copy of an industrialised western country. I should emphasize on the fact that The Enigma of Arrival is written from the perspective of an already established authority, integrated in the English society, who rents a cottage, belonging to a manor near Salisbury.

On the contrary, in Small Island we hear the voices of two Jamaican newcomers, having rented a small room in a lodging- house in the capital of the Empire. The narrator draws a pastoral romantic picture of England in accordance with his romanticized concepts of the Empire, received during his childhood in Trinidad, and his schoolboy fantasies of the England of Shakespeare, Wordsworth and Hardy.

However, his first motion of Britain changes. The manor, created at the peak of the Empire, a remnant of its wealth and glory, becomes obsolete. Boilers explode; the parts of the roof are blown by the wind.


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Besides, the manor with its extravagant houses signifies the British culture. The decay of the manor is hastened by the rooks, vandals and marauders, who having sensed the lack of an authority, turn the ancient manor into ruin. In Small Island we also encounter two contrasting images of England.

Dreaming of a life in the former Empire, Cecilia Langley imagines a romantic autumn picture. The room was pitiful in the grey morning light. Jacked black lines of cracking everywhere. A missing handle on the chest of the drawers. No basin in the sink. And there were lacy white patterns on the windowpane. Ironically, the only thing that warms her in her first morning in England is a blanket with bright Caribbean colours.

They are the only sources of joy and light in her dreary room, a hint that perhaps her decision to leave her home island is not a step towards dreamy future. However, when our characters closely observe the English landscape as in The Enigma of Arrival or encounter it for the first time, as in Small Island , the former concept of the Empire transforms into the idea of a post war country in decay.

Not only are Jamaica and Trinidad small islands, but also England, losing its colonies, turns to be a small island too. I will discuss the description of war in both books, focusing on the affects of war on the settings and on the people. As he returns from India to Britain, he sees that:. Streets, shops, houses bore down like crowds, stifling even the feeble light that got trough. I had to stare out at the sea to catch a breath. And behind every face I saw were trapped the rememberings of war. Guarded by a smile.

Shrouded in a frown. But everyone had them. No point dwelling on your own pitiful story. Chap next to you was worse off. The man over there far more tragic. Silence was the only balm that healed. The destiny of all the characters in Small Island is influenced by the war. Hortense receives a message that her beloved Michael Roberts is missing, just as Queenie, whose husband is missing.

Hortense immigrates to England, lead not only by her fantasies of the English life but also by a desire to cure her broken heart. Because of financial problems, Queenie lets her house to the postcolonial newcomers. Gilbert and Michael Roberts just like Bernard leave their homeland to take part in the war. An interesting moment in the representation of war in the Small Island is the connection between war and slavery which appears several times in the novel. Gilbert, having both Jewish and Jamaican origins, takes part in the war, not only to defend the Mother country, but also to contribute to defeating slavery in the world.


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  • In both cases, we encounter the racial message of slavery, where certain skin colour and origins are enough for its justification. There is a sarcastic touch in the representation of war, because the British are conquering India, just as the Germans England. The English try to defend their castle, while the Jamaicans are fed by the illusion that they are fighting against the racial prejudice of the German Nazism, by helping the Mother country. Gilbert encounters the racist hatred of the whites even in the army, where they seemingly fight for the same goal.

    Besides, Bernard takes part in the war in England, only because of the opportunity it gives him to present himself as a hero. The message which Windrush brings to the Empire is about the end of nationalistic English society. In The Enigma of Arrival we see the consequences of war also on the settings and on the characters.

    The pastoral romance of England at the beginning of the book transforms into a picture of a modern enterprise, whose servants are vandals and marauders. The ruined manor stands for the cultural transformations in post war England. Both The Enigma of Arrival and Small Island share the tendency of describing the ruined settings of post war Britain, lack of a network of family and true friends and life in isolation, which indicates a change towards a modern industrialized society.

    Another important determinant for the change of a place is migration. It is one of the major subject matters of the two books.

    The narrator describes London in , two years after the arrival of Hortense and Gilbert. The position of the narrator implies his view of the indigenous cultures as backward and inferior and his affection for the image of old, imperial England, received during the years of his childhood and schooling. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier , p. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Oxford University Press , p. Black Issues Book Review. Vision Books , p.

    English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies. English - Grammar, Style, Working Technique. English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics. English Language and Literature Studies - Literature. American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography. English - Applied Geography.

    American Studies - Literature. American Studies - Linguistics. GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in in the publication of academic ebooks and books. The publishing website GRIN. Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor's thesis, master's thesis, dissertation or textbook - upload now! Register or log in. Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects. Request a new password via email.

    In Search of a Self- V. Naipaul versus Andrea Levy 3. The Impact of the English Colonial Language Policy on the Postcolonial Identity My paper aims at exploring the effects of English colonial language policy on the postcolonial identity and their representations in postcolonial literature. Naipaul versus Andrea Levy Before revealing the central issues of The Enigma of Arrival and Small Island , I would like to apply to the difficulty of finding a self, due to dislocation and alienation of the native origins, in regard of the lives of V.

    He considers his ancestors primitive, backward and lacking the intellect and sophistication of the West: In Small Island she applies to the experiences of her parents in , when in her own words: The landscape has become a copy of a western industrial country at the end of the twentieth century: As he returns from India to Britain, he sees that: I should emphasize on the fact that The Enigma of Arrival is written from the perspective of an already established authority, integrated in the English society, who rents a cottage, belonging to a manor near Salisbury.

    On the contrary, in Small Island we hear the voices of two Jamaican newcomers, having rented a small room in a lodging- house in the capital of the Empire. The narrator draws a pastoral romantic picture of England in accordance with his romanticized concepts of the Empire, received during his childhood in Trinidad, and his schoolboy fantasies of the England of Shakespeare, Wordsworth and Hardy. However, his first motion of Britain changes. The manor, created at the peak of the Empire, a remnant of its wealth and glory, becomes obsolete. Boilers explode; the parts of the roof are blown by the wind.

    Besides, the manor with its extravagant houses signifies the British culture. The decay of the manor is hastened by the rooks, vandals and marauders, who having sensed the lack of an authority, turn the ancient manor into ruin. In Small Island we also encounter two contrasting images of England. Dreaming of a life in the former Empire, Cecilia Langley imagines a romantic autumn picture.

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    The room was pitiful in the grey morning light. Jacked black lines of cracking everywhere. A missing handle on the chest of the drawers. No basin in the sink. And there were lacy white patterns on the windowpane. Ironically, the only thing that warms her in her first morning in England is a blanket with bright Caribbean colours. They are the only sources of joy and light in her dreary room, a hint that perhaps her decision to leave her home island is not a step towards dreamy future. However, when our characters closely observe the English landscape as in The Enigma of Arrival or encounter it for the first time, as in Small Island , the former concept of the Empire transforms into the idea of a post war country in decay.

    Not only are Jamaica and Trinidad small islands, but also England, losing its colonies, turns to be a small island too. I will discuss the description of war in both books, focusing on the affects of war on the settings and on the people. As he returns from India to Britain, he sees that:. Streets, shops, houses bore down like crowds, stifling even the feeble light that got trough.

    Postcolonial Literature- Major Authors & Works for UGC NET English

    I had to stare out at the sea to catch a breath. And behind every face I saw were trapped the rememberings of war. Guarded by a smile.

    Shrouded in a frown. But everyone had them. No point dwelling on your own pitiful story. Chap next to you was worse off. The man over there far more tragic. Silence was the only balm that healed. The destiny of all the characters in Small Island is influenced by the war. Hortense receives a message that her beloved Michael Roberts is missing, just as Queenie, whose husband is missing.

    Hortense immigrates to England, lead not only by her fantasies of the English life but also by a desire to cure her broken heart. Because of financial problems, Queenie lets her house to the postcolonial newcomers. Gilbert and Michael Roberts just like Bernard leave their homeland to take part in the war.

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    An interesting moment in the representation of war in the Small Island is the connection between war and slavery which appears several times in the novel. Gilbert, having both Jewish and Jamaican origins, takes part in the war, not only to defend the Mother country, but also to contribute to defeating slavery in the world. In both cases, we encounter the racial message of slavery, where certain skin colour and origins are enough for its justification.

    There is a sarcastic touch in the representation of war, because the British are conquering India, just as the Germans England. The English try to defend their castle, while the Jamaicans are fed by the illusion that they are fighting against the racial prejudice of the German Nazism, by helping the Mother country. Gilbert encounters the racist hatred of the whites even in the army, where they seemingly fight for the same goal. Besides, Bernard takes part in the war in England, only because of the opportunity it gives him to present himself as a hero.

    The message which Windrush brings to the Empire is about the end of nationalistic English society. In The Enigma of Arrival we see the consequences of war also on the settings and on the characters. The pastoral romance of England at the beginning of the book transforms into a picture of a modern enterprise, whose servants are vandals and marauders. The ruined manor stands for the cultural transformations in post war England. Both The Enigma of Arrival and Small Island share the tendency of describing the ruined settings of post war Britain, lack of a network of family and true friends and life in isolation, which indicates a change towards a modern industrialized society.

    Another important determinant for the change of a place is migration. It is one of the major subject matters of the two books. The narrator describes London in , two years after the arrival of Hortense and Gilbert. The position of the narrator implies his view of the indigenous cultures as backward and inferior and his affection for the image of old, imperial England, received during the years of his childhood and schooling.

    Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier , p. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Oxford University Press , p. Black Issues Book Review. Vision Books , p. English - Pedagogy, Didactics, Literature Studies. English - Grammar, Style, Working Technique. English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics. English Language and Literature Studies - Literature.

    American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography. English - Applied Geography. American Studies - Literature. American Studies - Linguistics. GRIN Publishing, located in Munich, Germany, has specialized since its foundation in in the publication of academic ebooks and books. The publishing website GRIN. Free Publication of your term paper, essay, interpretation, bachelor's thesis, master's thesis, dissertation or textbook - upload now! Register or log in.

    Our newsletter keeps you up to date with all new papers in your subjects. Request a new password via email. In Search of a Self- V. Naipaul versus Andrea Levy 3. The Impact of the English Colonial Language Policy on the Postcolonial Identity My paper aims at exploring the effects of English colonial language policy on the postcolonial identity and their representations in postcolonial literature. Naipaul versus Andrea Levy Before revealing the central issues of The Enigma of Arrival and Small Island , I would like to apply to the difficulty of finding a self, due to dislocation and alienation of the native origins, in regard of the lives of V.

    English Colonial Language Policy and Postcolonial Literature

    He considers his ancestors primitive, backward and lacking the intellect and sophistication of the West: In Small Island she applies to the experiences of her parents in , when in her own words: The landscape has become a copy of a western industrial country at the end of the twentieth century: As he returns from India to Britain, he sees that: The Enigma of Arrival. The Purpose of Intercultural Learning. Teaching about British Cultu Comparative Forms in British and American English. English as an academic language in Bhutan. Concepts of Home and Belonging in Postcolonial Literature compared Language Policy, Biculturalism and Bilingualism.

    Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Language Policy and Planning and the Sociohistorical Context. Assessing English-medium instruction in German grammar schools. African American Vernacular English: A New Dialect of the English L Lexical categories in early child English. Language and Aboriginal Culture in Australia: