The sales and marketing stage is closely intertwined with the editorial process. As front cover images are produced, or chapters are edited, sales people may start talking about the book with their customers to build early interest. Publishing companies often produce advanced information sheets that may be sent to customers or overseas publishers to gauge possible sales. As early interest is measured, this information feeds back through the editorial process and may affect the formatting of the book and the strategy employed to sell it. For example, if interest from foreign publishers is high, co-publishing deals may be established whereby publishers share printing costs in producing large print runs thereby lowering the per-unit cost of the books.
Conversely, if initial feedback is not strong, the print-run of the book may be reduced, the marketing budget cut or, in some cases, the book is dropped from publication altogether. After the end of editing and design work, the printing phase begins. The first step involves the production of a pre-press proof , which the printers send for final checking and sign-off by the publisher.
This proof shows the book precisely as it will appear once printed and represents the final opportunity for the publisher to find and correct any errors. Some printing companies use electronic proofs rather than printed proofs. Once the publisher has approved the proofs, printing — the physical production of the printed work — begins. Recently new printing process have emerged, such as printing on demand POD and web-to-print. The book is written, edited, and designed as usual, but it is not printed until the publisher receives an order for the book from a customer.
This procedure ensures low costs for storage and reduces the likelihood of printing more books than will be sold. Web-to-print enables a more streamlined way of connecting customers to printing through an online medium. In the case of books, binding follows upon the printing process. It involves folding the printed sheets, "securing them together, affixing boards or sides to it, and covering the whole with leather or other materials". The final stage in publication involves making the product available to the public, usually by offering it for sale.
In previous centuries, authors frequently also acted as their own editor, printer, and bookseller, but these functions have become separated. Once a book, newspaper, or another publication is printed, the publisher may use a variety of channels to distribute it. Books are most commonly sold through booksellers and through other retailers. Newspapers and magazines are typically sold in advance directly by the publisher to subscribers , and then distributed either through the postal system or by newspaper carriers.
Periodicals are also frequently sold through newsagents and vending machines. Within the book industry, printers often fly some copies of the finished book to publishers as sample copies to aid sales or to be sent out for pre-release reviews. The remaining books often travel from the printing facility via sea freight.
Accordingly, the delay between the approval of the pre-press proof and the arrival of books in a warehouse, much less in a retail store, can take some months. For books that tie into movie release-dates particularly for children's films , publishers will arrange books to arrive in store up to two months prior to the movie release to build interest in the movie.
Publishing is now a major industry with the largest companies Reed Elsevier and Pearson PLC having global publishing operations. The publisher usually controls the advertising and other marketing tasks, but may subcontract various aspects of the process to specialist publisher marketing agencies. In many companies, editing, proofreading, layout, design, and other aspects of the production process are done by freelancers.
Dedicated in-house salespeople are sometimes replaced by companies who specialize in sales to bookshops, wholesalers, and chain stores for a fee. This trend is accelerating as retail book chains and supermarkets have centralized their buying. If the entire process up to the stage of printing is handled by an outside company or individuals, and then sold to the publishing company, it is known as book packaging. This is a common strategy between smaller publishers in different territorial markets where the company that first buys the intellectual property rights then sells a package to other publishers and gains an immediate return on capital invested.
The first publisher will often print sufficient copies for all markets and thereby get the maximum quantity efficiency on the print run for all. Some businesses maximize their profit margins through vertical integration ; book publishing is not one of them. Although newspaper and magazine companies still often own printing presses and binderies, book publishers rarely do. Similarly, the trade usually sells the finished products through a distributor who stores and distributes the publisher's wares for a percentage fee or sells on a sale or return basis.
The advent of the Internet has provided the electronic way of book distribution without the need of physical printing, physical delivery and storage of books.
This, therefore, poses an interesting question that challenges publishers, distributors, and retailers. The question pertains to the role and importance the publishing houses have in the overall publishing process. One example rearranged of the distribution of proceeds from the sale of a book was given as follows: There is a common misconception that publishing houses make large profits and that authors are the lowest paid in the publishing chain. However, given that authors are usually individuals, are often paid advances irrespective of whether the book turns a profit and do not normally have to split profits with others, it makes them the highest paid individuals in the publishing process.
Within the electronic book path, the publishing house's role remains almost identical. The process of preparing a book for e-book publication is exactly the same as print publication, with only minor variations in the process to account for the different mediums of publishing. Print on demand is rapidly becoming an established alternative to traditional publishing. CreateSpace is the Amazon subsidiary that facilitates publishing by small presses and individual authors. Books published via CreateSpace are sold on Amazon and other outlets, with Amazon extracting a very high percentage of the sales proceeds for the services of publishing.
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In , Ingram launched a small press and self-publishing arm called Ingram Spark. Book clubs are almost entirely direct-to-retail, and niche publishers pursue a mixed strategy to sell through all available outlets — their output is insignificant to the major booksellers, so lost revenue poses no threat to the traditional symbiotic relationships between the four activities of printing, publishing, distribution, and retail.
Newspapers are regularly scheduled publications that present recent news, typically on a type of inexpensive paper called newsprint. Most newspapers are primarily sold to subscribers , through retail newsstands or are distributed as advertising-supported free newspapers. About one-third of publishers in the United States are newspaper publishers. Nominally, periodical publishing involves publications that appear in a new edition on a regular schedule.
Newspapers and magazines are both periodicals, but within the industry, the periodical publishing is frequently considered a separate branch that includes magazines and even academic journals , but not newspapers. Book publishers represent less than a sixth of the publishers in the United States. Many small- and medium-sized book publishers specialize in a specific area. Additionally, thousands of authors have created publishing companies and self-published their own works.
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Within the book publishing, the publisher of record for a book is the entity in whose name the book's ISBN is registered. The publisher of record may or may not be the actual publisher. List of English-language book publishing companies. Directory publishing is a specialized genre within the publishing industry. These publishers produce mailing lists, telephone books , and other types of directories. Academic publishers are typically either book or periodical publishers that have specialized in academic subjects.
Some, like university presses , are owned by scholarly institutions. Others are commercial businesses that focus on academic subjects. The development of the printing press represented a revolution for communicating the latest hypotheses and research results to the academic community and supplemented what a scholar could do personally. But this improvement in the efficiency of communication created a challenge for libraries, which have had to accommodate the weight and volume of literature.
One of the key functions that academic publishers provide is to manage the process of peer review. Their role is to facilitate the impartial assessment of research and this vital role is not one that has yet been usurped, even with the advent of social networking and online document sharing. Today, publishing academic journals and textbooks is a large part of an international industry.
Critics claim that standardised accounting and profit-oriented policies have displaced the publishing ideal of providing access to all. In contrast to the commercial model, there is non-profit publishing, where the publishing organization is either organised specifically for the purpose of publishing, such as a university press , or is one of the functions of an organisation such as a medical charity, founded to achieve specific practical goals.
An alternative approach to the corporate model is open access , the online distribution of individual articles and academic journals without charge to readers and libraries. Many commercial publishers are experimenting with hybrid models where certain articles or government funded articles are made free due to authors' payment of processing charges, and other articles are available as part of a subscription or individual article purchase.
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Retrieved 25 April Ben; Konstan, Joseph A. Kohavi, Ron; Provost, Foster, eds. Applications of Data Mining to Electronic Commerce.
Chaudhury, Abijit; Kuilboer, Jean-Pierre Richmond Journal of Law and Technology. Archived from the original PDF on Humeau, Philippe; Jung, Matthieu 21 June In depth benchmark of 12 ecommerce solutions PDF. Crown Business Books Random House. Find more about E-commerce at Wikipedia's sister projects. Major fields of computer science. Computer architecture Embedded system Real-time computing Dependability. Network architecture Network protocol Network components Network scheduler Network performance evaluation Network service.
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Views Read View source View history. The arrival and democratization of Internet is slowly giving small publishing houses the opportunity to publish their books directly online. Some websites, like Amazon , let their users buy eBooks; Internet users can also find many educative platforms free or not , encyclopedic websites like Wikipedia, and even digital magazines platforms.
The eBook then becomes more and more accessible through many different supports, like the e-reader and even smartphones. The digital book had, and still has, an important impact on publishing houses and their economical models; it is still a moving domain, and they yet have to master the new ways of publishing in a digital era.
Based on new communications practices of the web 2. Many tools were put in place to foster sharing and creative collective contents. One of the many is the Wikipedia encyclopedia, since it is edited, corrected and enhanced by millions of contributors. Open Street Map is also based on the same principle. Blogs and comment systems are also now renown as online edition and publishing, since it is possible through new interactions between the author and its readers, and can be an important method for inspiration but also for visibility.
The electronic publishing process follows some aspects of the traditional paper-based publishing process  but differs from traditional publishing in two ways: Because the content is electronic, it may be distributed over the Internet and through electronic bookstores, and users can read the material on a range of electronic and digital devices, including desktop computers , laptops , tablet computers , smartphones or e-reader tablets.
The consumer may read the published content online a website, in an application on a tablet device, or in a PDF document on a computer. In some cases, the reader may print the content onto paper using a consumer-grade ink-jet or laser printer or via a print on demand system. Some users download digital content to their devices, enabling them to read the content even when their device is not connected to the Internet e. Distributing content electronically as software applications "apps" has become popular in the s, due to the rapid consumer adoption of smartphones and tablets.
At first, native apps for each mobile platform were required to reach all audiences, but in an effort toward universal device compatibility, attention has turned to using HTML5 to create web apps that can run on any browser and function on many devices. The benefit of electronic publishing comes from using three attributes of digital technology: XML tags to define content,  style sheets to define the look of content, and metadata data about data to describe the content for search engines , thus helping users to find and locate the content a common example of metadata is the information about a song's songwriter , composer , genre that is electronically encoded along with most CDs and digital audio files ; this metadata makes it easier for music lovers to find the songs they are looking for.
With the use of tags, style sheets, and metadata, this enables "reflowable" content that adapts to various reading devices tablet, smartphone, e-reader, etc. Because electronic publishing often requires text mark-up e. Designers of digitally published content must have a strong knowledge of mark-up languages, the variety of reading devices and computers available, and the ways in which consumers read, view or access the content.
However, in the s, new user friendly design software is becoming available for designers to publish content in this standard without needing to know detailed programming techniques, such as Adobe Systems ' Digital Publishing Suite and Apple's iBooks Author. The most common file format is. Another common format is. After an article is submitted to an academic journal for consideration, there can be a delay ranging from several months to more than two years  before it is published in a journal, rendering journals a less than ideal format for disseminating current research.
In some fields such as astronomy and some areas of physics , the role of the journal in disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprint repositories such as arXiv. However, scholarly journals still play an important role in quality control and establishing scientific credit. In many instances, the electronic materials uploaded to preprint repositories are still intended for eventual publication in a peer-reviewed journal. There is statistical evidence that electronic publishing provides wider dissemination,  because when a journal is available online, a larger number of researchers can access the journal.
Even if a professor is working in a university that does not have a certain journal in its library, she may still be able to access the journal online. A number of journals have, while retaining their longstanding peer review process to ensure that the research is done properly, established electronic versions or even moved entirely to electronic publication. In the early s, many of the existing copyright laws were designed around printed books, magazines and newspapers.