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Minnesota Blues Feeling Minnesota Les aventures tragi-comiques d'un trio de losers dans le Minnesota. Ferdinand Ferdinand Ferdinand est un taurillon unique en son genre. Match Parfait Fever Pitch Ben, un professeur du secondaire, devient amoureux de Lindsay, une femme d'affaires. Mais on ne contrecarre pas les plans de la Mor Pour prouver son innocence, il descend dans le monde des clubs de s Un des membres de ce gang, un petit truand sans envergure, Plan de Vol Flightplan Kyle Pratt prend part au vol inaugural Berlin-New-York d'un nouveau type d'avion de ligne dont elle est une des conceptrices.

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Freddy contre Jason Freddy vs. La Fin de Freddy: L'Ultime Cauchemar Freddy's Dead: But de la rencontre: Mon Ami Willy 2: La Grande Aventure Free Willy 2: C'est maintenant un jeune adolescent qui va devoir u Mon Ami Willy 3: Le Sauvetage Free Willy 3: Freejack Freejack Alex est un pilote de course. Vampire, vous avez dit vampire? Fright Night '11 Charlie Brewster est au top: Il est tellement cool La Nuit la plus longue 2: La nuit la plus longue 3: La fille du bourreau From Dusk Till Dawn 3: Remake du film de Fur - Un portrait imaginaire de Diane Arbus Fur: Furie Fury Avril On the Shoulders of Giants tv.

Erreur sur la victime Gang Related Deux flics profitent de la guerre des gangs pour arrondir leur fin de mois avec le trafic de drogue. Garfield Pacha Royal Garfield: Les neuf vies de Garfield Garfield: His 9 Lives tv Les chats ont neuf vies, dit-on. Garfield les vivra toutes! The Movie Garfield, le chat le plus connu au monde dort, mange et These are former workers or craftsmen: Deligny makes the most of their know-how, physical resistance and availability.

He mistrusts corporations and their allegiance to technique and pre-constituted knowledge. The official grounds for his suspension from the C. T of Lille have to do with the long criminal records of the supervisors former or unemployed workers, activists, trade unionists. His project is not revolutionary: He is himself the reflection of this un-definition.

While he never stops writing, trying to be published, it is also never to stay put, to stay clear of ideological hijacking, to remind one that research always finds the researcher beyond or below the image, to which he is fastened, on the moving and frail field of experimentation. In September , he writes to Louis Althusser: At the end of the thirties — he then teaches special classes — and in the early forties, he still, yet loosely, affiliates himself to modern educational methods.

Despite their graphic appeal, these transcriptions are impermeable to the status of work of art, whether primitive or conceptual. One can easily imagine, in a few decades or centuries? He takes up all genres: He hides his academic career, truth be told rather short: He reads a lot yet he is never one of these enthusiast readers for whom reading turns into a second life. As time goes by, oddly enough, poetry Michaux, Ponge, Artaud gives ground. Biology is of a greater interest to him than psychology.

It seems that his dealing with works of social sciences is more intuitive than analytic: He drills in their texts, locates what could be useful to him; he argues about selected excerpts while never taking the whole body of the text into account. He poses and casually tackles scholarly texts; he rarely names his sources, quotes from memory and in no particular order. According to him, intellectuals have firm believes; they assimilate the thinking of others.

He has intellectuals confused with ideologists. When choosing the asylum, he means to disown his belonging to the class of the intellectuals petit bourgeois. He claims the educator to be a craftsman, a manual worker. Some of his texts are borderline obscurantists. His father is killed and reported missing in ; the child Deligny becomes a war orphan. He cultivates the idea of anonymity rather than anonymity itself. His writing comes and confirms his suspicion with regard to discourses. He favours short forms. His paragraphs are short, parted by long blank spaces which serve as the scansions of a thinking expressing itself out-loud, with its stressing, its recurrences, its ellipsis and repetitions.

Digressions seep in his texts in several ways. As early as the sixties, he almost systematically uses the dictionary and etymology as references: Geographically, his trajectory is divided into three zones and corresponding moments: He never left France, spoke no language except his own, showed no regret whatsoever for the experience of that strangeness. At the asylum and in the communist party.

His texts at that time show how deeply he was haunted by a fear of ideologies. In the early sixties history walked out on him while he walked out on history. He is torn between a deep-rooted rejection of anticommunism and a profound disagreement with the ideological conditioning of the party. At the same period, he gives up on taking care of adolescents and begins, away from any institutional apparatus, researching the possible forms of a non-verbal language.

He follows it, from one experience to the other, in small touches.


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He never looks for the object of the trace which has disappeared. It runs about his work as the line, the writing or the image. The infinitive marking is the accomplished form of such a permanency, referring to no other thing, to no Other. It brings together, for the first time, the essential of his work: Throughout these pages, Deligny remains what he was, a school teacher, an educator, an intellectual without an assigned discipline, an inventor. Time and an incomplete knowledge of his work have determined a certain misunderstanding: Another fact explains it, a fact which was accepted and acceptable in the seventies but which our times reject: Deligny deals with autism yet he is no psychiatrist; and even worse, maybe, he shelters autistic persons yet has no intention to cure them.

Circumlocutions silence, vacancy of the language, etc. To adopt their point of view rather than the one of the educational, medical or legal authorities. To define an adaptive environment rather than a set of abstract rules. Yet, there should be no underestimate of his institutional strategy at the C. Likewise, there should be no reinterpreting his attempts in the forties, as he tends to do it himself, in the light of his rejection of language.

The chronology of the narrative is broken, the episodes dealing with the asylum, the war and the communist party are fragmented through the text and absorbed within a perception with no reference to space and time, made irrelevant by the experience of insanity and death. This text serves as a prologue to the collection. Deligny wrote it in , at the psychiatric clinic of La Borde. He was then fifty-three; he had already spent thirty years of his life with backward and maladjusted children and adolescents, he was to spend thirty more years with autistic children.

A chronological presentation of his work has the advantage to arrange a complex material made of texts, articles, issues of journals, drawings, maps, photographs, films. Profusion is the sign for an experimental type of work aiming for the gesture and the activity rather than the object itself. The collection consists of five parts.

The educator made writer has not found his style yet; his writing has not decided between a poetic prose saturated with metaphors and spoken language. His attempt to write for delinquent, epileptic, psychotic adolescents is awkward; yet it needs to be seen as a testimony on the asylum confinement in the working-class background. Les Vagabonds efficaces , a chronicle of his staying at the C. Deligny warns the first educators against normalization and the grip of moral standards, which come and hide the social cause for delinquency.

The layout, the use of drawing, shed new light on the character: The facsimile reproduction shows the originality of such a small object. The second part is named after the association founded in During that time, Deligny wrote very little. In he leaves Paris for good. Thus begins a ten year-long unsettled period of his life. His struggling with the mastery over fiction and over the distance, which bounds him to the characters, explain his giving up on the genre.

They identify with his projects, turn his character into one of the emblems for their program. The few documents and commentaries which we have gathered sum up a certain frame of mind: The third part and its six hundred pages are central to the collection. They recount the most experimental, most inventive years of the network of autistic children.

Deligny has broken away for good with social activism. He begins a new attempt with autistic children, around Janmari, and sets out for his crusade against language. He invents a spatial device, customs, a cartography, a language. Relentlessly, Deligny goes on writing. Isaac Joseph sorts out, structures, pieces together scattered texts, excerpts from letters and interviews.

That same year, the collection is published in French: We had to give up on that idea for lack of space. Between and , Deligny publishes seven books. Since they were pulped a few months only after their publishing, we consider them to be an original material. Finally, to call upon the eternally revived presence, rather than the return, of a pacified yesteryear, a luminous time of stones and traces. Jean-Michel Chaumont is the author of the first hundred and twenty pages, the first of the two parts the book is composed of. That same year, he published a fourth book for Hachette: Despite the peculiarity of the narrative, despite the clues he offers between the lines to his obsessive fear of the disappearance of the father, we chose not to reissue this text.

Going back to the setting of the asylum, diving again in a form of writing both narrative and realistic, would have loaded down the structure of the collection. Between and , Deligny wrote four more essays. Some are more important than others, none have been published before. Deligny does not recognize himself in the issues social workers have to deal with. He summons up Wittgenstein, the philosophy of facts, of the tacit, of the unmentionable. He uses again the metaphor of the asylum: Once again, he targets psychoanalysis, its comfort and its subjection to the norm of language. About a film to be made.

His thinking is both more and more abstract and more and more ethereal. He quotes Jean Epstein. Yet, to him, the image will always be somehow childlike, somehow primitive. The way it appears has to do with reminiscence, with the infraverbal, with the silent dazzle of the magic lantern. Deligny wrote around twenty tales, or even more if we regard as tales a great many parable-like short stories. The small handwriting is fine and cursive, hastened by time and the pressure of memory. Around her, a theory of characters arising from the war, from the asylum, from the childhood years in Bergerac and from the adolescence in Lille.

The manuscript is left unfinished. It is not the last one. What are these pages? Essays, narratives, scenarios, plays, tales, letters. There were not all worth publishing. The correspondence is way too vast. Deligny says very little of himself. It all looks like his private life interested him or interested the addressee in as much as it held in a few factual comments: Indeed, he sees correspondence as following his intellectual interactions: Therefore, the correspondence is a precious complement to his texts, but we lacked the room to publish it.

Images take up a lot of space. Whenever he can, he tries his hand at drawing, at typographic techniques and layout. At the end of the fifties, he discovers, during his drawing sessions with Yves G. Deleuze and Guattari will place them at the very origin of the concept of rhizome. This transcription system is coded yet decipherable. Most of the maps have been lost. We have gathered a few of the ones which survived: Deligny is also interested by photography, seen as an another trace. For it fixes the image without objectifying it. It calls for legends. The complexity of the editing and the great diversity of the focal distances called for a dense and turbulent type of layout, with bright whites and dense blacks.

The avatars of fiction are followed by the peace and quiet of an idealized document, focused on Janmari. The layout highlights a few descriptive sequences, which turn the film into a very precious tool for the analysis of the way of life of the network. While never trying to undo the share of legend he voluntarily kept alive, these introductions re-establish some of the historic facts, on the background of which his action and work come to light.

The whole work bears the sign of this double demand. Deligny gave up early on becoming one. For entering literature was not compatible with dedication to work, with the daily risks of care, whether institutional or not. Deligny risked experimentation and failure. In the sixties, he offers alternatives to the cult of the collective and of freedom of expression, in which he sees the hypostasis of the psychological, consumerist subject: His propositions at the time voluntarily go against the tide of history.

In the practical activities of the network, he uses art, which he characterizes as a gesture for nothing and as a memory of forms. Against the libertarian illusion of May 68, he offers to restore the principle of authority: Deligny was a man of order, as Jacques Allaire presented him. Such stands come from a critique of language, which lead Deligny to live with autistic children.

Such an approach could develop only with the observation of acute autistics, suffering from such severe disorders that the very access to the word was jeopardized for good. It was founded in It refers both to the childlike stick-figure and to the subject. In English, Fossils have it rough only translates the first meaning.

The child was mute, lively, adroit; he discovered buried springs, caught wasps by their wings without hurting them, lived in the hamlet from his powerful presence and unvarying journeys. Il a douze ans. Je le lui tendais le plus souvent au-dessus de la page de droite. Il reposait le graphite, et je lui tendais cette fois le stylo en faisant un claquement de langue: In November , she proposed that Janmari trace in a sketchbook. Until May , they met in her studio three or four times a week. I handed a ballpoint or felt-tip pen to Janmari, and he began a series of small waves or circles.

Artists who tend to shun worldliness do not get much coverage. Also, in art schools in the US—unlike those in Europe—technique is no longer part of the curriculum. Post-disciplinary is the word. In museums, so-called experts rule, who are paid by so-called collectors, who are in fact investors.

Art has now reached the same dead end as politics. There is still this kind of energy, but it dates from the Renaissance and what ensued, including the moderns: Courbet, Ensor and Munch Though Conceptual Art suits the market marvellously—no storage is required, nor transportation, so it is very low cost! Nor has Postmodernism anything to do with painting. It is a recycling of tradition, consisting of pastiches.

This was preceded by Minimal Art, which was based on geometry and no longer pictorial, either. Larry Poons and Walter Darby Bannard, whom we are exhibiting here today, belonged to this group, but Minimal Art lasted only from until Afterwards, the minimal artists endured a period of crisis. The art we are presenting bears witness to a new vision of space. These artists all share a respect for the unforeseen and for rhythm. We are not about to give this production a name; it is too soon for that. For now, we have only identified a group of artists.

So this event will be an experience, an occasion to see whether it may awaken energies. Roberto Polo — Minimalism made sense at the time. We are now looking into some other phenomena and noting the connection between these painters. Paul Manes and Werner Mannaers clearly breathed the same oxygen, though their expressions differed.

They have an identical conception of light, geometry and space—which happens to be distorted warped space and deployed in depth, thus reconciling the linear and the pictorial. Of the eight Belgian artists, I already represented five. The others have recently joined my gallery. Several of them are both figurative and abstract artists, whose works are deeply imbued with pictorial narrative. They are breaking down barriers. That is how art should be. For that reason, despite the fact that we had the chance to conceive an institutional exhibition in collaboration with the establishment, we preferred to mount an experimental one.

How has the decline of painting affected post-war American artists?

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Barbara Rose — To my mind, painting has been in trouble since , when Jackson Pollock stopped painting drippings and felt unable to come up with another solution. Maybe painting was not dead, but progress certainly was. Other paths had to be found. Duchamp, who was living in New York at the time, had an enormous influence, but it was Warhol, who denigrated painting as an art form associated with bourgeois values, who ensured its decline.

The Minimalists on the other hand were supported by young critics at the time, but I think—with hindsight—that Minimal Art really set off because two of its artists, Donald Judd and Robert Morris, who wrote articles for Artforum, started propagating their own production. Donald was a great intellectual.


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He could have rivalled the highly influential art critic Clement Greenberg, but the dialogue faltered. When the latter died, there was no one left to tell with any authority what was valuable and what was going to stand the test of time. That has remained true until this day. I do not, for that matter, think that there are no movements or trends anymore. To the contrary, since globalisation and the new modes of communication, the doors are open to anything!

Though it is obvious that American art is no longer triumphant in the sense that nobody is talking about it, there is, however, a lot of energy out there, particularly among Afro-Americans. I am representing Western painting, as it is an expression of the civilisation I belong to, but I am interested in influences from other cultures. We will keep on watching out for any new creations!

Paul Manes, Notte di Fiori, , oil on canvas. Jan Vanriet, Women in the Forest, Red, , oil on canvas. Larry Poons, Tantrum 2, , acrylic on canvas. Bernard Gilbert, Number , An art historian, curator, critic, and professor, she has a rare gift for explaining art, which allows her to address any and all audiences from the readers of Vogue to those of Art in America and Artforum. There are different kinds of art critics: Barbara Rose clearly belongs to the latter group.

Like many art scholars who are close to artists she was once married to Frank Stella, now regarded as a classic of Modern American Art , Barbara Rose is always on their side. This exhibition is an attempt to show the world that artists and in this case, American and Belgian artists are used as an example have never ceased panting, learning more about form and colour, and experimenting with plastic arts. Having visited hundreds of studios, she found that both countries and in fact, everywhere in the world had artists that shared the same pictorial concerns and remain true to the rich Western European artistic heritage.

She says that the rumours about the death of painting are greatly exaggerated and that when people remind her about how Marcel Duchamp first predicted the demise of painting as an art form in the dim and distant future, she cites the recent Duchamp exhibition at the Pompidou centre, which clearly showed the master was not a particularly good painter and that this was probably the main reason why he was so eager to see it disappear.

Barbara Rose is not jumping to conclusions though, "This exhibition does not try to present a new movement, some kind of a new wave in art, or what would be even worse, to set a new trend, it simply intends to show that painting in the grand manner is alive and kicking, and that new artists are picking up where their predecessors left off", she says. When people in the know about art hear his name, it brings to mind, among other things, the fact that it was Roberto Polo who importantly opened the 18th century to museums in France. He started promoting Fragonard and then gave the Louvre his 'Adoration of the Shepherds'.

Polo is famous as someone with an uncanny ability to identify emerging trends dismissed by others. If he is betting on painting, that means it is far from being dead. These artists depict a new notion of space that could best be described as phenomenological or cosmic. This exhibition focuses on tactile pictorial surfaces and cosmic spaces. It is also a catalogue of what is happening in the world of painting today, an area that contemporary art critics and magazines largely ignore.

It is a heroic exhibition of paintings by 16 painters, eight Americans and eight Belgians, which is in fact presented as 16 solo shows that introduce the visitors to each artist and their personal evolution. It is still unclear whether this will be the last attempt to open the public's eyes to painting as an art form, or whether its curator and organiser will go down in history as those who opened the cell doors and liberated artists who had been unfairly condemned to oblivion.

The Refuge, Photo: When, sometime in , Roberto Polo told me he wished to meet me, he wanted to tell me about a decision he had taken: Yet Roberto Polo's patronage is not confined to museums. To my mind, three qualities characterise a true Maecenas: Because he is a learned scholar, Roberto Polo, who is also an artist, has always had great interest in many cultural domains: Roberto Polo is also fundamentally curious: Whereas initially he mainly admired 18th century art, he went on to open others' eyes to 19th century art and to promote contemporary artists in whose work he possesses conviction.

Surely, his generosity must be congenital. Roberto Polo simply loves to help and sustain anything that seems valuable to him, and selects his causes with great discernment. He not only supports a number of institutions, whether important or modest, but also lends his support to temporary manifestations — exhibitions, concerts, publications — and to artists — musicians, painters — with whom he has a natural rapport and to whom he always lends a sympathetic ear. As an exemplary Maecenas, who has happily bestowed very diverse, spontaneous, and disinterested contributions throughout two continents, favouring various countries, periods and disciplines, Roberto Polo should rightly be proud of his achievements.

Numerous are his debtors, who will be sincerely happy to see him honoured with the Premio Capital Arte de Mecenazgo Internacional. The group exhibition presented this summer reveals work by several artists to whom the gallery intends to devote solo exhibitions in the near future. In all its diversity, this exhibition provides ample proof — to whomever might still doubt this — that the art of painting is, now more than ever, alive and kicking. Painting has lost none of its impact and is developing in a range of quite diverse and decidedly contemporary directions, allowing itself the freedom to become fiercely independent.

In this respect, abstraction and figuration join together in demonstrating considerable overall quality. Faithful visitors of the gallery will be happy to encounter a portrait and a series of paintings by Jan Vanriet, in which the strange attitude of the figures and the repetition of the subject unerringly attract attention to their painterly rendering. In the field of figurative painting, Bernard Gaube distinguishes himself with several portraits displaying a graphic and chromatic treatment that insists on the impossibility of capturing physical and psychological identity in just one painting, as each subject is multiple.

In the field of abstraction, Bernard Gilbert, whose work is exhibited at the gallery for the first time, shatters all limits between categories and genres by relentlessly exploring techniques, images and materials. Mil Ceulemans pursues his spatial progressions, moving between geometry, construction and lyricism, while Joris Ghekiere exploits the infinite potential of colours with great sensitivity. Werner Mannaers, on the other hand, is a seeker who stops at nothing and whose pictorial solutions catch viewers by surprise with their boundless inventiveness.

Until 17 July and from 17 August until 18 September. The presentation of his debut work Homo Sovieticus on 9 November coincided exactly with the fall of the Berlin Wall. The preview of his latest series Cuba, la lucha at Roberto Polo Gallery took place three days before the historic state visit to Cuba by Barack Obama — the first American president on Cuban soil since With a wink and cool irony, it seems.

Consciously highlighting unfeigned chauvinism and painful stereotypes can lead to interesting series of images. He offers his vision, keeping sufficient distance. He questions relations in reality. You can taste the illusion of the workers' paradise and the decay of a system on its last legs in almost every picture.

The inhumanity and sadness I met there was so enormous that I had to change my strategy in order not to revert to empathetic pictures of poverty, sickness and victims", De Keyzer says. Carl De Keyzer counters this remark with a positive suggestion: We know the visual effects from many previous series, such as Homo Sovieticus — in preparation for which the Magnum photographer is rumoured to have gone through more than fifty books. It led to more direct, less layered images. To my surprise, they had more success. In the s, all artists and intellectuals enthused over Communism and Marxism.

Back then, I was a confirmed supporter of Amada [far-left Maoist party in Belgium]. A case in point is the photograph in which, at first sight, we only see tents, a huge fortress and ads for Cristal and Bucanero beer. Nothing special, if it weren't for the fact that this is where the annual book festival takes place; Cubans will queue for miles to get their hands on one book.

But this place is anything but innocent: But the venom is also there invisibly: Che Guevara left a trail of executions here. With an imagery that is undeniably his own, he experiments with a new style, fitting the subject, time and again. For his previous project, Moments Before the Flood, he went looking for hyper-realistic images of Europe's coastline and the real fear for floods, in the tradition of marine painting, equipped with an million pixel camera mounted on a tripod. I armed myself with a million pixel Pentax. With such a high resolution I could also ensure enough detail in shadow areas.

Cuba is losing part of its soul because of tourism, but it can also look ahead positively because of the relaxation of the year-old American embargo of the Communist island. In spite of an uncertain future we leave the exhibition with some hope, in the light of the survival instinct 'la lucha' the struggle of the Cubans. Open Tue-Fri 2 p. Those who once were charismatic young leaders guiding the nation toward progressive changes have remained in power until today, despite a lengthy economic crisis.

According to reports from human rights organisations, thousands of opponents have been incarcerated since the start of the Castro regime and a large part of the Cuban population has gone into exile, either for political or for economic reasons. La lucha, the struggle, is the most common Cuban expression to denote its permanent state of being since the collapse of the economy in the nineties.

Coined by the people to define their struggle for survival, and common currency since the crisis, this term is still being used even today. Carl De Keyzer 's eponymous latest work on Cuba, which echoes this fighting spirit, presents his observation of the changes the island is undergoing in this day and age. Carl De Keyzer has published books on themes as widely varied as religion God, Inc. Basically, the central focus of his projects resides in his observation of systems invented to organise mankind.

Internal control mechanisms and their effects on society fascinate him. His work manages to avoid any obvious criticisms and to focus on the subtlety of humour, the surprises and vulnerability emerging from daily life. This is how he presents the effects of change, decoding its impact in countless poetical, intimate moments that defy scepticism. Unlike most photographers working as reporters, his photographs are not documentary, as his endeavour is not aiming for realism. At the start of his persistent exploration of the collapse of Socialism, the photographer focused on Armenia, Uzbekistan, Russia and Lithuania, finally covering all fifteen Soviet Republics, always determining his concept beforehand and planning ahead, as he is well aware that the opportunity to capture an instant is always fleeting.

His use of the flash and slow shutter speed to intensify the contrast and illuminate key elements of the image has become his aesthetic mark. As in neorealist Italian movies, reality reveals itself as simultaneously crude and poetic. Carl De Keyzer has now embarked on another photographic quest to witness what seems to be the end of Socialism. He went to Cuba in January , after President Obama's much publicised announcement of his intention to re-establish relations between Cuba and the United States.

In his historic speech, Obama proclaimed an end to the sanctions that have weighed heavily on the Cuban people, and, making a memorable political gesture, publicly acknowledged that the embargo benefited neither state, while at the same time also imposing one condition: In Cuba, la lucha, scenes of people afflicted by material shortages, framed by deteriorated houses, seem inevitable. In contrast with this iconography, some of Carl De Keyzer's shots look like melancholy displays of artificial happiness, for instance the scene, simultaneously kitschy and full of despair, of a wedding, calling to mind Martin Parr's nightmares in Technicolor depicting suburban Britain.

Less saturated and ever familiar, the effigies of Che Guevara adorning an obsolete bank branch, or inserted in the pages of an atlas of Cuba, yield a sarcastic comment on indoctrination. In general terms, looking at these images, we can feel like intruders in the private, social spaces Cubans are nonetheless prepared to share with us, the curious visitors from abroad.

This feeling derives as much from the ambivalence of a present shaken up by internal changes and the enormous, proverbial curiosity of the rest of the world about the particular nature of Cuba. In Cuba, la lucha, the questions remain unanswered, open like gaping wounds or burgeoning fresh flowers, given the fact that the central theme of this series is the change, which is, for that matter, not only painful but also unfathomable. This uncertainty is apparent from his oblique portraits of individuals, their bodies in contact with buildings in ruins, immersed in garish colour fields, engaging in their daily routines.

He returned with unique images of a country in transition from Communist to Capitalist systems. D This was close to my hotel. A glance at an old car, a portrait of Che, the logo of the SuperStar talent show on German television — and then this SuperMario walked into the frame. I just could not miss this. For Moments Before the Flood , he travelled along the coastline of the European continent, under threat of rising sea levels.

We are visiting Carl De Keyzer at his home, in the peace and quiet of the East-Flanders village, where he settled two years ago. The proofs of the new book have been approved, the prints for the exhibition in Roberto Polo Gallery are ready: After Moments Before the Flood, I was really fed up. I even considered giving up photography.

I had been travelling for eighteen months, and looking at the results of the exhibitions and the book, I considered these somewhat meagre in comparison with my efforts. I didn't want to do this kind of big project anymore. My age was certainly a factor: I'm no longer this stripling who went backpacking in India for six months. I just wanted to teach a bit, and for the rest start taking it easy.

And yet, suddenly there was this inner drive again. I still had a few projects lying around that I could carry out in the short term without being away from home for a year. Cuba was one of them. Cuba was actually a piece of cake. It is like my Congo project, in which I also show a lot of ruins and decay. With the end of the Soviet Union, Cuba had suddenly lost its major sponsor. Now everybody thinks it will just be a matter of time before the system collapses.

Every day a house literally collapses in Havana, because there are no materials to maintain the buildings. Yet, miraculously, they manage to keep the system going — also because Fidel refuses to die [laughs]. In the end, it took quite a while before I could leave for Cuba. I intended to stay for three months, even though as a tourist, you are normally only granted a one-month visa.

In December , there was Obama's speech in which he announced that he wanted to ease the trade restrictions. At that moment, I really thought I had left it too long. Finally, I was able to set off in January of last year, and it proved to be the perfect moment. Obama's speech had quite an impact: Such timing is crucial.

I can't predict the future, but I try to take it into account. I had just finished my book Homo Sovieticus, for instance, when the Berlin Wall came down. What did you shoot in Cuba? I didn't want to take those typical pictures with beautiful old-timers and derelict buildings. That has been done often enough. My first idea was to only take pictures inside — in principle, Cuba is more interesting inside than outside.

During the first week, I shot inside people's homes. Inside you see poverty, sadness, people who are just, like the Communist state, waiting for the end. But I just couldn't bear to keep that up. On principle, I do not photograph victims, sick people, corpses: I find that too easy. So after that, it became a kind of road trip through Cuba, with more symbolic images. The combination of a Communist regime with a Central-American country does provide thrilling images.

As you said, Cuba has been photographed quite often. How did you avoid the stereotypes? It's too easy just to shoot beautiful pictures. Aesthetics cannot be an aim in itself. I think beauty is important, but content — to use a big word — is just as important. The series Moments Before the Flood consists of nice images, but they do announce disaster.

This element is also present in Cuba, la lucha. They are not just nice photos of derelict houses or old factory buildings, the ones you can find in abundance on the internet. I tried to add something extra; that is my style: That is also why my images are meant to be viewed in large format; every detail has a role to play. But you also have to stop at a certain point, because an image that is too complex, doesn't work anymore. Does such an approach still work in this fleeting Instagram era? If I wanted to score on Instagram, I'd have shot beautiful girls or old taxis.

Instagram is not the right medium for my work. I've built up a certain oeuvre; I have my own way of looking, my own way of thinking. And today, there are more people than ever before who appreciate that, who are really interested in photography. When I look at the numbers of people that come to exhibitions, the numbers of people buying photo books — they just keep increasing. I will continue to make this kind of work. They are not ready-made, not fast food.

People are not going to buy this book because they had a wonderful holiday on Cuba. They might do that by mistake, but then they are in for a shock [laughs]. At first I only wanted to take pictures inside people's homes. But it was so pitiful that I couldn't keep it up. Recently, Cubans have been allowed to set up their own company.

Photoshoots on the occasion of a girl's fifteenth birthday, when she becomes an adult, are very popular. They really are like wedding photoshoots at home. What is the meaning of the title of the book? La lucha means 'struggle', and the word has multiple meanings in Cuba. There is a constant search for food, parts and materials. La lucha also refers to the struggle for Socialism, the struggle to keep believing in Socialist ideals, in spite of the embargo and the opposition abroad.

When I was 18, I had leftist leanings, like everyone of my age then. But my first travels to the Soviet Union quickly cured me of those: In Cuba, the system still controls the population; every neighbourhood has its 'revolutionary committee' keeping an eye on the inhabitants. But also that is slowly disintegrating; mostly the committee consists of a granny behind a desk. There is also a third, more ironic meaning: Could you tell us something about the technical aspects? The style is similar to the one in my earlier books, but this time I worked without a flash. Today's digital cameras don't require a flash anymore.

Flash lighting was characteristic of my style, but also a mere necessity. In India and the Soviet Union, I was often working in large halls with many people, and using ASA film rolls required the use of flash. For this book, I shot everything with a medium-format Pentax Z — with Pentax also sponsoring the project. The Z is a bit cumbersome, but the autofocus is fast enough for reporting purposes. I worked with sensitivities between and 12, ISO and even in large-format prints there is hardly any noise. I still prefer the medium format — I'm not a 35 mm photographer. I love the painting-like serenity of that format.

The theme of this issue of Shoot is children and adolescents. What is the impression you receive from your young students? They are more professional than we were. In our final year, we went to Normandy for a week, and we thought that was a big adventure. Now they're off to Japan or Alaska, or present projects on the drug trade in Colombia. Their scope is the world, they have much more information and they use it.

I consider it an honour to be able to teach and experience that. The speed with which they spot things, evolve, make links, is sometimes mind-blowing.

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Because of digitalization, photography has become much more accessible, much cheaper. It is also much faster. After a three-month trip I would spend another three months in the darkroom. Nowadays my students show me on Monday the two hundred photos they shot over the weekend.

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I do tell them: With a digital camera hardly anything can go wrong anymore. You end up with more technically usable images; the danger is that you're too easily satisfied. In a manner of speaking, I could come back from a trip and have a book and an exhibition ready within a week. But you do need time to let it all sink in. I don't show more photos than I used to. The downside of this accessibility is that there are many more photographers today, making it more difficult to earn a living.

But I find photography an extremely valuable study, even if you can't turn professional; it enriches everyone. After looking at OdysSea, the documentary that Jimmy Kets made about your work, a friend of mine said: The best thing in life is to be able to determine what you do with your own time, and I do have that luxury. I don't have to teach — I do it because I like it.

Two or three times a year, I take on a big commission. For the rest I choose my own subjects, and I decide myself how much time I want to spend on something. Even though my photography is not the most accessible, I can make a living without having to compromise. In that respect, I am one of the luckiest photographers of this country.

There is not much more I could wish for. I still prefer the medium format. Boxing is the most popular sport in Cuba. I remember this kind of funfair attractions from my trips to the Soviet Union. The operator has fallen asleep, so maybe this ride will just keep going round and round. Cuba is now on the itinerary of the giant cruise ships in the Caribbean. Every year there is a book fair where mainly Russian books and old novels such as Dickens' works are sold. There is a festive atmosphere, but everything is strictly regulated. This is another of those symbolic images. I had seen the American and Cuban flags.

The sun was just perfectly aligned with the Cuban one. Then the blind man walked by, with a dollar sign on his cap. I quickly rang the doorbell and asked if I could take a picture from the balcony — the presence of a half-naked woman sunbathing there was of no interest to me. I was just in time to press the shutter. Che, Fidel and the last iPhone There is no doubt that Cuba is at a turning point.

No better moment for Magnum photographer Carl De Keyzer to point his camera at the early signs of a regime change. De Keyzer shows the last paroxysms of a country where time has stood still, even though the system has serious cracks. Though the combative slogans and the portraits of Che Guevara and Fidel Castro are ubiquitous, they are also literally fading.

One of the most powerful images of the exhibition at Roberto Polo Gallery is the one of a blind man tapping his way across a chalk street painting, praising the reconciliation between Cuba and the U. One omen of this nearly inevitable revolution is the invasion of American tourists.

De Keyzer ruthlessly records this 'homo turisticus', basking by the pool, while merely a few feet away, on the other side of a high fence, dreary blocks of flats are languishing. Another tourist is enjoying the sunshine in a rocking chair on the patio of a colonial villa, with a display of postcards of a cigar-smoking Fidel and Che behind her — or how the propaganda machine of the regime and the capitalist tourist industry seem to go together surprisingly well. This friction, this paradigm change, is what De Keyzer is able to capture, often with a wry irony and not without humour. Vintage cars still trundle through Havana, even though one driver has put a tv-screen in his battered old-timer.

Also the iPhone has found its way in; a seller of charming paintings is languidly playing on his phone, with the same apathy we find in the capitalist West. The population seems to long for liberalization, but is mentally stuck in the system, as is clearly shown in a picture of an attendant in a rusty funfair, sleeping in her booth. One thing is clear: It is a study of the transition ongoing in Cuba from a communist regime to a capitalist system and its consequences for the population. De Keyzer captures key moments in contemporary history by photographing intimate moments, always through the through a prism always tinted with poetry, often with irony and transcendental humour.

His powerful, carnal images capture the dignity and charisma of Cubans struggling to survive. His photographs of buildings in ruins evoke the splendour of a past era. Brussels — The writing on the wall says that Havana, like Sleeping Beauty, will soon wake up after over half a century of economic stranglehold by the U. He has hung the premises of the Roberto Polo Gallery with around sixty large-format photos. His exhibition is called Cuba, la lucha, after the struggle for survival that the Cubans had to go through after the fall of the Berlin Wall.

In the middle of August last year, the U. Embassy in Havana opened its doors. In September, a first limited load of American tourists was allowed in. The distance between Miami Beach and the artificial Varadero — not open to most Cubans — is about the same as the distance between Brussels and Paris. A new era has begun. After the Cuba Libre, no coke was available for half a century. The mentirita — the 'lying drink' as the Cubans call it, will return tomorrow, as Coca-Cola conquers its one-but-last market in the world.

Together with iPhones, fashion brands, fridges, IKEA furniture and cars, "we will get two Chinese cars for every gas-guzzling American old-timer", is what they hope. It will push the still picture of Cuba towards 'big capital vs. Petrol station As for now, time has been undermining the carcass that is left of Havana. A lack of building materials and cash in most of the population means that the amazing pres residences, palaces, hotels and restaurants have never been restored.

The exhibition can be read as a final tribute to an era, captured in time in a motionless image. It is also a tribute to the resilience of a people, who, in the shadow of American brio, practically outpaced Europeans in the first half of the 20th century. The accelerated modernisation of the car pool in the fifties bears witness to that. De Keyzer cannot help but capture these scenes with wrecks of wonderful car models. The dashboard of a taxi, not revealing that the cabdriver is an educated man — architect, engineer — in daily life.

A petrol station that could have served as the background for James Dean or Saturday Night Fever, with an ad stating that the new Ford '58 is an automobile that compels admiration. And then the real communists, those who still visit the Che Guevara memorial and have a framed poster of the man above their beds.

Diffidence But there are also the young. An amalgam of well-educated people dreaming of America. Indeed, education is apparently free, as are medical and social care. However, young people do not get the training they desire; enrolment systems lead to courses that are quickly full up. Moreover, medical training does cost a lot of money, as uniforms and materials have to be bought by the students.

The photographer shows the disillusionment in a picture of a girl drawing her hopes from a laptop in the midst of a tangle of old printers that would be on the scrapheap in Europe. Or people who find solace in a wedding, their only chance to show some glamour and wealth to the outside world. It looks beautiful among the other images, those of faded grandeur. De Keyzer finds a lick of paint in Caribbean colours on the facade of crumbling houses reflected in clothing.

It is the only thing, apart from the seriously pollut ed natural environment, that puts some spirit into the island. Only one feeling dominates the entire around sixty-picture photographic circuit: Diffidence of the Cubans because of the restraints on their urge to better themselves; our diffidence because of our tacit consent of fifty years of stranglehold. Open Tue-Fri 2 - 6 p. Publication Cuba, la lucha, published by Lannoo, pp. When the article below was written, the working title of Bert Danckaert's series Horizon was i.

The pointless journey On Bert Danckaert's pictures Photography exists by the grace of light. Light is a conditio sine qua non for photographers, and the same condition applies for painters. Some of the latter consider the light in their part of the world so unsuitable that they consciously move to brighter surroundings, where they can capture more nuances of light on canvas.

Light makes their work glow, as if the canvas they paint on is backlit by a lightbulb. Surgical precision Like any other photographer, Bert Danckaert paints with light.

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For his photos, he prefers it "strong and without shadows, like an invisible presence, true and absolutely democratic. Indeed, that kind of light does not select what is or is not important. Anything and everything is equal in its eyes. No ambience, nothing happening in the shadowy margins. Light of equality and diffusion. He could use the light in his own back yard just as well. Then why does the photographer go to those faraway regions?

In order to shoot walls, facades and car parks that he might just as well capture in his home town. Danckaert has photographed, for instance, car parks of IKEA branches all over the world.