We will track the shipment and get back to you as soon as possible with a reply. Our goal is customer satisfaction! Due to stock status and time differences, we will choose to ship your item from our first available warehouse for fast delivery. Accessories come with a 3-month warranty. You must tell us what the defect is and give us your order number. Where did you go to university? What's the interest rate on this account?
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TheRepublican-controlled House was expected to vote on a billduring the weekend. President Barack Obama called on the Houseon Friday to stop "political grandstanding" and pass thelegislation. William's father, Prince Charles, was a close friend of Mountbatten, who was assassinated by the Irish Republican Army in Unfortunately for Minaj, the entire thing was caught on a behind-the-scenes vlog video posted by production company Grizz Lee Arts.
But this isn't the singer's first fashion mishap Her doctor warns her against, but Kylie's dedication to the team overrules that very sound advice. It's a nice moment in terms of team spirit, but one that also calls into question the motives and judgment of Alisha and Kylie's mother. Still, the team rallies behind their hurt teammate and go on to easily foreshadowed glory by winning first place in their division. Just over half of the children were Hispanic, one-third were black, and about 15 percent were classified as "other.
The technology is still used on at least one out of eight SIMs, or a minimum of million phones, according to Nohl. Inspections have been stepped up to every six months instead of the usual two-year intervals for most bridges. Will I get paid for overtime? One, Mukesh Singh, occasionally drove the bus and cleaned it. Another, Vinay Sharma, was a year-old assistant at a gym and the only one to graduate from high school.
Akshay Thakur, 28, occasionally worked as a driver's helper on the bus. Pawan Gupta, 19, was a fruit seller. Users can then copy and paste the available line of code to embed the post, including text and photos. Which team do you support? Who do you work for? Weather conditions permitting, the town will continue spraying for mosquitoes as needed in accordance with Northeast Massachusetts Mosquito Control.
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Batteries also have to take new formsto support flexible screens that can be rolled out, attached touneven surfaces or even stretched. The battery in the GalaxyRound is not curved, Samsung said. There was no better way to leave the place, and it made everyone who was watching feel both very old and very grateful at the same time.
Security Council has imposed four rounds of sanctions against North Korea since its first nuclear test on Oct. Under current sanctions, all U. The derailment occurred around 1: Could I have , please? Ryan, once a member of the Ravens defensive coaching staff, voiced his opinion in favor of Joe Flacco that essentially went ignored.
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Half the time Kris would just shut him right down like she didn't want to hear from him," the reality show source told People. Very funny pictures http: If not treated, the illness may last from a few days toa month or longer and patients have been known to relapse, theCDC said. Under a deal between China and the U.
They and any cubs they produce must all return to China eventually. Where's the nearest cash machine? It wasn't the fact that each evening when I came home from work and could see his tools in precisely the same spot they were when I'd left in the morning that I realised things were going badly wrong. Rather, it was when the carpenter told me that he liked to stand on my balcony to watch Concorde fly past each day this was a few years ago, obviously , and I noticed the over-flowing ashtray outside, that I understood in utter amazement that I was paying for a plane-spotter. Have you got a telephone directory?
They are a combination of risks both familiar and new, according to Fitch. In addition to the recurring threat of higher interest rates, REITs of are also contending with changes in tenant space usage requirements and leasing patterns stemming from technological developments that, for the most part, they did not encounter six years ago. That said, the generally more prudent approach to portfolio and liability management has positioned equity REITs well for the foreseeable future.
But the case is being tried again in Florence after Italy's supreme court overturned the acquittals in March, citing "contradictions and inconsistencies". Where do you study? Securities and Exchange Commission filing. Federal Reserve may trim back its stimuluspolicies. On Tuesday Deutsche Annington made a fresh attempt ata listing, cutting the money it hopes to raise and the price ofits shares, a week after poor demand forced it to scrap itsoriginal plans.
We were at school together http: As they like to say in Silicon Valley, failure is a prerequisite for success. You don't get a strong overarching narrative for any of this madness, either, so there's always a chance that more goal-oriented youngsters will grow sick of all the meandering. It's disappointing that Disney doesn't put more time and effort into tying things all together, instead relying almost solely on character recognition and the Toy Box to keep kids interested in the action. I'd like to send this letter by http: When can you start?
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The original foyer floor mosaic panels have been restored and there will be new multi-coloured LED lighting. Provision for people with disabilities has also been a focus, with a new seating layout which will accommodate 20 wheelchairs. The venue will announce a new headline sponsor on September 6. I do some voluntary work http: Federal Reserve reviewing a landmark decision that allowed commercial banks to trade in physical markets. How much is a Second Class stamp? Clegg will take the rare step of summing up the economy debate on Monday at the party conference in Glasgow.
Could you ask him to call me? After the Scot had cracked one of many passing shots beyond his reach towards the end of the fourth set Federer shouted angrily at Murray, who responded with a simple smirk. Would you like to leave a message? And I've seen some good ones. I'm hoping she can pull it off, and then win the fifth one in France. No one will ever come close to that unless the LPGA adds a sixth major.
Hesaid 70 percent of the land is leased to co-operatives and smallfarmers while 20 percent is owned by private farmers and theircooperatives. State companies occupy 10 percent of the land. What sort of music do you listen to? Approval in the key U. I work here http: It also decided to shift treasury bonds held by private pension funds back to the state to give it more room to stimulate growth. The other Indian institutions featuring in the list are four Indian Institutes of Technology from Delhi, Kanpur, Kharagpur and Roorkee, all clubbed in the group of institutions between I'm doing an internship http: Wejust didn't know exactly when.
The end users decided that theydidn't want to pay up for bushels," said Greg Johnson, a grainmerchant at the Andersons Inc, adding that the moves inprice were the most extreme in his year career. Could I make an appointment to see? Bradley Larson wouldn't let him immediately go to Mace because of the heavy firefighting, a decision that Carter is now certain saved his life, even though it was difficult at the time. I want to report a http: But officials with direct knowledge of Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile operations told the AP that such violations have happened, undetected, many more times than in the cases of the two launch crew commanders and two deputy commanders who were given administrative punishments this year.
Gebrselassie's influence helped free them. I'd like to transfer some money to this account http: Try meditation, yoga, breathing exercises and re-connect with nature. Each of these methodologies will provide amazing benefits, which can help you access your inner calmness and gain clarity. I believe, however, that the committee can and should do more to independently verify that NSA's operations are appropriate, and its reports of compliance incidents are accurate.
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- Climate Change and Biodiversity.
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Supreme Court refused to consider the issue, leaving in place a lower-court ruling that struck down the ballot measure as unconstitutional. While my personal loss is unimaginable, the world has lost one of the greatest pop vocalists of all time. The one obvious drawback is that the Knicks won't have enough shooting on the floor. Smothering Tarmac across our best loved and most visited countryside will not solve traffic problems or create jobs.
For example, California has 51 gigawatts of peak capacity to handle heat that boosts air-conditioning demand, even if only two-thirds of that is needed for most of the year. As of the moment, we have not established the perpetrator andneither of the above actions are undertaken," Arnaudova said. Starts for multi-family homes declined We didn't find it. I grew up in the Bronx during the s and s, when blight was synonymous with my borough.
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Publicly, pro-Morsi groups cast the demonstrations as having one key goal: Three months later, it hanged a Kashmiri separatist for a militant attack on parliament. Manning was of for yards.
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How many days will it take for the cheque to clear? He saidthe problem was isolated to that factory, and he was confidentall contaminated products had been found. It has nothing to do with us. Thanks funny site http: I'm a trainee http: A person familiar with the matter identified the assetmanager as the hedge fund firm of John Paulson. His leaks, first published by the Guardian, revealed a massive effort by the U. Fewer people have to move to connect with the job they want.
And indeed, the percentage of workers who telecommute from home has nearly doubled since But that still comes to only 4. And anyway, telecommuting has mainly turned out to be a way for employees to work extra hours after they come home from the office. More than , people have visited the blog since then, he said, including some who questioned his calculations and prompted him to post a couple of clarifications.
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GalaxyEntertainment is considering investing in sportsstadiums, golf courses and a marina on the island to complementits Macau casinos, Deputy Chairman Francis Lui told Reuters. UN peacekeeping forces might well be necessary. And somehow the US would have to assure the Russians that it would support the continuation of their access to Latakia.
We knew it was going to be a tough game. It was a tough game. I'd like to send this parcel to http: Can I use your phone? You have to come to work from a place of love. You have to stay hydrated when you have crying scenes," Danes said. And you have to ask for money because there's always more money and they won't give it to you because you're a girl! USA Today reports that this year, for the first time, some flu vaccines will be made from viruses grown in animal cells, but they are only approved for those over Some First Class stamps http: Just as Kerry was in London trying to clarify his statement from the day before, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns was landing in Cairo to urge Egyptian leaders to avoid violence and help facilitate a political exit strategy to end the stalemate that has paralyzed Egypt and deeply divided the country.
We went to university together http: Congress must act by Oct. Where do you live? Mostly, you love this. The country is still home to more bookstoresthan most countries with 2,, in a country of 65 millionpeople, compared with 1, in Britain, which has roughly thesame-sized population. Called-out comments are highlighted across the Forbes network. You'll be notified if your comment is called out.
I work for myself http: One measure of your success is the very lively and intelligent commentary it has elicited. I have a feeling you could be on your way to another book. Democrats were historically the party of those left behind by each era's New Economy, and in the early 20th century urban and industrial voters realized that meant them. When a new coalition of workers, rural residents and minorities took control of the levers of government, this required a dramatic shift in Republican ideology. Activist government in the form of crony capitalism for robber barons is one thing; the welfare state, quite another.
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They often don't know where to start, the subject is complex and they are already living busy lives. Notwithstanding a successful closing of the merger, these pressures are expected to remain in the near to intermediate term; features which underpin the Negative Outlook. Zimmerman was released with a warning. What university do you go to? Any Puma product with"drycell" on it means that it helps keep you dry, while"visicell" is a product with high visibility.
They have discussed tying the debt limit to everythingfrom reforming the tax code and revamping retirement benefits todefunding Obamacare. Screens measuring over 13 inches diagonally have also been requested for a new tablet device. He says he did not stab Tyrell and has no idea why the knife was in his room. That should provide some clarity, but, as Girardi has often said, oblique injuries can be tricky. How much were you paid in your last job?
Investigators determined that the driver, Diane Schuler, was intoxicated and had been smoking marijuana. While it still oozes testosterone, it has a sharper focus and a sharper message. I came here to work http: He sailed with his parents' often growing up, but says sailing is "not a part of my current life. Ugly fea- iures of the immediate surroundings can The first step in the preparations for growing plants vertically in a moss- or peat-wall is the construction of a skele- ton box of the desired dimension and shape.
The actual walls of this box consist of wire-mesh chicken- wire with a mesh width of approximate- ly: Of the various shapes which may be fashioned, the easiest to describe in detail is the simple, quadran- gular wall. This may be built either di- rectly against a building wall or to stand free. In the latter ease it can be planted on both sides and may even be equipped with wheels to permit moving it about. TIow solid and stable the skeleton box has to be depends, of course, upon its dimen- sions, and it is evident that a free-stand- ing wall, and especially one which is mov- able, must be built more strongly than one which is supported by a wall behind it.
The wire mesh has to be prevented from bulging out through inside wire braces, and in a high wall it may even be neces- sary to install several horizontal wire- mesh partitions in order to prevent the fill-material from settling too much. A wall which is to be planted on one side only need be no more than 6 to 8 inches thick but should have a solid rear wall, preferably of laminated wood. If it is fastened to the wall of a building or set up directly against it, the outside sur- face of the rear wall of the box must also be insulated by means of roofing paper.
A free-standing wall which is to be plant- ed on both sides has to be 10 to 12 inches thick. The bottom of the box, except when it rests on the soil — when gravel may be put under it — should be closed and must be reasonably solid. This is particularly im- portant, when the bottom is raised 4 to 6 or even 8 inches above the floor, as is usually done. All wooden parts have to be impreg- nated with a non-poisonous preservative, and the metal parts also have to be pro- tected not only against rusting from water but most of all against the corrosive ac- tion of fertilizers.
Liquid plastic which can be applied to both wood and metal is likely to prove particularly useful for this purpose. Where water and fer- tilizers cannot be permitted to run on the floor, a water-tight tray has to be placed under the planted wall. The filling of the skeleton box with the rooting medium has to be carried out with considerable care. If sphagnum moss is used — which is highly suitable — -it is of importance that this material be first thor- oughly loosened up, either by hand oi machine, and be evenly moistened.
No tight, dry lumps must be permitted to re- main. The moss then is packed firmly into the box by introducing it in layers, and the corners in particular have to be tight- ly stuffed with moss. The bracing cross wires have to be respected in this oper- ation, and one must make sure that thej are not loosened. Where sphagnum moss is not readilj available, peat may be used, provided thai fibrous peat as well as coarse agricultura peat can be obtained.
The rough, fibrous peat is needed towards the outside, agains the wire-mesh. When applied in a 1-inch thick layer, it serves to prevent the finei peat moss from trickling out. Peat also has to be moistenec evenly before it is used. It has the ad vantage over sphagnum moss that it i much easier to fill it into the box and t achieve an even packing with it.
Xor doe it have to be packed as firmly as sphag num moss. Many interesting facts concerning th actions and usage of peat have bee brought to light and publicized in numei ous papers by the Peat Exploratio: This small, thoug full-sized house with a steep gable-roo was completely covered with a layer o fibrous peat and was planted all over wit thousands of flowering plants.
Planting pansies in a wall basket previously filled with sphagnum moss. Photos courtesy V utter Seed Co 23 A great many plants are required, even in this shallow wire-mesh container. Rooted or unrooted cuttings of English ivy thrive in sphagnum culture. Bulbs caj be planted in the same manner. T gotten, the water to be applied with j hose equipped with a sprinkling rose from above as well as from the open sides Freshly planted walls must at first be pro tected against sun and wind.
After abou; one week the plants are sufficiently rootei] y to be able to stand full exposure. The number of plants required is rath-: With Begonia semper florens, or instance, one will need 50 plants per juare yard, if they are planted at a dis- mce of 5x5 inches. If planted 4x4 iches, 80 plants are needed for the same rea. Such close planting is necessary, ecause the plants do not spread as much ideways as they do in a horizontal bed, rhile gaps between them are more no- iceable.
Watering has to be regulated accord- ng to the thickness of the wall, the feather and the types of plants used. In ool, rainy or cloudy weather, daily water- ng is unnecessary, but care must be taken hat the whole wall is always evenly moist hroughout. The simplest procedure is to ise a soil-soaker, a porous hose common- y employed in the watering of hedges. Feeding commences about a week after Tatter Lettuce and spinach grow well in this ver- tical garden.
Tatter Seed Coinpatl planting, and with a moss-wall should repeated regularly once a week thereafter A peat-wall requires feeding only on every two weeks. The fertilizer used mui be absolutely complete — which means tin all the trace elements must be include also — and the strength of the solutio must be carefully controlled. The speck tablets mentioned by Mr. In 20 summer weeks th would amount to gallons of solutio] Kinds of Plants to Use Many kinds of plants may be used f the planting of moss- or peat-walls.
Pa This medieval build- ing in Switzerland is decorated with plaques of flowers. The shield is of wood, and the sphagnum moss is held in place by wire mesh. Geraniums, petunias and begonias are used most successfully. Gnntner ularly successful and long-lived have en: Definitely itable also are: Early flower- g rock garden plants, such as alyssum, si bis, aubrieta and primula have given.
However, eir display season is rather short and, hen they are gone, the wall has to be planted. Xot wholly satisfactory were: Kitchen herbs, such as parsley, lives, basil, marjoram, savory and wa- r-cress succeed very well also. A vertical garden wall may be used to give privacy on a small terrace. Particularly happy about this proce- dure are gardening amateurs whose busi- ness forces them to travel frequently. But also during a weekend absence or in va- cation time hydroponic culture eliminates the necessity of having to ask a neighbor 'Translated from the German by H.
Wax plant Hoya carnosa grows well in hydroponic culture. When placed on the win- dow sill in favorable light conditions, and when the temperature can be depended upon to remain reasonably stable, plants now can take care of themselves for a sur- prisingly long time, and one can be sure that they will suffer no harm whatsoever. The modern hydro-culture-pot consists of two parts: The two pots have to tit well into each other, of course, and both are sup- plied together as a set in varying sizes, shapes and colors.
Planting Younger plants in full growth are best suited for planting in this type of con- tainer. All soil is carefully washed off tlie roots under running water, and the plant is introduced into the insert pot in such a manner that as many roots as pos- sible hang out through the holes provided for this purpose. Care must, of course, be taken that no roots are broken. Thel insert pot then is filled with gravel, crushed pumice stone or other medium- coarse, inert, mineral material crushed brick in pea-size pieces, or coarse perlite, etc.
I Sand, being too fine, will not do, and ver-j miculite is not likely to be suitable either! The insert with the plant in it isjj suspended in the outer container, and the! Atl the beginning the solution is filled in tel the rim, so that the newly set-out plantj can absorb it immediately. Later on, whenl root growth becomes more active, the nu- trient solution is lowered by one or two inches, in order to give the roots better access to air which is important.
Fertilizers The nutrient supply problem has been solved for the amateur with special fer- tilizer tablets which in Germany are avail- able at all garden supply stores, and which are sold in small vials of 20 tablets for D. Calcium has been omitted because German tap-water generally con- tains it in sufficient amounts. Where calcium is lacking, which means where the water is very soft, it can readily be supplied by adding a few drops of dis- solved gypsum or land plaster calcium sulfate to the nutrient solution.
To assure an adequate nutrient supply, the solution is completely renewed every 3 or 4 weeks. In between times, if the plants evaporate much water — for in- stance on hot days, in heated apartments or with large-leaved plants — only water is added to maintain the desired level: With correct dosage, one vial of 20 tablets is sufficient to keep one house plant in per- fect health for one year. The handsome, vase-shaped outer con- tainers are glazed also on the inside which renders them completely non-porous. In consequence, they can safely be placed anywhere without a saucer and without danger of water-rings on expensive fur- niture.
They are available also with one flat side which permits attaching them to a wall, as free-suspended vases in hang- ing-basket fashion, or in bowl shapes. Prices of ceramic hydro-culture-pots range in Germany from D. Dracena thrives under hydroponic culture, as evidenced by good top growth above as well as the mass of roots below. Author photos 29 fered in the stores, and in these the root growth can be observed, of course, which intrigues the amateur. However, glass containers have the great disadvantage that they become quickly infested with algae.
In consequence, the nutrient solu- tion has to be changed every two weeks, the glasses have to be thoroughly cleaned. Opaque con- tainers, therefore, are preferable. Plants All of the common house plants succeed extremely well in hydro-culture pots. Par- ticularly satisfactory are all foliage plants, such as the rubber plant Ficus elastica , the eeriman Monstera delici- osa , all the numerous philodendrons and dieffenbac-hias, croton, eordyline, draca- ena, pandanus, scindapsus, peperomia, English ivy Hedera helix , etc.
Even cacti and other succulents grow strongly and healthily in these pots. Among flow- ering plants, the handsome anthuriums, stephanotis, wax plant Hoya , gardenia, ' flowering maple Abutilon , African vio- lets and numerous others have given per- i feet satisfaction. Short-lived plants, such as primulas, Christmas begonias, eycla- I men and calceolarias are less suitable, and plants with a pronounced cycle of growth and rest, such as amaryllis, clivia, calla, caladium, etc. Hydro-pot culture is well beyond the ex- perimental stage in Germany and has be- come an established new method of treat- ing plants in the home.
Not only does it greatly simplify the keeping of house plants but a special bonus results from the fact that the thoroughly balanced nu- trition which it provides seems to create in the plants a remarkable resistance to fungus and insect infestations. For the convenience of readers in Canada and the United States, who have access to our products, the following commercial fertilizers may be mentioned: For city dwellers who will need only small amounts of fertilizers, one or more of the following trade name preparations are available at most eent stores, or drug- and hardware stores.
The numbers after the name indicate the percentage of available nitrogen, phos- phorus and potassium in each fertilizer. Many preparations also include the minor elements. At the same time, the park is a vivid demonstra- tion of the ability of many plants to flourish under extremely adverse con- ditions. This landscaped roof shields one full block of stores on the north side and covers six underground floors of a parking garage capable of housing 1, cars. The roof is composed of 18 inches of construction materials applied in six layers: The polished marble granules of the terrazzo, in four colors, are laid be- tween stainless steel screeds.
The paving- design depicts the Pittsburgh Triangle but Aerial view of Mellon Square Park, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, atop six-floor underground parking garage and numerous stores.
Surrounding each of the specimen boxwoods is a ring of dwarf Japanese holly. Display box behind visitor is planted with Japanese pieris, under-planted with English ivy. Sweet gum trees in background. See list for other plants used. Built-in Containers The plant containers, constructed of reinforced concrete, form an integral part of the concrete roof slab.
All of the con- tainers, including those cantilevered over openings and areaways, are faced and capped with polished Minnesota grey granite. Drainage lines and irrigation pipes as well as electrical conduits were installed in the planting boxes during their construction. Once the overall design was accepted, an immediate search was made to select, tag and reserve the plant material for the park.
The landscape contractors had to base their bids for the job on the plants which had been selected and were not permitted to furnish plants of their own choice. Planting Poses Many Problems Choosing the plant material for the park was not an easy matter, because the plants not only had to tit the architectural picture and be in keeping with the over- all design but had to be selected also for their resistance to the worst possible en- vironmental conditions. Every effort was made in the design to vent the fumes front the thousands of automobiles which use the garage each day.
These fumes are added to the gen- eral atmosphere surrounding the park, which already is polluted by the heavy vehicular traffic passing on the four streets bounding the park. An additional complication is the heating of the roof slab during the winter months, inasmuch as the floors beneath are heated, and heal is generated also by the snow melting lines built into the slab itself. Another factor which had to be taken into consideration was light. Some of the planting boxes are situated so as to re- ceive full sunlight throughout most of the day, while a certain portion of the same planting area is shaded most of the time.
Since in many instances the same planting continues through both types of exposure, plants had to be chosen which tolerated both conditions equally well. The plant- ing list shows the plant materials em- ployed in the park. No changes in plant material have been made since the original planting. The first honey locust Gleciit- sia sp. The loss in plant material has been negligible, and the majority of the plants have done surprisingly well. Most of them have made growths comparable to that of the same kinds under normal conditions.
One very small planting of English ivy adjacent to the garage entrance had to be removed after the first winter. The constant blast of warm air playing over the plants had killed them. All of the flowering plants such as hybrid rhododendron, azaleas, pieris, pyracantha, viburnum, aronia, Magnolia virginiana and flowering crab-apple have budded and flowered very well through three growing seasons. All other planting areas range in depth from 24 inches to 4 feet in which the large deciduous trees are planted.
Ex- cept for the shallow areas, 6 inches of coarse gravel is provided for drainage. This has been fully adequate, since all of the beds drain perfectly. The drainage material was covered with a 4-inch com- pacted layer of clean straw to prevent the soil, composted mushroom soil, from being washed into the gravel. All the ericaceous plants were pocket-planted in oversize holes filled with pure Canadian peat moss.
Irrigation An elaborate and rather expensive irri- gation system had been installed in the park during its construction. This system consisted of a series of bubblers and sprinkler heads and was expected to pro- vide complete and automatic watering of the plants. Unfortunately, it proved un- satisfactory from the very beginning.
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The bubblers which were supposed to flood the planting beds with water failed to do so because the water, instead of spreading out on the surface, ran down along the pipe risers. The sprinkler heads, while effective in certain areas, can be used only late at night when no one is in the park, because the frequently violent wind drifts the water spray over the paved areas. Fortunately, a sufficient number of hose connections had been included in the irri- gation layout, permitting hand watering 34 with reasonably short sections of hose.
Since several of the long planting boxes do not dry out uniformly, parts of them remaining quite moist while other areas dry quickly, hand watering is unavoidable anyhow. All of the planting areas in the park receive one application of dry complete fertilizer in early spring. This is followed by two applications of a complete liquid fertilizer, once during late spring and again in midsummer.
Pest Control Though well removed from any other large plantings, insect pests have given the usual trouble. Bagwonns have at- tacked the liquidambar and honey locust trees. Spider mites and scales have in- fested the azaleas, and aphids have been found on tips of the English ivy. Our spray program starts with a late winter spraying with an oil spray against scale, and this is followed by regular spraying with DDT and malathion. At the begin- ning of the bagworm season the trees are sprayed with arsenate of lead and mala- thion, combined with a spreader-sticker.
This program has kept insects pretty well under control. Only the bagwonns which infest the honey locust trees are still giv- ing trouble. Despite weekly spray appli- cations, it has never been possible to obtain uniform coverage with spray ma- terial of all the tiny leaflets and branch tips. When complete kill is not obtained through spraying, the live bagwonns are hand picked wherever they are accessible.
Special Displays Two large and two small planting boxes in the park are reserved for floral dis- plays. These consist of the customary spring bulbs, followed by annuals and finally by chrysanthemums in mid-Octo- ber. For the first two seasons a large va- riety of annual plants were tried in these areas in order to determine which would give the best results. We found that bed- ding begonias were most outstanding and Oblique view of Mellon Square Park.
Shops at lower left have mass plantings of azaleas on top. Lower right, entrance and exit to parking garage. Adjacent to steps are the cascade pools. One box is regularly planted with large tropical foliage material such as crotons, pandanus, acalyphas, beloperone, hibis- cus and coleus. This same box is used for the Christmas tree display. The ends of the frame are fitted with steel rings to which guy lines are attached to support a toft. The large areas contain- ing ground-cover plants are thickly plant- ed with narcissus bulbs. Winter Protection Winter protection consists of spraying all plants with Wilt-Pruf.
This material is applied to all of the plants in the park in early November, during a warm bright sunny day, using a power sprayer. W e believe sincerely that the use of W ilt-Pruf has helped considerably to reduce the loss of plants from winter-kill. Lighting- Most of the lighting for the park con- sists of spotlights with blue lenses which are recessed to ground level in the planted areas. Smaller lights are embedded low in the granite facing of the planter boxes to light the paved areas. An additional amount of light is supplied by the spot- lights in the large pool and from lights concealed behind the waterfalls on the cascade pools.
The only other light which enters the park is reflected light of street lamps across from the park. There are no light standards or poles within the park proper. The overall effect of the lighting is a soft but rather spectacular moonlight glow. Visitors from all over the world have exclaimed over the beauty and utility of this park, which is considered to be one of the most outstanding examples of re- development in an urban area. Surround- ed on all four sides by skyscraper-size buildings, the park is a cool and inviting oasis to the tired shopper, the harried ex- ecutive and the multitude of workers who are employed in the downtown area.
All I can say is that it is certainly wise to consult an expert on such details as soil, drainage requirements, root space needed, sun and shade plants, feeding schedules, etc. They should be designed for per- manence and with an air of belonging to the house or terrace or porch where they are to be used. We call our boxes plant furniture. This was obviously the wrong approach. A month later we owned three power saws, two sanders, drills, small tools and many feet of redwood and cypress with which to experiment.
Wood has integrity in almost every outdoor setting. Redwood and cypress are not subject to soil rot and are ideal for outdoor use. All of us expect to pay astronomical prices for custom-made articles. Part of our willingness is pride of having some- thing designed for our personal needs. We do not have the same pride in a ready- made article, and it costs just as much to produce in small quantities.
Koch This cypress plant box, rubbed with linseed oil and turpentine, has integrity whether used indoors or out. An ar- ticle is not commercially feasible until it can be produced in volume. We do not believe, however, that distinctive plant furniture is faddy or arty. Home owners simply have to he alerted to the possibili- ties of beauty in box gardening in greater numbers. When the demand is great enough the manufacturer can make a well- designed plant box at a fair price. Possibilities in Box Gardening There are limitless possibilities in box gardening and fine plant material now is obtainable at local nurseries.
The illusion of a sizable rose garden can be created with miniature roses in a succession of border terrace boxes. Potted azaleas, begonias, hybrid geraniums and varieties of tropical foliage plants can be sunk in boxes tilled with peat moss and brought inside as house plants when freez- ing weather threatens. Dwarf hedges are effective when boxed on a terrace surrounded by flower beds A rather wide choice of low-growing plants suitable for this purpose is offered] by nurseries.
A number of cotoneasters among them C. They make fine plantings in wall or step boxes For early spring boxes, the small bulbs crocus, ehionodoxa, snow-drop, eranthis etc. Primroses Primula polyantha and grape hyacintt Mnscari planted together make a stej or door box garden that is all one needs for spring color if limited for space. Hemerocallis in hundreds of new vari eties of clear pinks, apricots, mauves 38 Koch photos Different arrangement of boxes shown on opposite page.
Chrysanthemums are a natural see photographs above. With our growing conditions, which include heavy soil and alternate freezing and thawing, the box-planting of chrysanthemums ac- tually enhances the scope of our garden- ling. The planted boxes can be wintered, [well mulched, in a protected spot, and divisions are readily made in March or April.
Loss of the more tender hybrids may thus be avoided. The Japanese hollies, Ilex crenata con- vexa and I. Anyone interested in training minia- ture trees or bonsai which grow all their lives in pots and containers can derive both summer and winter pleasure from them. These fascinating trees follow the normal season of new growth, bloom, fruiting and dormancy depending upon the climate of the country in which they are indigenous. A basic design can be copied and, by the subtraction of a molding or addi- tion of legs see photographs page 40 changed to blend with contem- porary or older homes. The addition of an extra horizontal line see photo- graph on page 41 will give a box for lower planting.
The subtraction of as little as inch from overall 39 Above, porch box of simple design. Below, same box with fashioned legs. Redwood and cypress make the best outdoor boxes for reasons already stated. Pine, cedar or poplar are equally good woods for painted and lined boxes and are easy to work with. Good, sturdy construction which pre-j supposes a good grade of lumber and 1 the best finishes is not easy with light j tools. Include in your construction plan means for the removal of permanent plantings when the plants become!
Plant boxes must be built with air and drainage space underneath. They must have depth enough for strong root growth, probably a minimum of 7 to 8 inches. A waterproof glue is a necessity for holding mitered corners together on a box to be tilled with soil, regardless of inside bracing. Water-resistant glue is sufficiently strong for boxes which are lined or have other inside containers.
Screws are best for holding boxes to- gether. On redwood, screws or nails must be aluminum, brass, cadmium plated, or galvanized, never steel. Steel and redwood apparently react chemically to hasten deterioration. Finishes depend on settings and type of box: Below, box on left with added trim line looks shallower than box at right proportions are identical. Triangular redwood box with thread-leaf Japanese maple Acer pal mat ii m var. Tree wisteria in redwood box. Robinson Palmer Japanese maple in substantial tub. However, this need not be the deciding factor, and hand- some containers in themselves may, in fact, readily serve as important features in indoor or outdoor decoration.
The con- tainer must, of course, be functional, and the choice of plants is important also, but there is no doubt that the type, shape, color, etc. My own interest in the subject began some years ago when I moved to a new house in a new district. The garden be- longing to the house was no more than potential and much needed to be done to it. As a first step, I acquired an old stone sink, mounted it on large stones in front of the living room window and planted it I as a miniature garden.
It gave me more pleasure than all the rest of the garden. It was charming; it could be seen from the inside of the house as well as from the outside; it made demands on my skill and ingenuity but not on my strength. I re- alized that a deliberately limited garden in a container can give keenest satisfac- tion even to the most inveterate gardener. Later, in the course of my work as land - 1 scape consultant, I frequently found oc- , c-asion to recommend the use of plant con- 1 tainers in garden design, but all of the Gardenglas bowl, 26 inches in diameter, makes ideal plant con- tainer in modern set- ting.
Here, plants are left, in pots and set in coarse vermiculite. Panda materials available for the making of such containers: Most of all, the materials always limited the choice of shape for the container, and they were either very heavy or too fragile or both. Usually, they could not be safely left out of doors in our northern winters, and some of them allowed the soil to be- come overheated in summer. Often, too, the surface of the containers became dis- figured by efflorescence, fading or flaking.
The problems involved intrigued me, and I commenced to experiment with the use of a number of different materials. The Material Finally, I came to the conclusion that a polyester resin, reinforced with glass- liber, possesses the desirable qualities to an unusually high degree. This material now is frequently employed in the manu- facture of airplane parts, radar domes for the Arctic and in other defense work.
It is very light in weight, immensely strong and durable and unaffected by ex- tremes of heat or cold. Horticulturallv, it is eminently satisfactory because it does not corrode when in contact with soil, water or fertilizer's and is an excellent insulator, so that the roots of plants in such a container are well protected against heat injury even in the most ex- posed position.
Further experimentation developed soft, yet clear colors which are bonded into the material and do not fade. The containers, therefore, never require refinishing. The walls of the containers are completely opaque and have a soft, mat finish. From a practical point of view it is important also that a container which weighs only 5 pounds by itself is able to hold up to pounds of soil. This has the obvious advantages that it can be lifted and handled with ease and that the shipping, even of a whole series of con- tainers, presents no problem.
Containers Are Hand-Moulded Gardenglas containers are hand-mould- ed which, as a highly skilled operation, is rather expensive. Pressure moulding, us- ing matched metal dies, would, of course, reduce costs but becomes feasible only in large scale production. Besides, it would be difficult to reproduce with this method of manufacture the pleasing surface tex- ture of the containers which we now are able to achieve. Still, this is likely to be the production method of the future, if 47 Panda Formally trained bay trees Lauras nobilis in inch Gardenglas tubs, Juvenile and Family Court Building, Toronto, Ontario.
Concerning the design of the contain- ers, my aim has been twofold. First, the containers must, of course, be entirely functional. They must provide an ade- quate root-run for the plants as well as efficient drainage, and they must be able to hold a volume of soil which is adequate to sustain healthy plant growth. Second, through shape and color, the containers must be attractive in appearance by themselves as well as aesthetically pleas- ing when they are part of a composition of plants and container. Our standard shapes are the following: The round, upright, 14" diameter container weighs 3 pounds and holds about 60 pounds of soil.
The inch bowl weighs 5 pounds and holds be- tween and pounds of soil. The manufacturing method would readily per- mit producing still larger containers but these would unavoidably become rather unwieldy, and much better effects can be obtained when moderate-size containers are grouped together. Gardenglas Is Nonporous Many people are concerned about the fact that Gardenglas containers are not porous, in contrast to the customary porous clay pots.
Actually, this non- porosity is a considerable advantage, as we have been able to prove to our com- plete satisfaction. On a dry, sunny ter- race, or in a modern heated apartment, plants benefit greatly when they are pro- tected against the deleterious effect of a constant loss of moisture through the walls of a porous pot.
Planting Hints There is no need to give recipes for soil mixtures which are the same whenever plants are grown in any kind of contain- er. However, I have found that, unless the planting is so dense that the surface of the soil is covered, a mulch of gravel or stone chips is distinctly helpful. It conserves moisture and protects the soil surface against overheating, while at the same time it improves the appearance of the planting.
A layer of sphagnum moss immediately over the bottom drainage layer holds a reserve of moisture and will Author courtesy Root development of roses after one growing season in Gardenglas container. For indoor decoration, I prefer to use the inch bowl without drainage hole and to leave the plants in their pots. Coarse vermieulite then is used to till in I between and over the surface of the pots.
I This looks neat and is very satisfactory I also from a cultural point of view, since I the vermieulite absorbs surplus water I without becoming soggy. In general, in- [ door plants do best when they are I grouped together in a large container be- I cause they will then create their own local I humid atmosphere.
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The choice of plants which may be I grown in containers is extraordinarily wide, especially when indoor as well as I outdoor container gardening is considered. I When the living room air is conditioned I or at least humidified and when growing I under artificial light is included also, the I choice becomes almost limitless. Winter Treatment Just as in ordinary outdoor flower-bed gardening, so also with containers, one can readily have a series of seasonal changes throughout the year, by replacing plants when their best season of bloom is over. Or one may establish a fairly permanent I basic planting and change only a few I plants from time to time.
Depending up- I on local climatic conditions, it is even pos- I sible with the larger Gardenglas contain- I ers to winter certain hardy plants safely I outdoors. We have found as a pleasant surprise that the insulating property of I the material of which the containers are I made is such that it very appreciably less- I ens damage from temperature changes.
I The main hazard to look out for seems to I be flooding, which may occur when the I container fills with water during a thaw I accompanied by rain or slush, while the I drainage holes remain frozen. Trouble unavoidably follows when everything freezes again. The container itself does not get damaged, but bulbs, and in fact most plants, suffer severely from such an experience.
Protection against flooding, therefore, is imperative hut, if this is pro- Panda Containers are available in various sizes and shapes. We have successfully wintered a miniature alpine garden in a inch bowl, suffer- ing only very few losses. Polyantha roses also have survived the winter outdoors in such a bowl, though we had sub-zero weather. Another important advantage of con- tainers made of material which not only is almost unbreakable but also very light is that the planting can readily be done at the nursery or greenhouse.
A whole roof garden, for instance, could be set up very quickly by having standard contain- ers of this type delivered fully planted. This, certainly, would be less expensive as well as much less bother all around than to have skilled men and trucks work for hours delivering and handling soil, plants and containers separately. The same applies, of course, when only a few containers are wanted for indoor decora- tion in private homes, public institutions or commercial establishments.
Modern synthetic materials make pos- sible a much wider use of large plant con- tainers which undoubtedly will become in- creasingly popular. Whether they are used as architectural accents in an exten- sive garden design, or whether a single container on a balcony high over the city or in the living room represents an entire garden by itself, great pleasure and satis- faction may be derived from container gardening. They are fashioned by hand by Mr. Ted Lapins of Montreal, who started doing this as a spare-time project but is now rapidly de- veloping it into a business.
Lapins has been good enough to give me the fol- lowing information concerning the man- ufacture of his containers. The first step is the construction of a form or frame which consists merely of a skeleton of wooden ribs. This must be built in such a manner that it can be taken apart inside the vase and removed after the vase is finished. Naturally, this takes careful designing and considerable craftsmanship because if the form is not absolutely correct to a fraction of an inch or is not stable enough, the vase will be lopsided.
Many kinds of plants thrive in this low sisal rope container. Sisal rope is the rough, fuzzy rope used, for instance, in boat or ship rig- ging, and is sold by hardware stores in various sizes. The size of the rojje must be chosen according to the effect one wishes to achieve. This rope is wound tightly and very evenly around the skele- I ton form. In its raw state, the rope is I pale ivory in color, and the very pleasing, I burnished brown tints of Mr. The bottom and drain of the vase, by I the way, must be inserted while the vase I is under construction. It cannot be done afterwards.
The next and most tedious step is the treatment of the vase with liquid plastic. A number of different types of liquid plastic are available, but for using them one has to know their qualities since they differ in their reaction to temperature I and in other ways. Lapins prefers I one which is produced by the Dominion Rubber Company and is used mainly for treating the surfaces of small boats, yachts, etc.
A catalyst has to be added to this plastic to cause it to set and harden, and it can be mixed only in small batches because it gets thick within lb to 20 minutes depending upon the temper- ature. They have to be: After the outside of the vase is finished, the frame or form is removed and the in- side is treated with plastic in the same manner. It takes artistic ability as well as crafts- manship and enormous patience. The re- sults, however, are wonderful. The vases Photos author courtesy Tall rope container holds an arrangement of pine and berried branches in winter. Urn-shaped container is more suited to tall growing palm.