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His most risible initiative was the creation of a Wissenschaftslager or Scholar's camp, seriously described by Rockmore as a "reeducation camp", but by Safranski as rather a "mixture of scout camp and Platonic academy", actually "to build campfires, share food, have conversation, sing along with guitar Safranski tells how a dispute occurred with a group of SA students and their military spirit. He finally offered his resignation on April 23, , and it was accepted on April Heidegger remained a member of both the academic faculty and of the Nazi Party until the end of the war, but took no part in Party meetings.

In , he didn't even have the right to teach anymore, was considered a "completely dispensable" teacher, and was ordered up the Rhine to build fortifications, then drafted into the Volkssturm national militia, "the oldest member of the faculty to be called up". The rectorate was an attempt to see something in the movement that had come to power, beyond all its failings and crudeness, that was much more far-reaching and that could perhaps one day bring a concentration on the Germans' Western historical essence.

It will in no way be denied that at the time I believed in such possibilities and for that reason renounced the actual vocation of thinking in favor of being effective in an official capacity. In no way will what was caused by my own inadequacy in office be played down. But these points of view do not capture what is essential and what moved me to accept the rectorate. All leading must concede its following its own strength.


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All following, however, bears resistance in itself. This essential opposition of leading and following must not be blurred let alone eliminated. In this speech, Heidegger declared that "science must become the power that shapes the body of the German university. The will to the essence of the German university is the will to science as will to the historical spiritual mission of the German people as a people ["Volk"] that knows itself in its state ["Staat"].

Together, science and German destiny must come to power in the will to essence. Heidegger also linked the concept of a people with " blood and soil " in a way that would now be regarded as characteristic of Nazism:. In , anti-fascist poet Antonin Artaud wrote that "Any true culture is based on race and blood. There is much talk nowadays of blood and soil as frequently invoked powers.

Literati, whom one comes across even today, have already seized hold of them. Blood and soil are certainly powerful and necessary, but they are not a sufficient condition for the Dasein of a people. Heidegger's concept of a people is "historical" and not only biological as in Alfred Rosenberg , the Nazi Party's chief racial theorist. The rectorate speech ended with calls for the German people to "will itself" and "fulfill its historical mission": But no one will even ask us whether we do or do not will, when the spiritual strength of the West fails and its joints crack, when this moribund semblance of a culture caves in and drags all forces into confusion and lets them suffocate in madness.

Each individual participates in this decision even when, and especially when, he evades it. There is revolution in Germany, and we must ask ourselves: Is there revolution at the university as well? The battle still consists of skirmishes. So far, a breakthrough has only been achieved on one front: The possibility could exist that the university will suffer death through oblivion and forfeit the last vestige of its educational power.

It must, however, be integrated again into the Volksgemeinschaft and be joined together with the State. This goal demands three things: Up to now, research and teaching have been carried on at the universities as they were for decades. Teaching was supposed to develop out of research, and one sought to find a pleasant balance between the two.

It was always only the point of view of the teacher that spoke out of this notion. No one had concerned himself with the university as community. Research got out of hand and concealed its uncertainty behind the idea of international scientific and scholarly progress. Teaching that had become aimless hid behind examination requirements. A fierce battle must be fought against this situation in the National Socialist spirit, and this spirit cannot be allowed to be suffocated by humanizing, Christian ideas that suppress its unconditionality.

Danger comes not from work for the State. It comes only from indifference and resistance. For that reason, only true strength should have access to the right path, but not halfheartedness The new teaching which is at issue here does not mean conveying knowledge, but allowing students to learn and inducing them to learn. This means allowing oneself to be beset by the unknown and then becoming master of it in comprehending knowing; it means becoming secure in one's sense of what is essential.

It is from such teaching that true research emerges, interlocked with the whole through its rootedness in the people and its bond to the state. The student is forced out into the uncertainty of all things, in which the necessity of engagement is grounded. University study must again become a risk , not a refuge for the cowardly. Whoever does not survive the battle, lies where he falls. The new courage must accustom itself to steadfastness, for the battle for the institutions where our leaders are educated will continue for a long time. It will be fought out of the strengths of the new Reich that Chancellor Hitler will bring to reality.

A hard race with no thought of self must fight this battle, a race that lives from constant testing and that remains directed toward the goal to which it has committed itself. It is a battle to determine who shall be the teachers and leaders at the university. According to Farias and Ott, Heidegger also denounced or demoted three colleagues for being insufficiently committed to the Nazi cause.

But this has been disputed by Eduard Langwald, who considers "Heidegger was never a Nazi-minded informer". According to Hugo Ott, Heidegger leaked information on September 29, to the local minister of education that the chemist Hermann Staudinger had been a pacifist during World War I. Heidegger knew this could cost Staudinger his job. The Gestapo investigated the matter and confirmed Heidegger's tip.

Asked for his recommendation as rector of the university, Heidegger secretly urged the ministry to fire Staudinger without a pension. As Langwald alleges Heidegger was himself a pacifist since World War I, he doubts that Heidegger could so suddenly become a "pacifist hunter" acting "furiously macho", [29] and asserts Ott did not interpret the facts properly.

After Hitler's "Peace Speech" of May 17, , Heidegger more likely wanted to test Staudinger, because as a chemist his researches could become dangerous. Safranski, although he charges Heidegger, recognizes: He felt he was a part of the revolutionary movement, and it was his intention to keep opportunists away from the revolutionary awakening. They were not to be allowed to sneak into the movement and use it to their advantage.

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He intervened as Baumgarten applied for membership in the SA brownshirts and in the National Socialist Dozentenschaft. In the letter, Heidegger called Baumgarten "anything but a National-Socialist" and underlined his links to "the Heidelberg circle of liberal-democratic intellectuals around Max Weber. Heidegger also fired a Nazi student leader because he was this time too favorably disposed toward the regime see Picht's testimony.

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On November 3, , Heidegger issued a decree applying the Nazi racial policies to the students of Freiburg university. These laws meant that Jews were now indirectly and directly dissuaded or banned from privileged and superior positions reserved for "Aryan Germans. After , Heidegger declined to direct the doctoral dissertations of Jewish students: And in his letter denouncing Baumgarten, cited above, Heidegger wrote that "after failing with me" [not as a student but as a friend!

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Heidegger intervened as rector to help several other Jewish colleagues. There are nevertheless troubling passages from Heidegger's lecture and seminar courses from the period of the Nazi Gleichschaltung. The enemy is one who poses an essential threat to the existence of the people and its members. The enemy is not necessarily the outside enemy, and the outside enemy is not necessarily the most dangerous. It may even appear that there is no enemy at all. The root requirement is then to find the enemy, bring him to light or even to create him, so that there may be that standing up to the enemy, and so that existence does not become apathetic.

In his advanced contemporary seminars "On the Essence and Concept of Nature, State and History," Heidegger expostulated in essentialising terms concerning "semitic nomads" and their lack of possible relation to the German homeland, "drifting" in the "unessence of history":. History teaches us that nomads did not become what they are because of the bleakness of the desert and the steppes, but that they have even left numerous wastelands behind them that had been fertile and cultivated land when they arrived, and that men rooted in the soil have been able to create for themselves a native land, even in the wilderness…the nature of our German space would surely be apparent to a Slavic people in a different manner than to us; to a Semitic nomad, it may never be apparent.

Beginning in , the philosopher Edmund Husserl championed Heidegger's work, and helped him secure the retiring Husserl's chair in Philosophy at the University of Freiburg. On April 6, , the Reichskommissar of Baden Province, Robert Wagner, suspended all Jewish government employees, including present and retired faculty at the University of Freiburg. Husserl, who was born Jewish and was an adult convert to Lutheran Christianity, was affected by this law. Heidegger did not become Rector until April 22, so it was Heidegger's predecessor as Rector who formally notified Husserl of his "enforced leave of absence" on April 14, Then, the week after Heidegger's election, the national Reich law of April 28, came into effect, overriding Wagner's decree, and requiring that all Jewish professors from German universities, including those who had converted to Christianity, be fired.

The termination of Husserl's academic privileges thus did not involve any specific action on Heidegger's part. Heidegger had by then broken off contact with Husserl, other than through intermediaries. Heidegger later claimed that his relationship with Husserl had become strained after Husserl publicly "settled accounts" with him and Max Scheler in the early s. Prior to that there was his self-initiated break in relations with me - in fact, soon after his appointment at Freiburg - and, over the last few years, his anti-Semitism, which he came to express with increasing vigor - even against the coterie of his most enthusiastic students, as well as around the department.

Heidegger did not attend his former mentor's cremation in He spoke of a "human failure" and begged pardon in a letter to his wife. There is no truth to the oft-repeated story that during Heidegger's time as Rector, the University denied Husserl access to the university library. However, in , under pressure from publisher Max Niemeyer, Heidegger did agree to remove the dedication to Husserl from Being and Time , but it could still be found in a footnote on page 38, thanking Husserl for his guidance and generosity.

Husserl, of course, had died several years earlier.


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The dedication was restored in post-war editions. For example, in one speech Heidegger stated:. Let not propositions and 'ideas' be the rules of your being Sein. Learn to know ever more deeply: In another speech a few days later, Heidegger endorsed the German election of November , in which the electorate was presented with a single Nazi-approved list of candidates:.

There is only one will to the full existence Dasein of the State. In this address, he argued for a revolution in knowledge, a revolution that would displace the traditional idea that the university should be independent of the state:. We have witnessed a revolution. The state has transformed itself. This revolution was not the advent of a power pre-existing in the bosom of the state or of a political party. The national-socialist revolution means rather the radical transformation of German existence. In that interview, he stated: Such things as that I stopped saying by But as to Heidegger's being, it is an occurrence of unveiling, a fate-laden happening upon thought: Jonas' reading can be supported by citations from Heidegger's lectures during and immediately following the time he was rector.

In "On the Essence and Concept of Nature, History and State", for instance, Heidegger appears to give a direct ontological sanction to Hitler's absolute rule:. The origin of all political action is not in knowledge, but in being. In his class on Holderlin, Heidegger is able to comment that "The true and only Fuhrer makes a sign in his being towards the domain [ bereich , empire] of the demigods. In his postwar justification, Heidegger claimed he resigned the rectorship in April because the ministry in Karlsruhe had demanded the dismissal of the deans Erik Wolf and Wilhelm von Mollendorf on political grounds.

By the beginning of , there were reports in Berlin that Heidegger had established himself as 'the philosopher of National Socialism'. Available to ship in days. Nation-Building und die Arbeit internationaler Organisationen. Provide feedback about this page. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Get to Know Us.

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English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. On trial after the Beer Hall Putsch, foregoing his usual antisemitic speeches, Hitler presented his involvement as a springing from a deep love of the Volk. This continued after the seizure of power. One popular Munich speaker, declaring biological research boring, called instead on racial emotions; their "healthy ethnic instincts" would reveal the quality of the Aryan type.

The overturning of the rule of law was justified on the grounds that law stemmed from the "right to life of the people. Walter Gross , as head of the National Socialist Office for Enlightenment on Population Policy and Racial Welfare, oversaw a massive propaganda effort to increase ethnic consciousness; [] this was termed "enlightenment" rather than "propaganda" by Nazi authorities, because it was not a call for immediate action but a long-term change in attitude.

Bernhard Rust informed teachers that their task was to educate ethnically aware Germans. Many Nazi speakers muted antisemitic themes for general audiences, to instead dwell on the ethnic excellence of the Germans. The immensely popular "Red Indian" stories by Karl May were permitted despite the heroic treatment of the hero Winnetou and "colored" races; instead, the argument was made that the stories demonstrated the fall of the Red Indians was caused by a lack of racial consciousness, to encourage it in the Germans. In , Hitler's January 30 speech, which threatened to destroy Jews as the authors of any coming war, opened with praise for the flowering of the German people, and declare that whatever was detrimental to the people could not be ethical.

Goebbels's Christmas speech was devoted to the greatness of Germans and their certain victory rather than the war. Nazi propaganda emphasized that the Aryan race could only continue through the children for the future generations. A pamphlet "You and Your People", given to children at fourteen, when they left school, urged on them their unity with the Volk , their ancestry, and the vital importance of their marrying within their own race and having many children.

As the theory called only for parents of good blood, propaganda attempts were made to destigmatize illegitimate births, although the Lebensborn homes were presented to the public as places for married women. This, of course, applied only to those who selected proper partners as the parents of their children. In the movie Friesennot , depicting ethnic Germans persecuted in the Soviet Union, a half-Friesan woman is murdered for her association with a Russian man, as her German blood outweighs her Russian blood. In wartime, the NS-Frauen-Warte urged women to nevertheless have children to maintain their race.

During the era of the Nazi Party in Germany, policies and propaganda encouraged German women to contribute to the Third Reich through motherhood. To build the Third Reich, the Nazis believed that a strong German people, who acted as a foundation, was essential to the success of Nazi Germany. Within this propaganda there were three main arguments that were used. The first argument that was used in Nazi motherhood propaganda was that German mothers were expected to produce as many children as possible. The mother of Nazi Germany was glorified in visual propaganda.

Another use of Nazi propaganda was that they wanted women to have as many Aryan children that they could bear to make a future for the next generations master race. The second argument within German propaganda is that racially desirable German women were supported in their effort to have children; however undesirable mothers, such as Jews and gypsies, were discouraged from having more children. If women did not produce desirable children, they were subject to shaven heads, pillorying, public humiliation and execution. The third argument used in Nazi motherhood propaganda created an ideal Nazi woman, which implicitly encouraged women to always be mothers in one way or another.

The first way that this ideal was created was through the construction of spiritual motherhood in Nazi propaganda. German women who were not able to have children were encouraged, through propaganda, to participate in spiritual, rather than physical, maternity by doing womanly work. Their contributions to the war came in the form of mothering German society. The next way that motherhood towards Germany was created through Nazi propaganda was through the ideal German woman.

Themes in Nazi propaganda

These propaganda appeals effectively persuaded German women because it contained the right mixture of traditional ideas, myths of the past, and the acceptance of the needs of a modern economy and lifestyle. Propaganda was also directed to Germans outside the Third Reich, to return as regions, or as individuals from other regions. Hitler hoped to make full use of the "German Diaspora. Prior to Anchluss , a powerful transmittor in Munich bombarded Austria with propaganda of what Hitler had done for Germany, and what he could do for Austria.

In the Baltic States, after an agreement with Stalin, who suspected they would be loyal to Nazis, [] the Nazis set out to encourage the departure of "ethnic Germans" by the use of propaganda. This included using scare tactics about the Soviet Union, and led to tens of thousands leaving. As part of an effort to lure ethnic Germans back to Germany, [] folksy Heimatbriefe or "letters from the homeland" were sent to German immigrants to the United States. Radio propaganda to Russia included the threat that if the Volga Germans were persecuted, the Jews would have to pay for it, many times over.

Newspapers in the occupied Ukraine printed articles about antecedents of German rule over the Ukraine, such as Catherine the Great and the Goths. Nazi Germany conducted propaganda against smoking [] and had arguably the most powerful anti-tobacco movement in the world. Anti-tobacco research received a strong backing from the government, and German scientists proved that cigarette smoke could cause cancer. German pioneering research on experimental epidemiology led to the paper by Franz H. The government urged German doctors to counsel patients against tobacco use. Tobacco and pollutants in the workplace were viewed as a threat to the German race, so for partly ideological reasons the Nazi government chose to conduct propaganda against them, as one of many preventative steps.

Although the child was "the most important treasure of the people", this did not apply to all children, even German ones, only those with no hereditary weaknesses. Propaganda for the Nazi eugenics program began with propaganda for eugenic sterilization. Articles in Neues Volk described the pathetic appearance of the mentally ill and the importance of preventing such births.

Biology textbooks were among the most propagandistic in the Third Reich, owing to their content of eugenic principles and racial theories, including explanations of the Nuremberg Laws , which were claimed to allow the German and Jewish peoples to co-exist without the danger of mixing. During the euthanasia program, the film Ich klage an was created to depict a woman being mercifully killed by her husband to escape her fatal illness, and his trial afterwards to stage pro-euthanasia arguments.

This situation presented the matter in the most favorable light, far from the solitary, involuntary deaths of those killed by the program under a very broad definition of "incurably ill. The Stab-in-the-back myth , asserting that Germany had not really been defeated in World War I but instead betrayed, was integral to affirming the excellence of Germany. The humiliation of Germany at Versailles was of good use to Hitler, both inside Germany and outside, where many onlookers were sympathetic. A common wartime motif was that the Allies intended to destroy this country for its excellence.

Goebbels presented it as the stakes of the war. By the end of the war, total war propaganda argued that death would be better than the destruction the Allies intended to inflict, which would nevertheless end in death. The propaganda claim was made from that Germany was under threat and attack and in need of defense. This line of propaganda presented obvious difficulties in occupied nations. Propaganda directed at these countries asserted, with blatant falsity, of wanting to protect European rather than German culture, particularly from the threat of Communism. When propaganda had to be visible to both native and foreign populations, a balance had to be struck.

Pamphlets urging German women to protect the purity of their blood from foreign slave workers also asserted that this was not a manifestation of contempt for other nations. German Institutes in occupied countries, particularly France, attempted to demonstrate Germanic cultural superiority through cultural programs, which also softened the effects of occupation, and distracted from Nazi plans.

Early success led many in Germany to believe that the war could be won with ease. Setbacks caused Goebbels to call for propaganda to toughen up the German people and not make victory look easy. The film Kolberg depicted title town in stubborn resistance to the French forces of the Napoleonic wars in order to stir resistance in the German people. The fall of Italy was not well prepared for and had a deep impact; a leaflet even circulated drawing analogies between the German and Italian situations.

By the end of the war, propaganda took the only possible tack: The demand for Unconditional surrender was used by Goebbels to strengthen German resistance by pointing to the grim fate that awaited them. The in late approved and signed version of the Morgenthau plan for the coming occupation of Germany concluded: Goebbels used the Morgenthau Plan for his propaganda machine extensively.

Colonel John Boettiger said that the American troops that had had to fight for five weeks against fierce German resistance to capture the city of Aachen had complained to him that the Morgenthau Plan was "worth thirty divisions to the Germans. On December 11, OSS operative William Donovan sent Roosevelt a telegraph message from Bern, warning him of the consequences that the knowledge of the Morgenthau plan had had on German resistance.

So far, the Allies have not offered the opposition any serious encouragement. On the contrary, they have again and again welded together the people and the Nazis by statements published, either out of indifference or with a purpose. To take a recent example, the Morgenthau plan gave Dr. Goebbels the best possible chance. He was able to prove to his countrymen, in black and white, that the enemy planned the enslavement of Germany.

The conviction that Germany had nothing to expect from defeat but oppression and exploitation still prevails, and that accounts for the fact that the Germans continue to fight. It is not a question of a regime, but of the homeland itself, and to save that, every German is bound to obey the call, whether he be Nazi or member of the opposition. The slogan "The Enemy is Listening" was deployed to discourage talk of sensitive information; a slogan say "Talk is treachery" was not approved for fear that people would apply it to propaganda.

Another major theme within the context of Nazi propaganda was the coupling of medieval imagery with contemporary Nazi aesthetics. Many of the propaganda posters used at the time displayed a medieval knight, with a shield clad in Swastika. This was not particular just to the Nazis, as many European countries, and even the Imperial German government used some forms of medieval imagery, however it was the Nazi regime that actually implemented Medieval imagery in a fashion that equated themselves to their post-classical predecessors.

In it, Hitler is clad in the armor of a knight, riding a war horse, while simultaneously carrying with him the Swastika flag. This is exactly the kind of synthesis between contemporary and medieval imagery that the Nazis used time and again. In this way, the nazis looked to paint themselves as the return of the heroes of German folklore. The vast majority of these pieces did not involve any specific Nazi leaders, however, and simply placed the imagery of the current era with that of the medieval period.

Another striking example is the celebration of the farmers, which shows a giant knight defending a small farm from a Hammer and Sickle. Images such as this that were utilized during the pre war period typically were done for the purposes of inspiring the German people themselves to believe in the programs and policies of the Third Reich. In this period of turmoil, these images were designed to encourage support among average people through the association with popular and culturally significant imagery.

The majority of these images reflected the more militant aspects of the Middle Ages. When the war itself was underway, the Nazis attempted to reach out to more than just the Germans, but also to induce feelings of cultural pride amongst other Nordic peoples. The Nazis created images that pertained specifically to the Norse Viking heritage in the recruitment of soldiers from Scandinavians. As the war proceeded, propaganda became more pointedly directed at recruiting and used less and less medieval imagery, however this being said the imagery of the Middle Ages was used heavily in the lead up and consolidation of power by the Nazis in the prewar period, while still being used to some slightly lesser degree during the war itself.

To an extent, this is because as the war turned against Germany, the harsh realities of defeat meant that average German citizens would be less inclined to support some fanciful depiction of a Knight, and more inclined to support a realistic depiction of a German soldier. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nazism outside of Germany. Nazi propaganda and the United Kingdom. Anti-tobacco movement in Nazi Germany. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Alfred a Knopf Inc. Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. There were a number of legal tests used, to determine if such a person—with precisely two Jewish grandparents—was to be classified as a "Jew" or a "Mischling". The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Vol. Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. The art of persuasion: Propaganda in War, Organisations, Policies, and Publics, in Britain and Germany.

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