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His son, Milum, showed us many of these things and told us about them. Alex Stewart did indeed become a person for whom we developed a vast amount of respect and admiration as we watched and listened to him, and at the end of the day, when we were forced to say good-by and head back, we all agreed that we came away with much more than the directions for this chapter. The dimensions of the churn follow. Cut the cedar in the fall when the sap is down.

Stack it up to dry for about six months.

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Measure fifteen to twenty staves and saw them off to the same length. The length is decided by the size of the churn needed. Sixteen staves were used. This helps to keep the hoops from sliding down when they are added later. The diameter of the head which is the bottom of the churn determines what angle the stave edges must have to fit together correctly. Stewart made a gauge to use as an easy guide for angling his stave edges. The placement for the marks on the gauge are determined by measuring off the radius of each desired diameter using a compass from the hinged end of the gauge.

The hinged end is treated as the center of the proposed circle head , with the marks on the gauge representing a part of the circumference of that circle. The correct angle should be maintained as closely as possible for the full length of the stave. However, the angle does not have to be perfect. The wood, being pliable, seats itself.

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This closes most of the cracks which may result from slight errors in the angles of the other staves. After staves are tapered and sides angled, Alex prepares to fit them into two temporary hoops. Alex used a metal hoop for the top end and an old wooden hoop with a double knot fastening it at the bottom end.

Use a hammer to fit in the last stave. A tight fit is absolutely necessary. Pull out the bag and hammer the staves until they are even. Use a hammer to adjust the bands to higher or lower positions for a better fit. Using a round-shave, smooth or dress the inside of the churn.

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It is especially important to smooth the inside near the bottom end, where the head will be fitted. Use a rasp to smooth the outer edges of the top and bottom. The churn must sit straight and flat. Use cedar board s for the head the bottom of the churn. Use any size board and as many pieces of board as needed to make the proper size circle.

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Use a compass to mark the proper size. Use a shaving horse and drawing knife to smooth both pieces. Saw as close to the edge of the half-circle as possible. Begin to bevel the edges of the half-circles with a drawing knife. Take the bottom head hoop off.

Fit the two halves of the head into the groove made by the croze. Put another temporary hoop on that fits in the middle of the churn. Alex replaced the bottom wooden hoop with a metal middle hoop. Keep tightening the hoop with a chisel and hammer.

Traditional Baking: The Foxfire Americana Library

With the temporary bands still on, smooth outside of the churn with a wood rasp. To measure for a permanent bottom hoop, take a string and measure the very bottom of the churn. For the hoops, use green white oak.

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If the oak is dry, soak it overnight. Split the oak into strips using a froe and mallet.

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Measure the length with string, allowing six extra inches for the notch and lock. The top edge edge toward the small end of the churn should be made thicker than the bottom edge for a tighter fit. Use a pocketknife to smooth, if necessary. Begin to shape one hoop end with a pocketknife; the hoop end is shaved as it is shaped. Each hoop will eventually fit around the churn and the ends will fasten together. Inspired by Your Browsing History. A Life Less Throwaway.

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