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Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen expects to keep her job thanks to her "tough" response to the caravan of Central American migrants headed toward the U. Michael Avenatti will not run for president in after all. Presidents using Air Force One for campaign purposes are supposed to pay for a portion of the operating cost from their political party or reelection campaign. Trump complained about the cost of an "uncontrollable" arms race with Russia and China , despite previously bragging about his increase in military spending. Mike Pompeo said the U. If Russia fails to meet the deadline, the U.

Trump declared himself a "Tariff Man" and threatened to hit China with more tariffs if a trade deal with Beijing falls apart. The Dow responded by falling nearly points. Cohen's lawyers argued that his cooperation with Robert Mueller warranted a sentence of "time-served.

In seeking leniency, Cohen's attorneys claim his false statement to Congress was based on Trump and his team's attempts to paint interactions with Russian representatives "as having effectively terminated before the Iowa caucuses of February 1, Trump tweeted that all of those charges were "unrelated to Trump. Cohen believed Trump would offer him a pardon if he stayed on message during conversations with federal prosecutors.

That was before Cohen implicated Trump under oath in the illegal hush-money scheme with Stormy Daniels, which could be used as part of Mueller's obstruction of justice probe in determining whether Trump tried to illegally influence a witness in the investigation. File under '18 U. Mark Warner added that while he doesn't know whether Cohen was instructed to lie to Congress, Cohen's plea contradicts Trump's multiple denials during the campaign that he did not have any business links to Russia.

Warner called it a "very relevant question that the American people need an answer to. The incoming chairman of the House Judiciary Committee: Cohen's cooperation is proof that Russia had "leverage" over Trump during the presidential campaign. The leading Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee: Cohen's cooperations confirms that "the president and his business are compromised. Adam Schiff, "there is now testimony, there is now a witness, who confirms that in the same way Michael Flynn was compromised, that the president and his business are compromised. James Comey agreed to testify to Congress about the FBI's investigations during the campaign as long as lawmakers release the full transcript of his testimony within 24 hours.

Comey and his attorney filed a legal challenge last week to the Republican-led effort to compel him to testify. His attorney argued that the legal action was "to prevent the Joint Committee from using the pretext of a closed interview to peddle a distorted, partisan political narrative about the Clinton and Russian investigations through selective leaks. In August , Prince Mohammed told associates that if he couldn't persuade Khashoggi to return to Saudi Arabia, then "we could possibly lure him outside Saudi Arabia and make arrangements," according to the CIA assessment.

Trump intends to formally notify Canada and Mexico of his intention to withdraw from the North American Free Trade Agreement in six months in order to force Congress to pass his new trade deal. Trump is using the threat of disrupting the entire North American economy to get the deal passed. Trump and President Xi Jinping, however, remain far apart on basic trade policy issues and neither show signs of backing down on their demands. All of the world leaders at the G20 Summit in Argentina — except for Trump — released a joint statement reaffirming their commitment to fighting climate change.

The House and Senate plan to vote this week to push the government shutdown deadline back two weeks and delay a fight over Trump's border wall until right before Christmas. Congress has until Friday to approve a funding extension before funding for the federal government runs out. Trump and Putin had an "informal" meeting at the G20 Summit. I have my own. We stayed in our own positions. In Cohen's version, he says the discussions with at least one Russian government official continued through June There was never a definitive end to it. It just died of deal fatigue. In Cohen's guilty plea , he said he briefed Trump's family members about the continued negotiations.

Cohen has been in the spotlight this week following new revelations about his outreach to Russian officials for help with a proposal for a Trump Tower in Moscow. The two panels could possibly hold public hearings this fall. In addition, Trump Jr. The three committees are competing for information and witnesses with little coordination between them and Mueller's investigation, leading to conflicts over how they can share information. Committee members still hope to interview Paul Manafort and Jared Kushner about the meeting they held at Trump Tower with the Russian lawyer claiming to have damaging information about Hillary Clinton.

Kushner and Manafort have already spoken to the Senate Intelligence Committee. He also said he couldn't "recall" if he discussed the Russia investigation with his father. Michael Cohen discussed the idea with Dmitry Peskov, who serves as Putin's press secretary, hoping that giving the penthouse to Putin would encourage other wealthy buyers to purchase their own. The plan fizzled when the project failed to materialize, and it is not clear whether Trump knew about the plan to give the penthouse to Putin. It is also unclear whether or not they worked with Michael Cohen on the deal.

Trump even has his own legal code name: Mueller is focusing on Stone's role as a potential go-between for the Trump campaign and WikiLeaks, which published thousands of DNC emails that were stolen by Russian intelligence officers. Mueller's team has evidence that Stone may have known in advance about the release of the emails, and investigators may also be looking into potential witness intimidation by Stone. Prosecutors will file a more detailed explanation of what they believe Manafort lied about to investigators on Dec.

Manafort will be sentenced in March after he pleaded guilty to two charges of conspiracy and witness tampering. Manafort is currently in jail in Alexandria, Virginia. The acting attorney general championed a patent firm in while fielding fraud complaints about it. Matthew Whitaker was an advisory board member of World Patent Marketing, which the FTC sanctioned in and described as an "invention promotion scheme" that was "bilking millions of dollars from consumers.

Ryan Zinke responded to criticism about his various ethical scandals by calling a Democratic lawmaker a drunk , accusing Rep. The number of children who were uninsured in the U. Six Trump administration officials violated the Hatch Act for tweeting support for Republicans or Trump on their government Twitter accounts , according to the Office of Special Counsel, which declined to take disciplinary action.

Roughly two million federal workers were warned that it may be illegal for them to discuss impeaching or resisting Trump , according to a memo distributed by the Office of Special Counsel. The Trump administration approved five requests from companies to conduct seismic tests off the Atlantic shore that could kill tens of thousands of dolphins, whales, and other marine animals. Seismic testing maps the ocean floor and estimates the location of oil and gas.

The agreement faces uncertain prospects in Congress next year, where Democrats will control the House. Cohen previously said talks regarding the Moscow project stalled in January , when in fact negotiations continued through June with Cohen traveling to Russia for meetings on the project. Cohen also told Congress that when the project allegedly stalled, he emailed Dmitry Peskov, a top aide to Putin, seeking help, but claimed he never received a response. That was also false. Cohen and Peskov discussed the project for 20 minutes by phone.

Prosecutors also said that Cohen continued to have contact in with Felix Sater, a Russian developer assisting with the project. Cohen briefed Trump on the status of the project more than three times. In July , Trump tweeted: It's Cohen's second guilty plea in four months. Trump's company was pursuing a plan to develop a Trump Tower in Moscow while he was running for president.

Discussions about the Moscow project began in September until it was abandoned just before the presidential primaries began in January , emails show. The details of the deal had not previously been disclosed. The Trump Organization has turned over the emails to the House Intelligence Committee, pointing to the likelihood of additional contacts between Russia and Trump associates during the campaign.

Trump's business associate promised that Putin would help Trump win the presidency if he built a Trump Tower in Moscow. Cohen said he never heard back from Peskov and the project never got off the ground. Peskov said that he had seen the email but that it was not given to Putin. Trump's personal lawyer met with the House Intelligence Committee today. Michael Cohen emailed Putin's spokesman, Dmitry Peskov, during the presidential campaign seeking help getting a Trump Tower built in Moscow. Peskov said he never responded to the email.

Cohen is the 33rd person Robert Mueller has charged. Rudy Giuliani attempted to explain why Trump would call Cohen a liar if they had the same understanding of the facts, saying: Given the fact that he's a liar, I can't tell you what he's lying about. He cited Moscow's seizure of Ukrainian assets and personnel for the cancellation. The call logs were turned over to Mueller and draw a direct line between Stone and Trump, which has rattled Trump's legal team and showed how closely the special counsel is scrutinizing their relationship.

The Department of Veterans Affairs told congressional staffers that it will not reimburse veterans who were paid less than they were owed as a result of delayed or deferred GI Bill payments. VA officials promised the opposite earlier this month. The VA said it can't make the payments it owes without auditing its previous education claims because that would delay future payments. The Senate Judiciary Committee cancelled a hearing on judicial nominees as Jeff Flake's demand for a bill to protect Mueller continues. Flake is holding firm to his vow to vote against judicial nominees on the floor and in committee unless Mitch McConnell schedules a vote on the bipartisan special counsel legislation.

More than 4 in 10 companies plan to raise prices to offset the higher cost of production due to Trump's trade war. About 1 in 10 companies said the tariffs would encourage them to move more jobs offshore. Federal agents raided the Chicago City Hall office of Trump's former tax lawyer. Trump added a caveat that his responses were to the best of his recollection. For comparison, Trump also does not "remember much" from the meeting with George Papadopoulos, where Papadopoulos offered to arrange a meeting with Putin.

Trump, however, has previously claimed to have "one of the great memories of all time," using it as justification for not using notes during his meeting with Kim Jong Un, and blaming Sgt. La David Johnson's widow when he stumbled over the solider's name during a condolence call. The briefings made tensions worse between Manafort and the special counsel after prosecutors learned about them.

While Manafort's attorney's discussions with Trump's lawyers didn't violate any laws, they did contribute to Manafort's deteriorating relationship with Mueller.

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The Republican-led Senate Judiciary Committee passed the bill on a bipartisan basis, , this spring, but McConnell has argued that it's not necessary, because he doesn't believe Trump wants to fire Mueller. The acting EPA chief credits Trump for a 2. Trump took office in January Wheeler also said he has not finished reading the report. The Trump administration waived FBI fingerprint checks for caregivers and mental health workers in charge of thousands of teens at a migrant detention camp.

None of the 2, staffers working at a tent city holding camp with more than 2, migrant teenagers have gone through the rigorous FBI fingerprint background check process. Instead, the camp has one for every kids. Trump blamed the Federal Reserve for the GM plant closures and layoffs, as well as the recent declines in the stock market. Trump said he is "not even a little bit happy" with Jerome "Jay" Powell, who Trump picked to head the central bank.

Not even a little bit. They're making a mistake because I have a gut, and my gut tells me more sometimes than anybody else's brain can ever tell me. The Senate advanced a bipartisan bid to pull U. The measure passed , signaling a rebuke to Trump and a reversal for the Senate, which rejected the same measure nine months ago. Pompeo repeated the Trump administration's claim that there was no "direct reporting" connecting Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman to Kahshoggi's murder. The Trump administration had been urging senators against withdrawing military support for the war in Yemen.

Trump threatened to cancel his upcoming summit with Vladimir Putin over Russia's recent maritime skirmish with Ukraine. Trump said he is waiting for a full report on the incident, during which Putin captured three Ukrainian ships and their crews in the Black Sea on Sunday, before making a final decision on whether he will cancel the planned summit in Argentina this week.

The report "will be very determinative," Trump said. Prosecutors claim Manafort's "crimes and lies" about "a variety of subject matters" relieve them of any promises made to Manafort as part of the plea agreement. Manafort cannot withdraw his guilty plea and without a deal, he now faces at least a decade in prison after pleading guilty in September to conspiring to defraud the U.

In August, a federal court jury in Alexandria, Va.

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Manafort met with the WikiLeaks founder around March — about the same time he joined Trump's presidential campaign. Several months later, WikiLeaks published the Democratic emails stolen by Russia. Manafort also met with Assange in and It's unclear why Manafort met with Assange or what they discussed. Manafort and WikiLeak both denied that Manafort had met with Assange.

Something about this story doesn't smell right. Jerome Corsi emailed Roger Stone two months before WikiLeaks released emails stolen from the Clinton campaign , saying "Word is Julian Assange plans 2 more dumps…Impact planned to be very damaging. Eight days later, Corsi emailed Stone saying that WikiLeaks had information that would be damaging to Clinton's campaign and planned to release it in October. Corsi claimed he received "limited immunity" from Mueller in order to talk about a "cover story" he crafted for Stone to help explain Stone's Aug. Corsi rejected a deal offered by Mueller to plead guilty to one count of perjury , saying: I'm not going to agree that I lied.

I will not lie to save my life. I'd rather sit in prison and rot for as long as these thugs want me to. Mueller's team has been investigating a meeting between Manafort and Ecuadorian President Lenin Moreno in Quito in They're specifically asking if WikiLeaks or Julian Assange were discussed in the meeting.

A federal judge appeared reluctant to unseal a criminal complaint against Assange due to the government's "compelling interest" in keeping the records under wraps until he is arrested. Trump also accused the special counsel team of forcing witnesses to lie. Sarah Huckabee Sanders, meanwhile, said she was not aware of any discussions about a potential presidential pardon for Manafort.

Jeff Flake has said he will oppose all of Trump's judicial nominees until there is a vote on a bill to codify some protections for special counsel investigations. Senate Majority Whip John Cornyn said Republicans are willing to hold a vote "if that's what it's going to take" to get more of Trump's nominations through the Judiciary Committee. Trump threatened to cut subsidies for GM after the company said it was planning to cut up to 14, jobs and end production at several North American factories. Fox News coordinated its interview questions before on-air interviews with Scott Pruitt.

In one instance, the EPA approved part of the show's script. The chairman of the House Judiciary Committee said "it's awfully tough" for Ivanka Trump to comply with government email rules. Bob Goodlatte suggested that Ivanka's use of a personal email account to conduct government business was "very different" from the private email server Hillary Clinton used during her time as secretary of State. House Republicans are meeting with Trump today in an attempt to avoid a government shutdown on Dec. Republican leaders promised Trump that they would fight to secure more funding for his border wall after the midterms.

Trump hasn't ruled the idea out, but it's not clear whether Democrats will concede. House Republicans released a page tax plan they hope to pass during the lame-duck session. The bill would impact Americans' retirement savings, multiple business tax breaks, and would redesign the IRS.

The House Republicans could vote on the proposal as early as this week. The incoming Mexican government, however, denied that it reached an agreement with the Trump administration, known as Remain in Mexico, and insisted that talks of a deal were premature. The fumes were carried by the breeze toward unarmed families hundreds of feet away.

Mexico's Interior Ministry said around migrants were involved in the march for faster processing of asylum claims for Central American migrants, but it was a smaller group of migrants who broke away and tried the train crossing. The border was shut down in both directions for several hours. The suit alleges that Trump, along with Ivanka and Trump Jr. Trump's personal and business interests, and violations of basic legal obligations for nonprofit foundations.

He claimed the suit was an act of political bias. Jared Kushner directed the Department of Defense and State to inflate the value of the arms deal between the U. Trump launched drone strikes during his first two years in office on Yemen, Pakistan, and Somalia. Once in office, Trump relaxed the burden of proof requirements for targets put in place by the Obama administration, which counterterrorism experts say explains the increase in strikes.

The Trump administration asked the Supreme Court to take up three cases challenging Trump's decision to ban transgender people from serving in the military. The move is an attempt to bypass federal appeals courts and bring the case directly to the high court for a decision. District courts across the country have so far prevented the policy from going into effect, and the D. Circuit is scheduled to hear arguments in early December. Jerome Corsi rejected a deal from Robert Mueller to plead guilty to one count of perjury. He claimed he was forgetful when investigators asked him whether he knew beforehand that WikiLeaks was going to publish emails stolen from Democratic computers during the campaign.

He said he did not want to plead guilty to intentionally lying. George Papadopoulos was ordered to start his day prison sentence today for lying to federal investigators in the Russia probe , Papdopoulos has asked to delay the start of his sentence while a constitutional challenge to the special counsel's investigation of Russian election interference remains unresolved.

The head of Russian military intelligence died "after a long and serious illness. The Office of Special Counsel is looking into whether acting Attorney General Matthew Whitaker violated the Hatch Act , which prohibits federal employees from accepting political contributions. According to the Office of Special Counsel guidance, "penalties for Hatch Act violations range from reprimand or suspension to removal and debarment from federal employment and may include a civil fine.

Shine was accused in multiple lawsuits of enabling and helping to cover up alleged sexual harassment by Fox News executives. John Kelly's "Cabinet order" expanded the authority of troops at the border to include "a show or use of force including lethal force, where necessary , crowd control, temporary detention, and cursory search" in order to protect border agents. The order could conflict with the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits the military from acting as law enforcement on U.

Trump also blamed Monday's ruling against his administration on an "Obama judge," who wrote that Trump's "rule barring asylum for immigrants who enter the country" outside a port of entry "irreconcilably conflicts" with federal immigration laws and "the expressed intent of Congress. Bob Corker and Democrat Bob Menendez specifically asked whether the administration believed that bin Salman was involved in the murder. Under the Magnitsky Act, Trump can be required to determine whether a global leader was responsible for human rights violations.

A federal judge blocked a Mississippi state law that banned most abortions after 15 weeks , ruling that it "unequivocally" violated women's constitutional rights. Judge Carlton Reeves wrote that "the fact that men, myself included, are determining how women may choose to manage their reproductive health is a sad irony not lost on the court. A federal judge in Detroit declared that a law banning female genital mutilation is unconstitutional. He dismissed charges against two doctors and six others accused of subjecting at girls to the cutting procedure, writing that "as despicable as this practice may be," Congress did not have the authority to pass the law that criminalizes female genital mutilation, and that it's a matter for the states to regulate.

Both parties have reached an impasse as a partial government shut down looms two weeks away. As the trade dispute with China continues, farmers across the country are either letting their crops rot or plowing them under instead of harvesting as they wait and hope for better prices next year. Robert Mueller still wants to question Trump about his actions in the White House , in addition to the written answers Trump submitted in response to questions about Russian interference in the election.

Rudy Giuliani signaled that the Trump team would fight any questions they believe violate executive privilege — especially if they relate to potential obstruction of justice. Mueller asked a federal judge to order George Papadopoulos to start serving time in prison on Monday as scheduled. Papadopoulos asked to delay his two-week prison sentence while a constitutional challenge to the special counsel's appointment in a separate case in Washington is resolved. Mueller's team responded that Papadopoulos waived his rights to appeal when he pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI. A few stories worth your attention that were drowned out by the daily shock and awe.

But that's not all — these topics also make for great turkey talk. You can thank me later. Trump has repeatedly claimed that "I built what I built myself. Trump also helped his parents undervalue their real estate holdings by hundreds of millions of dollars when filing their tax returns. Trump has refused to release his income tax returns, breaking with decades of practice by past presidents. There is no time limit on civil fines for tax fraud. This is a must read. An abstract summary does not suffice. Trump won't take action against Saudi Arabia or Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman for the death of Jamal Khashoggi , issuing an exclamation-point laden statement that defended the Kingdom and effectively closed the door on the issue.

The Trump administration plans to redefine the legal definition of gender as strictly biological , unchangeable, and determined by the genitals that a person is born with. The effort by the Department of Health and Human Services would establish a legal definition of sex under Title IX, effectively narrowing the definition of gender and deny federal recognition and civil rights protections to transgender Americans. Ivanka Trump repeatedly used a private email account to conduct government business in A White House review found her personal email use included exchanges with cabinet secretaries and forwards of her schedule to her assistant, with hundreds of messages being in violation of federal records rules.

Ivanka claimed she didn't know the rules about using a personal email account for government business. For the latest, check the Current Status — a news tool I built so you always know what the fuck just happened today in politics. Have a safe and happy holiday. I'll see you Monday. Mueller has not ruled out trying to compel Trump to sit for an interview after reviewing the written answers. The White House counsel at the time, Don McGahn, pushed back, saying Trump had no authority to order a prosecution, and that while he could request an investigation, that could prompt accusations of abuse of power.

Matthew Whitaker worked for a charity called the Foundation for Accountability and Civic Trust for three years, starting in Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer requested that the Justice Department inspector general investigate communications between Whitaker and the White House beginning in , when Whitaker was appointed chief of staff to then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions. The group has be designated as an "extremist group with ties to white nationalism," according to documents produced by Washington state law enforcement. The document also warns that the Proud Boys are "actively recruiting in the Pacific north-west" and that they have "contributed to the recent escalation of violence at political rallies held on college campuses, and in cities like Charlottesville, Virginia, Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington.

The evidence included an intercept showing a member of the person team calling an aide to Prince Mohammed and saying "tell your boss" that the mission was accomplished. Trump called Saudi Arabia a "truly spectacular ally," telling senior White House officials that he wants Prince Mohammed to remain in power as a check on Iran. Trump also claimed that the CIA "haven't assessed anything yet," but "as of this moment we were told that [Prince Mohammed] did not play a role. Trump won't listen to what he called the "suffering tape" of Khashoggi's murder inside the Saudi Consulate in Istanbul.

Trump also maintained that the crown prince told him "maybe five different times" and "as recently as a few days ago" that he had nothing to do with the killing. The White House official responsible for U. Kirsten Fontenrose had pushed for tough sanctions against the Saudi government in the response to the killing of Khashoggi.

The two have had multiple conversations about the probe over the last year. Trump said he would "not get involved" if Whitaker moved to restrict it. They're asking a federal judge to remove him because the appointment violates the Constitution since Whitaker has not been confirmed by the Senate. Adam Schiff added that not only is Whitaker's appointment "flawed," but "that he was chosen for the purpose of interfering with the Mueller investigation.

He auditioned for the part by going on TV and saying he could hobble the investigation. The White House did not comment on whether Trump misspelled Schiff's name intentionally. Melania Trump's office, who has spearheaded anti-cyberbullying efforts through her "Be Best" initiative, also did not comment. On Friday, Judge Timothy J. Kelly ruled that Acosta's right to due process had been violated when the White House suspended his pass. After the ruling, the White House sent Acosta a formal letter outlining a "preliminary decision" to again suspend his pass once the temporary order expires, citing a "fail[ure] to abide" by "basic, widely understood practices" when asking follow-up questions and not giving up the microphone right away.

CNN and Acosta asked a federal judge for an emergency hearing to allow the judge to enter a more permanent preliminary injunction. The White House instead told CNN they would restore Acosta's press credentials as long as he follows new rules at presidential news conferences, which include asking just one question at a time and "physically surrendering the microphone. Bill McRaven called Trump's attack on the news media "the greatest threat to democracy in my lifetime. The 5, troops Trump sent to the Southwest border will start coming home just as some members of the refugee caravan arrive at the border.

All the troops should be home by Christmas. Trump claimed Finland's president told him they rarely have forest fires because they "spend a lot of time raking. During his visit to California, Trump declined to blame the deadliest and most devastating wildfire in the state's history on climate change, instead declaring: I want great climate.

Trump spent more than five hours in meeting over three days this week with his attorneys working out written answers for Mueller about alleged collusion between his campaign and Russia during the presidential election. Despite telling reporters that "the questions were very routinely answered by me," Trump's temper boiled during all three meetings. Seemingly out of nowhere, Trump targeted Mueller on Twitter yesterday, calling the special counsel team "thugs" and the investigation a "witch hunt. Senate Republicans are urging Trump to quickly nominate a permanent attorney general to end bipartisan concern over the future of the special counsel.

The challenge, apparently, is persuading Trump to trust the traditional choices he doesn't have a personal relationship with, like former attorney general Bill Barr or former deputy attorney general Mark Filip. Acting Attorney General Matthew Whitaker assured Lindsey Graham that he won't end Mueller's investigation , despite previously publicly disparaging the special counsel. Dick Cheney's former top national security aide has come under scrutiny from Mueller. The special counsel has been looking into the communications and political dealings of John Hannah, the former Cheney adviser who later worked on Trump's State Department transition team, including his interactions with Lebanese-American businessman and fixer George Nader, who brokered meetings between foreign dignitaries and the Trump campaign, as well as Joel Zamel, social media "guru" with deep ties to Israeli intelligence.

George Papadopoulos asked a federal judge to keep him out of prison until a constitutional challenge to Mueller's investigation is resolved. The former Trump campaign adviser pleaded guilty to lying to the FBI and is scheduled to serve a day sentence starting on Nov. The disclosure came in an unrelated court filing where prosecutors inadvertently pasted text from a similar court filing into the wrong document.

The filing abruptly switched on the second page to discussing someone named "Assange," who had been charged under seal that was the subject of significant publicity, lived abroad, and would need to be extradited. It's unclear what Assange, who's been living in the Ecuadorean Embassy in London since , has been charged with, but the charges likely center around the publication of emails from Democrats during the presidential campaign, and may involve the Espionage Act, which criminalizes the disclosure of national defense-related information.

The White House said it would follow the court order and "temporarily reinstate the reporter's hard pass," as well as "develop rules and processes to ensure fair and orderly press conferences in the future. Kelly of Federal District Court in Washington, ruled that the Trump administration had most likely violated Acosta's due process rights, but declined to weigh in on the First Amendment issues cited by CNN. If journalists don't "behave," Trump said, "we'll end up back in court and we'll win.

Florida election officials ordered a hand recount of ballots in the U. A machine count showed the two candidates divided by a margin of less than 0. Lindsey Graham is in line to replace him as chairman of the Judiciary. Besty DeVos has received around-the-clock security from U. Jeff Sessions first approved the protection on Feb. No other cabinet member receives an armed detail. The Pentagon failed its first-ever comprehensive audit. The audit found U. Defense Department accounting discrepancies that could take years to resolve.

Some 1, auditors examined financial accounting on a wide range of spending, including on weapons systems, military personnel, and property. North Korea announced a "successful" and "highly significant" test of an "ultramodern tactical weapon. A Mississippi Senator said she thinks it's a "great idea" to make it harder for "liberal folks" to vote. Last week, Cindy Hyde-Smith "joked" that if she was invited "to a public hanging, I'd be on the front row.

The Supreme Court will hear arguments over whether Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross can be compelled to testify in a case regarding the addition of a citizenship question to the census. The addition of the question has been challenged in six lawsuits around the country. Another Trump adviser is writing a tell-all book about his time in the White House. The book by Cliff Sims, who joined the West Wing staff on Day One as a special assistant to the president, is set to be published in January. Trump offered to nominate Mira Ricardel as ambassador to Estonia after Melania forced the deputy national security adviser out of the White House.

Ricardel turned down the posting, but has since been offered nearly a dozen jobs from which to choose. Wheeler previously represented coal and energy-industry interests as a lobbyist. Trump honored a campaign donor with the Presidential Medal of Freedom — the nation's highest civilian commendation. Trump has been asking aides and advisers whether they think Pence is loyal. While Trump hasn't suggested dropping Pence from the ticket, outside Trump advisers have suggested that Pence may have used up his usefulness. Others believe that asking about Pence's loyalty is a proxy for asking about whether Nick Ayers is trustworthy, who Trump has considered replacing John Kelly with.

The renewed attack on the special counsel comes one day after Mitch McConnell blocked an effort to protect Mueller's work. Mueller's team is investigating witness tampering by Roger Stone. Mueller is exploring whether Stone tried to intimidate and discredit a witness who contradicted his story about his contacts with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange during the presidential campaign.

In a two-paragraph legal filing, Mueller said former Trump campaign aide Rick Gates is cooperating with prosecutors on "several ongoing investigations," and it's not appropriate to start his sentencing process. Text messages show Stone discussed WikiLeaks with a friend six days before it began releasing the Clinton campaign's hacked emails.

The text messages appear to show Randy Credico providing regular updates to Stone on WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's plans to release the hacked emails. In the exchange, Credico tells Stone on Oct. The special counsel has accused Concord Management and Consulting of funding a propaganda operation to sway the presidential election in Trump's favor. Concord was charged with conspiring to defraud the U. Concord is controlled by Russian businessman Evgeny Prigozhin, a Russian oligarch with close ties to Putin. Another six suspects have been indicted.

Saudi officials denied that King Salman or his son Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman had any knowledge of the operation. Turkish cleric Fethullah Gulen has lived in self-imposed exile in the U. Erdogan accused Gulen of being behind a failed coup against his government in More than 4, ballots across 45 counties in Florida were not counted because of inconsistent signatures. In 22 other counties, the number is unknown. In the Senate race, Gov. Rick Scott R leads Sen. Bill Nelson D by fewer than 13, votes.

In the gubernatorial race, Rep. Judge Mark Walker of the U.


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District Court in Tallahassee called Florida "the laughingstock of the world election after election and we chose not to fix this. Races that remain within one quarter of one percentage point after the deadline will proceed to a manual recount, and will have until Sunday at noon to review ballots. Counting machines overheated and stopped working at least twice this week. Florida will now manually recount the results in the U. Senate race, where about 12, votes separated Democratic incumbent Bill Nelson from Republican Rick Scott, the state's governor.

Trump will meet with Kim Jong Un for a second summit. The condition of the meeting does not include a requirement that North Korea provide a complete list of its nuclear weapons and missile sites. Stormy Daniels attorney Michael Avenatti was arrested for felony domestic violence. Officers in West Los Angeles took an incident report involving an allegation of domestic violence from an unidentified victim.

Avenatti denied ever being "physically abusive," and called the felony allegation against him "completely bogus. A federal judge will rule on restoring Jim Acosta's press pass on Friday , postponing a decision on granting CNN's request for a temporary restraining order and preliminary injunction. Trump nominated a handbag designer to be the next ambassador to South Africa. Lana Marks is a member of Trump's Mar-a-Lago resort.

Marks has no prior diplomatic experience. A year-old Muslim girl found notes in her elementary school cubby that said "You're a terrorist" and "I will kill you. The lawsuit alleges that the ban violates CNN and Acosta's First and Fifth Amendment rights and they're asking for a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction that would restore his access right away. Almost every major news organizations has sided with CNN. First Amendment lawyers say courts have a history of defending access for journalists , and the White House's shifting justifications for revoking Acosta's press pass won't help it in the coming legal fight.

The memo's disclosure comes a day after Maryland asked a Federal District Court judge to issue an injunction and declare that Rod Rosenstein the acting attorney general. The incoming ranking members of several House committees opened an investigation into Whitaker's involvement in World Patent Marketing , which was charged last year by the Federal Trade Commission with promoting an "invention-promotion scam.

Whitaker walked away from a taxpayer-subsidized apartment-rehabilitation project in Iowa after years of cost overruns, delays and other problems. Whitaker praised Trump in his first public speech as acting attorney general , telling an audience that "under President Trump their k s are doing pretty good right now. Lindsay Graham said he supports a bill to protect Robert Mueller's investigation from any politically motivated firings. Graham also said that he would urge Mitch McConnell to allow a vote on the bill. But it probably would be good to have this legislation in place just for the future.

Flake said he will not vote to confirm nominees on the Senate floor or advance them in the Senate Judiciary Committee after Chris Coons unsuccessfully attempted to force a Senate vote on the special counsel legislation. Mitch McConnell objected to the request for a vote from Flake. Stone and Trump spoke weekly, which is now being scrutinized by Robert Mueller.

Stone repeatedly said during the campaign that he had communicated with WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange through a "backchannel," "intermediary" or "mutual acquaintance. Trump endorsed a bipartisan House bill that would reform the federal prison system and ease some mandatory minimum sentences. Elijah Cummings says one of his first priorities when Congress returns will be to investigate why the Trump administration decided to add a question about citizenship to the census. Last month, Cummings asked for an official probe into why the Commerce Department added the question to the census, which critics say could serve to depress responses to the census from immigrants, many of whom live in Democratic-leaning communities.

Lawyers suing Trump over his decision to end special protections shielding certain immigrants from deportation are seeking unaired footage from "The Apprentice" to allege the move was racially motivated. Trump questioned May's approach to Brexit, and complained that U. Betsy DeVos plans to overhaul how colleges and universities handle allegations of sexual assault and harassment. The new rules, set for release before Thanksgiving, will bolster the rights of the accused, including the ability to cross-examine their accusers. The rules will also reduce liability for universities, tighten the definition of sexual harassment, and allow schools to use a higher standard in evaluating claims of sexual harassment and assault.

Rick Scott will recuse himself from certifying his own election. Scott led Bill Nelson by fewer than 13, votes in unofficial results before the recount started. Without evidence, Trump accused people, who "have absolutely no right to vote," of changing their clothes and returning to cast additional ballots in disguise. Then, Trump suggested that "if you buy a box of cereal — you have a voter ID. Trump suspended Acosta's press pass last week after a confrontation during a press conference.

Sanders responded by saying that CNN is "grandstanding" by suing. She added that the administration will "vigorously defend" itself. Trump installed Whitaker as acting attorney general last week after ordering Sessions to resign from the post. Kelly has had repeated disputes with Melania Trump over staffing issues and travel requests, and clashed with national security adviser John Bolton and his deputy, Mira Ricardel, deputy national security adviser.

Nick Ayers, currently Mike Pence's chief of staff, is among those being considered for the job. Trump has told advisers that he wants to replace Nielsen, who is a close ally of Kelly. Forcing Nielsen out could result in Kelly quitting. Ricardel is also expected to be fired. Melania Trump called for Ricardel to be fired.

Ricardel reportedly clashed with members of Melania's staff over seating on a plane during her recent trip to Africa. Thomas Homan once recommended charging so-called sanctuary city politicians "with crimes" and defended separating children from their parents at the border. Jerome Corsi is one of more than a dozen people associated with Roger Stone who have been questioned by Mueller's investigators.

Corsi said he doesn't know what he'll be charged with other than the special counsel indicating that he will be charged in the coming days. Corsi has been cooperating with the Mueller investigation since receiving a subpoena in late August. A federal judge delayed certification of Georgia's election results, ordering the state to first review all provisional ballots. Unofficial returns show that Brian Kemp, the Republican nominee in the governor's race, holds a lead of about 58, votes.

He can afford to lose only 21, votes before facing a runoff election against the Democratic candidate, Stacey Abrams. About 21, provisional ballots were cast in Georgia. Kyrsten Sinema defeated her Republican opponent in the race for a Senate seat in Arizona , giving Democrats their first elected senator in Arizona in 30 years. Sinema, a Democrat, will replace Republican Sen. Jeff Flake and become the first woman to represent Arizona in the Senate. Betsy DeVos was sued for failing to cancel student debt owed to for-profit colleges that have been shut down. The lawsuit comes a month after a federal judge ruled that the regulation should immediately go into effect.

The judge called the delays "arbitrary and capricious. Trump mocked the French for needing the U. The tweet comes after Trump joined world leaders commemorating the th anniversary of the end of World War I where French President Emmanuel Macron publicly criticized Trump's idea of "nationalism. Trump blamed the Secret Service for his canceled visit to a World War I cemetery in France , claiming that he suggested driving after it was deemed unsafe to take a helicopter. Secret Service said NO. Without evidence, Trump claimed that "many ballots are missing or forged," and that "an honest vote count is no longer possible — ballots massively infected.

Must go with Election Night! Florida's 67 counties are required to complete their recounts by Thursday. The Florida Election should be called in favor of Rick Scott and Ron DeSantis in that large numbers of new ballots showed up out of nowhere, and many ballots are missing or forged. An honest vote count is no longer possible-ballots massively infected.

The election overseer for Palm Beach County in Florida says there is no way the machine recount will be finished by Thursday's deadline. Both parties seem to agree that completing the recount in time to meet the deadline is not going to happen. Stacey Abrams filed a new lawsuit in federal court asking a judge to delay Georgia's vote certifications by one day to give officials time to count any votes that were wrongly rejected.

If the suit is successful, officials would have until Wednesday to restore at least 1, votes that weren't counted. Neither campaign can agree on how many votes remain to be counted. Florida's Senate race is one of three statewide contests headed to an automatic recount after the unofficial deadline for counties to report results passed.

Gillum withdrew his concession to Republican former Rep. Ron DeSantis in the Florida governor's race. Nelson called on Scott to recuse himself from "any role" in the recount that will determine the winner of their race. Scott has filed at least five lawsuits against county election officials alleging that some ballots were counted after the Saturday noon deadline and requesting that voting tabulation equipment be impounded after the machine recount is completed. An ethics complaint asserts that Scott broke state law when he held a press conference in front of the governor's mansion on Nov.

A group of Florida voters and organizations have also filed a lawsuit that alleges Scott has abused his power as governor for threatening to not count legal votes. Saudi officials have claimed that Khashoggi's death was a rogue killing ordered by an official who has since been fired. Turkish officials say Mohammad al-Otaibi, Saudi Arabia's consul general in Istanbul at the time, as an accessory to the killing of Khashoggi has been established through his early denials and refusal to give investigators access to the consulate after Khashoggi's disappearance.

Otaibi was not among the Saudis arrested or fired. The existence of the ballistic missile bases contradicts Trump's assertion that North Korea was "no longer a nuclear threat" following his June summit with dictator Kim Jong Un. Cohen's meeting with Mueller's team is the latest in a series of sitdowns since pleading guilty in August to federal criminal charges, including campaign contribution violations related to payments to two women at Trump's behest.

Cohen has participated in multiple interview sessions totaling more than 40 hours with investigators from Mueller's office and federal prosecutors in New York City. Trump doesn't want to give any more federal relief funding to Puerto Rico , because he thinks the island's government is using the relief money to pay off its debt. He also threatened to cut off federal funding due to "gross mismanagement. Democrats in the House have at least 85 different topics for potential subpoena and investigation , including Trump's taxes, his role in payments to two women who alleged that they had affairs with him, his family business, and his targeting of the press.

One senior Democratic source said the Democrats are preparing a "subpoena cannon. Jerry Nadler added that if Trump is found to have violated campaign finance laws with hush payments, it "might very well be an impeachable offense. Trump blamed the stock market downturn on the prospect of "Presidential Harassment by the Dems.

Of the 24 Republican tax-cut authors, four lost their seats in the midterms, three retired, three ran for another office, and two left mid-term. David Pecker, chief executive of American Media Inc. As a presidential candidate, Trump "directed deals in phone calls and meetings" related to the two women with Michael Cohen, who pleaded guilty in August to campaign-finance violations. Cohen also admitted that he arranged payments to Daniels and McDougal at the direction of "a candidate for federal office" with the intention of influencing the outcome of the presidential election.

Trump defended Whitaker, calling him a "highly respected man," but also said "I don't know Matt Whitaker. Whitaker previously served on the advisory board of a company that "bilked thousands of consumers out of millions of dollars. The FBI is conducting a criminal investigation and Whitaker has "unquestionably recused from any investigation or prosecution of World Patent Marketing. Trump called George Conway "Mr. Kellyanne Conway" after he wrote an op-ed arguing that Trump's appointment of Whitaker is unconstitutional because he wasn't confirmed by the Senate.

George is the husband of White House counselor Kellyanne Conway. The judges will likely ask for supplemental briefing to address the legal issues tied to the handover from Rod Rosenstein to Whitaker. The proclamation is aimed primarily at several thousand migrants traveling north through Mexico in caravans.

The new rules will change longstanding asylum laws that allow people who are fleeing persecution and violence in their home countries to seek protection in the U. Consent decrees allow federal law enforcement officials to use court-enforced agreements to overhaul local police departments accused of civil rights abuses and violations. Sessions added three new requirements for the agreements: What a stupid question […] you ask a lot of stupid questions. Ruth Bader Ginsburg is "up and working" after being released from the hospital.

Trump is telling people he wants to replace Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross by the end of the year. Trump is considering former wrestling executive Linda McMahon, as well as Ray Washburne, who he appointed as head of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation as possible replacements. Trump said he has no plans to fire Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke. Earlier this week, Trump said he would be "looking at different people for different positions" after the midterms, mentioning Zinke in particular. Zinke is exploring potential roles at Fox News , the energy industry, and other business sectors as it becomes increasingly likely that he will leave his role as Secretary of the Interior as ethics investigations into his behavior in office continue to mount.

The last burial in the Horton Hospitals' cemetery was in Unlike farms , the use of hospital cemeteries appears to have been a matter for local rather than national policy. Goffman in St Elizabeths. Breaking through the taboo of silence On the wireless, the Archers had featured a mental hospital in The Hurt Mind , in January was the first television programme to do with a mental hospital.

Christopher Mayhew persuaded the BBC to record this film. The camera's were not allowed to film patients' faces , only their hands or feet. Christopher Mayhew was the only one who was allowed to be filmed in person. The BBC monitored the effects of the series, with a survey of viewer's attitudes before and after. This was published in May Audience Research Report, B. In books, a mental patient could look you straight in the eye. Go forward to the Act Who first talked about Community Care? Peter Whitehead's photograph , taken from a newspaper, was the frontispiece.


This is my much battered copy. Bought second hand from Allan Saville's bookshop in Billericay - It was read and marked by fellow patients at Ingrebourne in and later. Goffman on USA admissions. The Mental Health Act. The eighteen month period was modelled on the International Geophysical Year of See asylums index - Bristol index - The exhibition introduction is signed "R.

Hemphill", who was the Medical Superintendent of the new Barrow Hospital. The third part was John Gale's personal account. As it became acceptable for professional writers who had been mental patients to describe the experience in print, so some people's minds turned to the possibilities of listening to patients in mental hospitals.

A scandal follows disclosure publicity. If matters are successfully kept quite, there is no scandal. See formation of Groupe d'information sur les prisons and Groupe d'information sur le Asiles in France and magazine De Gekkenkrant in the Netherlands. Bring back the Lunacy Commissioners. See also Believe What You Like. See form with law excluding children from school. Bryn-y-Neuadd was the last National Health Service Hospital for people with a mental handicap to open. She commented that "last week a patient was filmed who was frankly demented".

This statement is credited to Keith Joseph by Kathleen Jones. It is not in Hansard for 7. It may have been taken from a newspaper report. It had used confidential questionnaires distributed to patients by participating hospitals. Nevertheless, questionnaires were designed and patients in nine mental hospitals were polled, leading to the publication of Psychiatric hospitals viewed by their patients in Eleven more hospitals sent in survey results which were incorporated into the second edition in National Schizophrenia Society founded by amongst others relatives of people with schizophrenia.

It became the National Schizophrenia Fellowship in January National Schizophrenia Fellowship Scotland was founded in Library of Eric Irwin. The large attendance was substantially due to an item on the Today programme in which Michael Sheils interviewed Andrew Roberts , one of the ex-patients involved. Today originally asked a social worker to speak. They were told that the speaker for the group would have to be a mental patient.

We waited a few hours whilst they decided if they could risk this. Sometime in , Community Health Councils came into being. These were in place of the representative function of management committees as new health authorities were to be managerial. Intentionally or otherwise considerable flexibility was given to local people in the way that the CHCs operated. Many became well informed community forums and were more accessible to patients, carers, relatives and the community in general than any other "official" body before or since.

See empowerment and mental health index. The Conservative Government gave serious consideration to abolishing them in the early s and the Labour Government succeded in getting rid of them at the end of Radical Alternatives to Mind. Castles in the Air.

A practice of discharging patients to hotels had been reported four years earlier as a positive advance in community care. The Sunday Times of The ex-patients paid for their keep from their social security benefit. In the s and s there were major changes in what community care means. It no longer meant care outside hospital in an overall system where hospital plays a major role. It no longer meant replacing distant asylums by treatment in local psychiatric hospitals. It came to mean providing services for people who continue to live in their own homes, and continually cutting back on any kind of institutional provision, whether in a hospital, a hostel or a day centre.

The keynote of the decades was set by the Parkinson Report, made in , but kept secret until Silent Minority can still be seen. It can be bought or rented from Concord Video and Film Council. On their web site, click on education, then learning difficulties, and scroll down. In the spring of , Andrew Roberts was working on a pencil version of his thesis on The Lunacy Commission. He gave up in the summer for family reasons. The pencil thesis, with some gaps filled in, became his online text. This Mental Health History Timeline is an extension of a feature in the thesis - Which is why it is referenced as "" onwards.

Plan to close Friern and Claybury announced. Proposal for a "Penguin Special" on closing the asylums. The writing of After the Asylums. Most the closures are still on the March list of ones that are open: Mental Health and Civil Liberties Movements among the mentally ill. For a mental health organisation, to be awarded the task of hosting a world congress was something like a country being awarded the Olympic Games. So Chris Heginbotham , the new director of Mind was very pleased to secure the congress for Brighton in Although it works in collaboration with its sister organisation in England Rethink , NSF Scotland is completely autonomous, being responsible for its own policy, projects and funding.

Lord Mottistone David Seely, The first Red Nose Day was in Funding for two workers enabled the scheme to be launched in March Finding Our Own Solutions: Women's experience of mental health care. Spring Asylum magazine. From health and social services were divided into units that bought services or provided them. Social Services Departments had to set up "arms length" inspection units.

Users became entitled to a Community Care Assessment of needs. A kind of market: Within the National Health Service and Local Social Services and along with voluntary and private organisations, the government tried to create a market to achieve the rewards promised by the new followers of Adam Smith , but with the basic services remaining in public ownership and control. The arrangements within the NHS were known as the "internal market". Some GPs became "GP fundholders". A similar division took place in Social Services For me, the most memorable feature of the period was that I could not work out who was who or who was responsible for what.

Unfortunately, government has learnt the advantages of a fog of confusion. And there was also provision for user involvement in planning. Death of Kathy Sirockin. Death of Orville Blackwood Death of Valerie Argent. Murders by patients are often blamed on "community care". I have not murdered anyone. Is community care responsible for that? From Stephen Tilley, who is interested in spirituality and mental health, taught Nursing students at the University of Edinburgh to "look critically at the evolving discourses on spirituality and health care".

By he was watching with interest "the gathering of spirituality, recovery and well-being round common themes of meaning, purpose and fulfilment. The Zito Trust was set up after the Inquiry report. Registered as a charity in January The archive of its website does not start until 3. Lists do not include Welsh Hospitals 7? Springfield Manchester before News from - archive. See above - A framework for England followed in - for Wales in - and for Northern Ireland in In the United States, the Surgeon General made his "first ever" report on mental health in The Health Secretary, Frank Dobson, said the care in the community programme launched by the Conservatives in had failed".

March First Big Alternative Conference. Care in the Community has failed - Health Secretary, Frank Dobson repeated this statement several times. It is the misfortune of politicians that their most outrageous statements are remembered for ever. This one must rank alongside Margaret Thatcher's "There is no such thing as society". The statement is prominent in Modernising Mental Health Services. Safe, sound and supportive.

As this also says that community care had brought "many beneficial changes", and as it shows no intention of abandoning community care, I would interpret it to mean that care in the community has failed for some , and in some respects and so the government was bringing in a new model of community care which would address the problems. See Press Release See earlier framework for Scotland. Archive link to read your own copy different formats etc a current link main document Image and reality.

See Black user movement. Last year of the Community Health Councils. Archive of rather short lived links site January Patient and Public Involvement Forums archive set up. These include ones for mental health, such as the one for East London and City Mental Health - archive. Mental Health History Timeline. A mental health history including asylum and community care periods, with links to Andrew Roberts' book on the Lunacy Commission and other mental health writings, and the asylums index and word history. Centred on England and Wales, it reaches out to the rest of the world with links to the general timeline of science and society , America timeline , crime timeline , and the embryo sunrise , earthcor , and local London timelines.

Seeks to include views from mental illness and learning disability consumers, patients, users, clients along with views on madness and disability. Also bibliographies and biographies of commissioners. Other sculls with holes thought to indicate surgery include Gadevang Man. Ye gave him eyes, Nasatyas, Wonder-Workers, Physicians, that he saw with sight uninjured. See The disability timeline then jumps to BC.

Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel

See English Heritage Warren R. This original site is now located under the the Liverpool Street railway station. Bethlehem Hospital, or "Bedlam," later became notorious for its neglectful care of people with mental illness. The priory was first used to house "distracted persons" in around the year The Catholic Encyclopedia says it was a hospital place of refuge from the begining 'originally intended for the poor suffering from any ailment and for such as might have no other lodging, hence its name, Bethlehem, in Hebrew, the "house of bread.

See also inquistion - Bright - Noteworth events reaches America in Argued that before Bethlem was a religious institution focusing primarily on collecting and distributing alms. By the fourteenth century "the main beneficiaries, apart from the Hospital and its staff, were probably poor people who lived locally, rather than the Order of Bethlehem. As the social and political changes of the mid-fourteenth century onwards made alms-collecting more difficult, the Hospital started to concentrate ever more on the care of the sick, and in particular on the care of the mad.

Typically, this happened at just the moment when other English hospitals were abandoning or cutting back this type of provision severely. The act brought to an end a century of "disaster, poverty, and failure. Margery Kempe , who was born in Lynn, Norfolk, about and lived to , dictated a book of her spiritual experiences which shows how she went "out of her mind" after childbirth, was bound in a storeroom to prevent her from self-harm, suspected of demonic possession, but escaped burning, had visions of angels and visions of men's sexual parts and was seen as both holy and heretic.

Through hearing holy sermons and books, she "ever increased in contemplation and holy meditation, but learnt through divine visits to her during and after "cursed thoughts" and "pain" that "every good thought is the speech of God". Valencia, opened at the beginning of the century, is said to have removed chains and used games, occupation, entertainment, diet and hygiene as early as Warren R. However, one very necessary one is lacking, that is, a hospital or house where the innocent and frenzied would be drawn together because many poor, innocent and frenzied people wander through this city.

They suffer great hardships of hunger and cold and harm, because due to their innocence and rage, they do not know how to earn their living nor ask for the maintenance they need for their living. Therefore, they sleep in the streets and die from hunger and cold and many evil persons, who do not have God in their conscience hurt them and point to where they are sleeping, they injury and kill and abuse some innocent women. It also occurs that the frenzied poor hurt many of the persons who are out wandering through the city. These things are known in the entire city of Valencia.

Thus, it would be a very holy thing and work for Valencia to build a hostel or hospital where such insane or innocent persons could be housed so that they would not be wandering through the city and could not hurt nor be hurt. The Inquisition, established in some countries in the thirteenth century, was responsible for the torture and execution of many people with mental illness. In Aragon, inquisitor Thomas de Torquemada was said to be especially ruthless in the pursuit of deviance.

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The Malleus went through 19 editions in the next 2 centuries and provided a basis for gruesome tortures of people with deviant behavior. This is a copper plate engraving of Moorfields, discovered in , and bought by the London Museum. The map is in pictures and was probably drawn in by the Dutch artist Anthonis van den Wyngaerrde in , and engraved by Franciscus Hogenberg in [External Link to copy on the Rootsweb site.

There is a clearer image of Bedlam on the London Museum web exhibit archive copy ] map shows old and new Bedlam sites. Bright's book was the first book in the English language on the subject of mental illness. Some of the phrases Bright used in his descriptions of disordered behavior appeared later in the plays of William Shakespeare. Reprinted From the Text of , ed. C L Kingsford Oxford, , pp. Buttolph , is a fayre Inne for receipt of Trauellers: He founded it to haue beene a Priorie of Cannons with brethren and sisters, and king Edward the thirde granted a protection, which I haue seene, for the brethren Miliciae beate Mariae de Bethlem , within the Citty of London, the In this place people that bee distraight in wits, are by the suite of their friendes receyued and kept as afore, but not without charges to their bringers in.

In the yeare Sir Thomas Roe Marchant Taylor, Mayor, caused to bee enclosed with a Wall of bricke, about one acre of ground, being part of the said Hospitall of Bethelem, to wit on the banke of deepe ditch so called, parting the saide Hospitall of Bethelem from the More field: The Lady his wife was there buried by whose perswasion he inclosed it but himselfe borne in London was buried in the parrish church of Hackney.

From this hospitall Northwarde vpon the streetes side many houses haue beene builded with Alleys backward of late time too much pesterd with people a great cause of infection vp to the barres. On Agas's map the ditch appears clearly, and is shown to widen here to a point where a stream flows into it from the north. On Faithorne's map prepared the ditch has completely disappeared.

See further Archaeologia, lx. Recent excavations have proved the accuracy of Stow's statement as to the filling up of the ditch with soilage and other filthiness id. From a document in Letter-book F, , it appears that on Oct. See also Letter-books F, , and H, , where it is claimed in answer to a royal writ that the patronage and appointment of a keeper rested with the Mayor and citizens. In Henry IV again claimed the patronage and right of visitation C.

In the foundation charter of Bethlehem Hospital mention is made of the 'fossatum quod vocatur Depediche' Mon. Recent excavations revealed a part of its course near Blomfield Street, and showed it as a deep, sluggish, stagnant stream. It was ten feet below the base of the original Walbrook, which was somewhat further west. It is the stream referred to in the last note but one. What it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics and several cures of it Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically opened and cut up.

By Democritus Junior published in Oxford. The edition had a ten picture engraving that was explained by a poem in the edition. The verse for the engraving of the maniac is: But see the Madman rage downright With furious looks, a ghastly sight, Naked in chains bound doth he lie, And roars amain, he knows not why. Observe him; for as in a glass, Thine angry potraiture it was. His picture keep still in thy presence; 'Twixt him and the there's no difference.

Closed after fifteen years, Louis 14th offered it to the duchesse d'Aiguillon to set up a hospice for beggars with the help of Vincent de Paul. A pdf file at http: The hospital as it was spelt in the 17th century was the putting together of a number of buildings for the relief of the poor. He saw "several poor miserable creatures in chains; one of them was mad with making verses. At the door of the new Bedlam the visitor was confronted with sculptures commissioned from the Dutch artist Caius Gabriel Cibber One above of mania or raving madness , the other of melancholy.

Those who pass a theatre or a strip-joint today are tempted in by photographs of the performance. This drama had a hundred year run and its actors were involuntary exhibits. Thomas Tryon complained in about the public being admitted on holy-days: He has over-studied himself, and the like. France saw the last plague epidemic in , until it reappeared in Foucault precedes his discussion of the Panopticon with a description of measures to be taken at the end of the seventeenth century "when the plague appeared in a town".

These specific orders were for Vincennes. The first known charitable madhouse in England apart from the special case of Bethlem. It is also has the longest history in one place. Norwich was then England's second largest city. The Bethlem was established by an individual private bequest. It had 28 patients in Publication of the prints of A Rake's Progress 1. Sudden wealth - 2. French manners - 3. Swift had been found of unsound mind by a Commission of Lunacy in It is now the oldest, purpose built psychiatric hospital continuously functioning on its original site in these islands and one of the oldest in the world.

William Battie was its physician to He also acquired premises for private patients. Saint Luke's had 57 patients in It moved to Old Street in Madhouses for the Rich: When the very rich were lunatic or idiot, their relatives could afford to confine them as single lunatics - as the British Royal Family did in , , and One motive for this was secrecy. Madhouses for two or more inmates were more vulnerable to the risk of exposure, because more people were involved, and because the registration of inmates was required from , but they might provide more humane custody at a lower price. Physicians and others who arranged single confinement, would also refer people to private madhouses, in which they would have some financial stake.

Some of these catered especially for the rich. Irish's in Guildford , already advertised good conditions in We can trace a continuous line from Irish to Stilwell's in Hayes in the midth century. Whitmore became a madhouse in Thomas Warburton's association with Willis , building up its aristocratic clientele, probably dates from the s , before the second episode of the King's madness. Rev Willis became Dr Willis in - which gives some indication of the start of his business. John Monro opened Brooke House in Ticehurst may have opened in , Cleve Hill later Brislington in Sidney House later Manor House admitted its first patient on 1.

An article by Harriet Martineau in argued that rich lunatics would be better cared for in asylums than singly. Those who managed asylums for the rich usually also provided single houses as an option. Manchester Lunatic Asylum opened. It became a licensed house in which Newcastle Corporation maintained a financial interest. James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw's life narrative. Written by John Newton and William Cowper. Cowper was deeply melancholic and had periods of insanity.

In his best known hymn, he pleads for "a closer walk with God, a calm and heavenly frame". But he has lost it: How sweet their memory still! But they have left an aching void, The world can never fill". Cowper's life and poetry were influential in suggesting associations between mental distress and creativity. For me his most beautiful poem is one he wrote in the autumn of To Mary Mrs Unwin who cared for him for many years and who, being herself reduced to dependency, Cowper cared for in turn.

See Ashley's assessment and Rossetti's s assessment The French Revolution March Decree that within six weeks "all persons detained in fortresses, religious houses, houses of correction, police houses, or other prisons, whatsoever The mad were to be examined and either set at liberty or "cared for in hospitals indicated for that purpose". After an initial period of confusion, the two institutions became reserved for the insane.

He decided to unchain the lunatics. The draft legislation mandated free treatment at home for poor people by state salaried doctors who would also supervise wet-nursing, collect statistics on public health, and innoculate against smallpox. See Dora Weiner Although Bentham's star plan was not much used, the principle of the "all seeing eye" of the superintendent was. Liverpool Lunatic Asylum opened.

Leicester Lunatic Asylum opened. September Mary Lamb murdered her mother in a fit of insanity. She was confined in Fisher House, Islington for a period and lived in the care of her brother for the rest of her life, sometimes being cared for in a licensed house or a single house. Founded as a public subscription hospital, it became a licensed house in It was the centre of Parliamentary enquiry in and closed in Nineteenth Century Asylums The nineteenth century opened dramatically with a pistol shot, and the gun fingers of Hadfield and McNaughton were to trigger the opening of many asylums.

The state entered the field in a big way. By the end of the century there were 74, patients in public asylums. The early period of state asylums was custodial , out of it developed a period of therapeutic optimism that reached its height in the s , and declined into therapeutic pessimism in the second half of the nineteenth century. Hadfield was detained as a criminal lunatic.

The consequent long term detention of lunatics in county gaols triggered the County Asylums Act. St Thomas's Hospital, Exeter, Devon opened. This was the last of the series of asylums constructed in the eighteenth century by voluntary subscription , as the County Asylums Act provided the opportunity to combine money raised by rates with subscriptions.

It was promoted by Charles Watkins Williams Wynn. Its main purpose was to remove lunatics from gaols and workhouses to buildings where they would be easier to manage. I found nothing in the preparation of the Bill referring to asylums as places for cure. Order of Bedfordshire Justices that a notice be placed in the Northamptonshire Mercury and County Press of their intention to provide a lunatic asylum for the County. The General Lunatic Asylum for the Town and County of Nottingham, at Sneinton, opened "It was the first institution that came under the Asylum Act of and Sneinton was notable in being the first public mental hospital in the country to be created from monies raised by rates.

The original Sneinton asylum opened for 60 patients The intention to provide was announced in The first county asylum for paupers only. Its first superintendent to was a house painter with experience of caring for a lunatic. The House Surgeon at the Bedford Infirmary attended to the occasional medical needs of asylum patients.

From June this was a Mr Harris. James Harris was licensed to open a nearby private asylum in He resided there, and from acted as non-resident medical superintendent to the County Asylum. Asylums were opened at Edinburgh and Glasgow The Edinburgh Asylum included funding from the government and from an international subscription. Unlike Nottinghamshire and Bedfordshire , Norfolk had a hundred year history of asylum provision, and the new asylum was supplementary to existing provision.

The etching was based on the drawing which had been done at the request of Edward Wakefield. William Hone got George Cruikshank to etch the drawing in , which he then published from his new Fleet Street bookshop. Round his body a strong iron bar about two inches wide was rivetted Lancashire County Asylum 1st , Lancaster Moor opened. Administrative records start in Staffordshire County Asylum opened.

The Committee's minutes date from Originated in a bequest made in August Cornwall County Asylum opened. Notice of intention to build had been published in October Report from the Select Committee on Pauper Lunatics in the County of Middlesex and on Lunatic Asylums presented by Robert Gordon The madhouse and county asylums Acts that followed this report are an inter-related product of the concern about the management of Middlesex Pauper Lunatics. Quoted Kraepelin , pages 39 See The Madhouses Act established: The Home Secretary's Metropolitan Commission: August Chester County Asylum opened.

The optimistic period in the history of asylums runs from about to around It was at its height in the s. Asylums built under the and County Asylums Act tended to be left to the management of doctors. As the theories and techniques of managing lunatics in asylums developed, so did the belief that this asylum treatment itself was the correct, scientific way to cure lunacy.

Signs of the therapeutic change can be seen in the changing legislation. The Madhouses Act, unlike the Act, was concerned about conditions in asylums. These included the moral conditions. Official visitors were required to inquire about the performance of divine service and its effects. In , this inquiry was extended to include "what description of employment, amusement or recreation if any is provided".

He denied wrong doing, but was dismissed after an inquiry. A fondness for grog always seemed to catch up with him. He had returned to London by , but soon left for Australia. See Harriet Martineau's article, June October Cholera reached Britain external link - It returned in - - These cholera outbreaks were important in the development of the germ theory of diseases in and "many thousands perished of this new disease The Lord Chancellor's Metropolitan Commission: Under the Poor Law, workhouses for paupers were established in every part of England and Wales.

In part, the growth of asylums and other institutions was a consequence of this Act, as many of those who became settled residents of the workhouses were children schools needed , sick hospitals needed , mentally ill or with a learning disability lunatic asylums needed or old old people's homes needed. The book was dedicated to Andrew Combe in recognition of the benefits of applying Phrenology to insanity. The first asylum for Scotland south of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The building had a Bible for a foundation stone.

The Inquiry Act established the Inquiry Commission: It is the oldest surving journal of psychiatry. The non- restraint asylums were: The new Haydock Lodge private asylum was also committed to non-restraint. Asylums not committed to non-restraint, but where non was in use when the Commissioners visited were: The Lancet in contained that on This was opened at Dundrum in Renamed the Central Mental Hospital in , it has been described as "the oldest forensic secure hospital in Europe" [external link].

July Devon County Asylum opened. Two linked Acts were introduced by Lord Ashley: The Lunacy Act established the Lunacy Commission: Six three medical and three legal were to be employed full time at salaries of 1, pounds a year. The other five were honorary commissioners whose main function was to attend board meetings. The Permanent Chairman had to be an honorary commissioner, but otherwise they were not essential to the commission's operations. The only Metropolitan legal commissioner not appointed as a Lunacy Commissioner was named in the Act as Secretary.

Its principle functions were to monitor the erection of a network of publicly owned county asylums , required under the County Asylums Act , and the transfer of all pauper lunatics from workhouses and outdoor relief to a public or private asylum; to regulate their treatment in private asylums, and with the Poor Law Commission monitor the treatment of any remaining in workhouses or on outdoor relief. The Lunacy Commission was also to monitor the regulation of county asylums and county licensed houses by JPs, and to regulate the conduct of hospitals for the insane.

With the JPs it monitored the admission and discharge of patients from all types of asylum. It collected, collated and analysed data on the treatment of lunacy and advised on the development of lunacy law and policy. It also continued to license London's madhouses. In the summer of it became scandalous public knowledge that officers of the Poor Law Commission acting privately had profited by the shortage of asylums by establishing a low cost asylum at Haydock Lodge in Lancashire for pauper lunatics from all over England and Wales.

November or December The first number was quoted in The Illustrated London News for The New County Lunatic Asylum now building at Mickleover near Derby There are many persons now living who can remember passing the gates of old Bethlehem and hearing, as they passed, the cut of the lash and the screams of its victims. That was the old treatment inspired by the "wisdom of our ancestors".

The Architect of the building, under consideration informed himself of these circumstances, and has been, we believe the first to design an Asylum which shall facilitate and be adapted to the recent treatment of the insane by means of kindness, companionship, and watchfulness, rather than coercion, punishment, and confinement. As a result, Lancashire magistrates were able to close Haydock Lodge. It reopened shortly afterwards as an entirely private patient asylum. This did not last for long. Pauper patients returned to Haydock Lodge in A column asking about disability introduced.

It had mental disability added in This heading is from the census, but I believe it is the same as in I have, however, seen census forms for the same year with different wording. Ellen Riggott arrived on Four counties without probably had contracts with licensed houses. There was a lull in the opening of new asylums after The building of asylums for the remaining four was probably prompted by the County Asylums Act. A District Asylum opened in Ireland at Omagh. Scotland Introducing the Lunacy Bills , the Earl of Shaftesbury lamented that he could not "extend the bills to Ireland and Scotland, for I believe that not in any country in Europe, nor in any part of America, is there any place in which pauper lunatics are in such suffering and degraded state as those in Her Majesty's Kingdom of Scotland" In September , Dorthea Lynde Dix came to England, stayed with Samuel Tuke at York, and then visited Scotland.

By visits and intimations that she would report to London, she caused alarm. To make sure she got her case in first, she caught the night train to London and reported to the Home Secretary Palmerston the next morning. Shortly afterwards a Royal Commission was appointed to enquire into the asylums and lunacy law of Scotland This was followed by the Lunacy and Asylums Bill, Scotland.

Mental Welfare Commission website. The Act required the construction of publicly financed District Asylums throughout Scotland. District Asylums opened in Ireland at Mullingar and Sligo. The pessimistic period in asylum history developed during the second half of the nineteenth century. Medical theory was strongly influenced by social darwinist beliefs that insanity is the end product of an incurable degenerative disease carried in the victim's inherited biology, and the experience of asylums, and reanalysis of their statistics, undermined the earlier beliefs in their therapeutic value.

In the late 19th and 20th centuries, the pessimistic period in asylum history ran gently into a backwater period. Most progress in mental health policy took place outside the asylums, in specialist hospitals like the Maudsley , or in outpatient departments, and the asylums became the quiet back wards where chronic patients live.

Edgar Sheppard born Worcester about was medical superintendent of the male department of Colney Hatch from to In this enormous asylum he became well known for innovations, including daily Turkish Baths as therapy on a large scale, an asylum band, theatre, concerts, readings, lectures and a revival of restraint His method of locking dirty and destructive patients in side rooms " in a nude state " for weeks at a time where they " slept on the floor without either bed or pillow, being supplied only with strong quilted rugs ", packing violent patients in wet sheets, or retraining them by belts, wrist straps and locked gloves, was condemned " in the strongest manner " by the commissioners in lunacy..

His continued support for restraint led to his not being appointed as a Lord Chancellor's Visitor in This completed the programme of building a public pauper lunatic asylum jointly or singly for every county in England and Wales. District Asylums opened in Ireland at Castlebar and Letterkenny. District Asylums opened in Ireland at Ennis and Enniscorthy.

District Asylums opened in Ireland at Downpatrick and Monaghan. Her grandfather's firm designed asylums for Essex - Sussex - and Dorset. Her earliest published work concerns mental debility in the family. Her brother, Henry , was confined in an asylum before and her youngest sister, Freda , was certified insane in See - - - - - - - - Poetry Links - 1. In See Act the established column about disability also asked if the person was "imbecile or idiot" or "lunatic".

The disability column continued until not , but the wording was varied in and See - - At this time Freud was a medical student raising money for his studies by translating from English into German. Read his account of what Breur and Anna O. His history, the first draft of which was published in is the first attempt at a comprehensive one that I know, and the last until the work of Kathleen Jones See mental health history subject list.

The Subliminal Self The development of ideas about levels of consciousness and the unconscious mind was associated with theories about the spiritual. The acceptance, by the Academy, of his paper was also the acceptance of hypnosis as a scientific practice and of diseases of the mind as distinct from mental disorders caused by physical disorders. See also and Cane Hill Asylum, Surrey , opened in It was enlarged to accommodate 2, patients by the end of the s.

Click on the picture for more information. The picture is from a postcard in the collection of Nigel Roberts. The same picture appears on the urban explorations site with a note that it was taken in To direct public attention to the serious defects of the existing Lunacy Laws, and the grave abuses in their operation, with a view to remedial legislation. To assist persons who are or may be wrongfully incarcerated, whether in public or private asylums, to obtain liberty and redress. To secure a better method of treatment for all Lunatics, and to set in motion the machinery of the law for the punishment of all persons who maltreat them.

To procure the gradual substitution of public for private asylums. Further Particulars may be had on Application. First edition of Handbook for the instruction of attendants on the insane. Prepared by a sub-committee of the Medico-Psychological Association. Click on the picture to see why her faints were a turning point. Sometime before , Henry Herne Mew was certified insane and confined in an asylum. As it was before the Lunacy Laws Amendment Act came into force, and as he was a private patient, his detention would not have required the approval of a magistrate.

Postmortems were carried out on the brains of the majority of patients who died in the asylum in search of the cerebral lession that many thought was the basis of all insanity. This cross-section is from a collection of clinico-pathological photographs taken at Colney Hatch Asylum between and Hunter and Macalpine p. To this there must be added at the very least, another million, representing those dependent upon the criminal, lunatic and other classes This brings my total to three millions, or, to put it roughly to one-tenth of the population.

The column asking about disability had a different heading. Claybury in Essex, the first compact arrow asylum, opened. A short story Passed is the first known published work of Charlotte Mew. The writer, walking in a poor area of London Clerkenwell? She sees a gospel that the priest at the alter does not: The younger rolled her head from side to side; her shifting eyes and ceaseless imbecile grimaces chilled my blood. The other, who stood praying, turned suddenly the place but for the flaring alter lights was dark and kissed the dreadful creature by her side.

I shuddered, and yet her face wore no look of loathing nor pity. The expression was a divine one of habitual love. She wiped the idiot's lips and stroked the shaking hands in hers, to quiet the sad hysterical caresses she would not check. It was a page of gospel which the old man with his back to it might never read. A sublime and ghastly scene. The outstanding difference is the compassion. It was published in Cretins and idiots: Freda Mew received thyroid treatment in The treatment was advocated for cases of insanity where doctors had run out of options , and not just for cases of thyroid deficiency.

It is an early form of treatment by fever. See later development of malarial treatment. There are similarities with the later use of insulin in that a good result was patients eating and putting on weight. Freda Mew 19 became insane early in November She was admitted to the new private block of the Isle of Wight Asylum on 4. Her case notes survive for to In Interpretation of Dreams , Sigmund Freud interpreted the symbolism of dreams in a way that he presented as a scientific exploration of the unconscious mind.

In it was decided that the new asylum for Belfast, at Purdysburn would be constructed as detached villas around the country house that was to be its core. This is one of the earliest examples in Britain and Ireland of a move away from a large unified building as the asylum. In the United States of America, Maryland had begun constructing a "cottage" plan asylum in Charlotte Mew's In Nunhead Cemetery may grieve his death and celebrate his life.

One of several asylum postcards in the collection of Nigel Roberts. Picture postcard of Napsbury opened that is thought to date from the first world war, when Napsbury was a war hospital. Sigmund Freud 's Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality followed, according to Anna Freud , by "outbursts of indignation" See - - - - Information previously recorded in one Registry of Admissions Book admission register was now dicided between Medical and Civil Registers. This new system meant that the medical information could now be more easily accessed and standardised through systematic coding.

The idea behind these changes was to provide a more accurate and consistent basis for asylum statistics. Separating the Medical and Civil registers meant that while the Civil Register could be filled in immediately and more time taken over diagnosis for the Medical Register. Medical and Civil Registers remained in use until , although after the Mental Treatment Act separate series or separate sections of registers were maintained for certified, voluntary and temporary patients. Other postcards of asylum's about this time include Lancaster - Cane Hill - Napsbury ?

The authorised readership of the English edition was, for many years, restricted to lawyers and doctors. She "has a funny way of getting up suddenly and dancing across room or airing court - has been up daily and is all the better for it. Are talking treatments the way out of therapeutic pessimism? He believed in discussing a patient's mental symptoms freely with him, whether they were delusions or suicidal inclinations".

In , the Brock Committee recommended voluntary sterilisation as a cheaper means to the same end. See the collection of forms used under the Act. This was the old Lunacy Commission with extended functions with respect to mental deficiency. The Board of Control continued to regulate the mental health system until , but with reduced responsibilities after the National Health Service Act. This constituted a Central Association for the Care of the Mentally Defective which would work with the Board of Control and local authorities throughout the country. Leslie Scott , a conservative MP and lawyer with knowledge of the new Act, was President and Chairman of the Association from to See British Medical Journal report Autumn Charlotte Mew offered to address envelopes for the new Medico-Psychological Clinic "to provide World War Part One: Manchester University Press, Freud and War Neurosis A Freud Museum link The Oxford book of Twentieth Century Words lists shell-shock from , defining it as "a severe neurosis originating in trauma suffered under fire.

A term particularly associated with World War 1, in which soldiers on the Western Front were subjected to a seemingly incessant barrage of shell-fire". It compares it with bomb-happy in the second world war. But shell-shock was used by the medical profession, whereas bomb-happy was colloquial. See later rejection of shell-shock as a medical term. January Army Council estimated an additional 56, beds would be required to cope with wounded and sick troops. The Asylum War Hospitals Scheme , worked out with the Board of Control , moved civilian inmates out of certain asylums to provide accommodation for military medical, surgical and from February mental casualties.

Military Hospitals in the United Kingdom Conditions in some asylums during the war were very bad - leading to a high death rate See Brentwood below Hospitals asylums? See Haslar War Mental Hospitals: May Publication of the major volume of Charlotte Mew's poetry The Farmer's Bride whose dialogues with insanity included this in On the Asylum Road "Theirs is the house whose windows Are made of darkly stained or clouded glass: The saddest crowd that you will ever pass. But still we merry town or village folk Throw to their scattered stare a kindly grin, And think no shame to stop and crack a joke With the incarnate wages of man's sin.

Of the 70 who did get malaria, 33 lived over ten years. Of these long-term survivors, 20 were in the hospital and 13 at home at the end of the ten years. Emil Kraepelin's Hundert Jahre Psychiatrie: A contribution to the history of human civilisation], written , published in Berlin by Springer in The translation contains a short epilogue by H.

Peter Laqueur, MD, reflecting on the years Kraepelin wrote "in Germany in the middle of a raging war" p. A single paragraph, towards the end of the book, praises chemicals in the control of patient behaviour after "protracted baths" "We should not fail to note that the solution of many difficulties faced by the older doctors is the contribution of the chemical industry which in the last decade has created an imposing list of new soporifics and sedatives.

The first sedative was chloral hydrate , recommended by Liebreich. Almost every other drug with similar effects was first manufactured and administered in Germany. Such agents are rightly considered expedients, however, and their use opens the door to many dangers. Still, for countless patients they are an immeasurable blessing, and they are mainly responsible for bringing the quiet atmosphere of the hospital into the wards for the insane and removing much of the horror that still feeds the imagination of the lay public" pages See also Freud - Men, Women and God.

The murder and the shame affected the whole family down to the present with fears about hereditary insanity and an inability to parent. A Family Ghost Laid to Rest , an investigation of what happened, is partly the author's attempt to cope with the consequences. Link to Jonathan Toms' review of Peter Barham 's Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War , a book that argues that the concept of citizen soldier help to change the public perspective on the mentally ill.

Jakob Klaesi outlined his sleep cures: Dauerschlaf continuous sleep, hibernation or Dauernarkos continuous anesthesia. Somnifen was a barbiturate. The sleep cure was "a drug therapy for schizophrenic States of excitement". Other names for the treatment ar continuous narcosis and deep sleep treatment. See also insulin coma. Three out of the 22 original patients died. Henderson and Gillespie , p. See National Marriage Guidance Council.

Review of Nervous and Mental Diseases. Louis Untermeyer later described her as an exceedingly reticent and hermit-like poet. See Child Guidance Council.