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Although the consolidation of a large number of hospitals into very few was a joint enterprise of the crown and the church and reflected the centralizing tendency of the Counter-Reformation, the failure of the policy flowed from an economic judgment as to the relative costs of centralized and devolved health care, as well as from a lack of political will following the death of Phillip II.

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Further clouding of our ability to discuss the effects of the Counter-Reformation [End Page ] can be found in the example of the Portuguese confraternities or misericordias, the first of which was founded in They spread throughout Portugal and its overseas possessions in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and, as Isabel Mendes Drummond Braga shows, their pre-Counter-Reformation aim of providing charitable help to the poor, combined with the desire to police them and save their souls, fitted well with the Counter-Reformation, as did their care of abandoned children.

Protestant countries also provided for the poor and foundlings with a similar mix of coercion and benevolence.

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Moreover, attempts in the early sixteenth century to rationalize poor relief can be found in both Protestant and Catholic towns and countries. Does this mean that the Counter-Reformation contributed nothing that was distinctive to poor relief and health care in Southern Europe? No--what was distinctive was the element of spirituality that was lacking in Protestant poor relief.

The reputation and honor of poor girls, the spiritual salvation of abandoned children, of the poor, of the sick, were all concerns in what Richard Palmer calls, in his outstanding article on health care and poor relief in Venice, "the new philanthropy" that began in Venice well before the Council of Trent with the reform-minded Companies of Divine Love in the s. The "new Catholicism" created not only new ideals and practices but also new organizations, such as the French nursing orders.

It also took advantage of the pre-existing hospitals to inculcate the new spirituality in the inmates.

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  4. The great merit of this book lies in its geographical coverage, which demonstrates how the Counter-Reformation was put into practice at different times and in different ways in different places. For instance, the trajectory of events in France is traced with great clarity by Colin Jones and If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE, click 'Authenticate'.

    View freely available titles: Book titles OR Journal titles. As well as a comprehensive introduction discussing issues of the nature of the Catholic or Counter-Reformation and the welfare provisions of the period, Health Care and Poor Reliefsets the period in its social, economic, religious and ideological context.

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    The book draws on the practices in different localities in Southern Europe, ranging from the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Naples to Germany and Austria. These examples establish how and why a revitalised and strenghtened post-Tridentine Catholic church managed to reshape and reinvigorate welfare provisions in Southern Europe.

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