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- North Korean-Style “Democracy” and the Prospects for True Democratisation | Crisis Group.
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Publisher's Summary Since the end of the Cold War, scholars and analysts have been predicting the collapse of the communist regime in North Korea. Yet, despite a deteriorating economy characterized by declining industrial output, outdated technology, and difficulty feeding its people, the country has been able to persist in spite of these daunting obstacles and continues to plod along. And if so, what role should various international actors play in such a scenario?
In human history, the concept of democracy was not always popular. North Korea is no exception.
The DPRK Constitution embraces and guarantees a number of democratic rights, privileges and principles. Article 1 stipulates that the DPRK represents the interests of all citizens. Citizens are guaranteed direct universal suffrage by secret ballot Articles 6, 89 and and their representatives are required to have close ties to their constituents or face no-confidence recalls Article 7.
Article 8 respects and protects human rights, and the rights of Koreans are extended when they are abroad Article 15 , while foreigners are guaranteed legitimate rights and interests while in the territory of the DPRK Article Furthermore, all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens are required to respect the laws that enshrine these rights Article The DPRK Constitution guarantees democratic rights and freedoms for all citizens Article 64 in all spheres of state and social life Article These rights and freedoms include universal suffrage and the right to be elected to public office for all who have reached the age of 17 Article 66 ; freedom of speech, of the press, assembly, demonstration, association Article 67 ; of religion Article 68 and the right to appeal and file petitions Article Article 74 grants the freedom to engage in scientific, literary and artistic activities, and Article 75 grants the freedom of residence and travel.
Women are granted equal rights and status with men Article Citizens have the right to privacy in their homes and in their personal correspondence, and they are protected from illegal searches Article For example, citizens have the right to rest Article 71 , the right to receive free medical care and support from the state if unable to care for themselves Article Citizens have the right to education Article 73 and maternity leave is guaranteed for the protection of mothers and children Article Unfortunately, the constitution also contradicts democratic principles in several ways.
The state is required by the constitution to carry out mass movements vigorously Article 14 , and carry out a cultural revolution to train all the people as builders of socialism Article State control and regulation of resources are primary instruments of social control and regime sustainability. First, the ruling elite can reward loyalists and punish traitors or disloyal citizens by supplying or withholding resources, including food, medical care and other necessities. Second, state control of resource allocation nominally eliminates the need for markets, which can have political effects as well as an economic function.
Markets can only function if they have buyers and sellers, and they are more efficient if the actors have autonomy and adequate information to make decisions. However, autonomous buyers and sellers with the capacity to transmit, receive and store information can use that capacity to take collective action.
Even if collective action initially is only directed at market activities, it can later be directed towards political aims. Peterson Institute for International Economics, The state recognized and tolerated some marketization from below that began during the famine of the s, but by was working to reverse the nascent marketization underway. The normal, everyday market activities we see in liberal democracies have been criminalized in North Korea.
Legal statues, prosecutors and courts are mechanisms to control society and perpetuate centralized control. Hide Footnote Detention, prosecution and imprisonment accompanied by extreme violence are common. Social deviants live under the threat of terror to themselves and their extended families. The deterrent effect apparently has been very effective.
The corruption in North Korea seems to be increasing as the economy remains stagnant. Rampant corruption, which is structurally created by the legal code and security apparatus, could eventually undermine the integrity of the security institutions that are supposed to protect and preserve the state. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Economy of North Korea
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Automotive industry in North Korea. Energy in North Korea. North Korean won and List of banks in North Korea.
Agriculture in North Korea. Mining in North Korea.
Economy of North Korea - Wikipedia
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Pyongyang, in return, could have not produced export merchandize enough to earn foreign reserve due to the low operation rates of its factories and lack of raw materials, thereby significantly reducing its foreign reserve acquisition. The lack of foreign exchange reserves again caused the shortage of oil import and then the oil shortage made its amount of agricultural product diminish sharply due to the inability to use its machinery and artificial fertilizers, most of which are highly dependent on oil and coal consumption in their production.
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Modernizing the North Korean system : objectives, method, and application
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