If you are on a benchmarking team, you will find that this workbook is a tool to help get at the practical aspects; aspects with which books of theory just cannot cope. It is the practical companion to the original book Benchmarking: Table of contents What Is Benchmarking? Series College of Sports Medicine Series. University taught study programmes accreditation is granted through the ANECA,  a government dependent quality assurance and accreditation provider for the Spanish Higher Education System and ensures that the data held in the RUCT,  a national registry for universities and qualifications, is correct and up to date.
The same study programme may acquire different codes as it progresses through various stages of official approval by local government and central government. Prospective students should check the RUCT  Code awarded to the study programme of their interest at every stage of their enquiries concerning degrees in Spain. ANECA makes recommendations regarding procedures, staffing levels, quality of teaching, resources available to students, and continuity or loss of accreditation and the ANECA Registry  records all events in the life of an officially approved and accredited study programme or a university.
It is also possible to track qualifications by using the search facility that several Autonomous Communities own accreditation agencies offer. These agencies work within the ANECA framework, and generally show more detailed information about the study programmes available in each territory i. The qualifications framework for higher education MECES is the reference framework adopted in Spain in order to structure degree levels.
Not all universities offer degrees named exactly the same, even if they have similar academic and professional effects. Each university may present proposals for the study programme considered to meet professional and academic demand. The proposal will consist of a report linking the study programme being considered and the proposed qualification to be awarded. Spanish qualifications and their professional effects.
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All bachelor's and master's degrees accredited by ANECA enjoy full academic and professional effects in accordance with new and previous laws. Professional practice law in Spain is currently under revision. Before the Bologna Process after 4 or 5 years of study the academic degree of a Licentiate was reached. A Licentiate with a predefined qualification gave access to the last stage of further two or more years of studies depending on the field for a Doctoral's degree.
Apart from this most universities offered a Postgraduate Diploma with up to two years of study. The title 'degree' is protected under UK law.
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All valid UK degrees are awarded by universities or other degree-awarding bodies whose powers to do so are recognised by the UK government; hence they are known as 'recognised bodies'. The standard first degree in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is the Bachelor's degree conferred with honours. Other variants exist, for example Bachelor of Education.
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It usually takes three years to read for a bachelor's degree. Candidates who have not achieved the standard for the award of honours may be admitted without honours to the 'ordinary' Bachelor's degree if they have met the required standard for this lesser qualification also referred to as a 'pass degree'. The foundation degree  is a qualification at lower than Bachelor's level awarded following a two-year programme of study that is usually vocational in nature.
The foundation degree can be awarded by a university or college of higher education that has been granted foundation degree awarding powers by the UK government. This degree is comparable to an associate degree in the United States. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge award honorary Master of Arts MA degrees to graduates of their Bachelor's programmes, following a specified period of time.
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This is comparable to the practice of the ancient universities in Scotland of awarding an MA for a first degree, and arguably reflects the rigorous standards expected of their graduates. Master's degrees  such as Master of Arts or Master of Science are typically awarded to students who have undertaken at least a year of full-time postgraduate study , which may be taught or, in many cases, involve an element of research. A student undertaking a Master's would normally be expected to already hold an honours degree in a relevant subject, hence the possibility of reaching Master's level in one year.
Some universities award a Master's as a first degree following an integrated programme of study an 'integrated master's degree'. These degrees are usually designated by the subject, such as Master of Engineering for engineering, Master of Physics for physics, Master of Mathematics for mathematics, and so on; it usually takes four years to read for them.
Graduation to these degrees is always with honours. Master of Engineering in particular has now become the standard first degree in engineering at the top UK universities, replacing the older Bachelor of Engineering. The Master of Business Administration MBA degree is highly valued by those seeking to advance in business as managers and decision makers. Doctoral degrees or doctorates ,  such as the Doctor of Philosophy degree PhD or DPhil or Doctor of Education EdD or DEd are awarded following a programme of original research that contributes new knowledge within the context of the student's discipline.
Doctoral degrees usually take three years full-time. Therefore, in the UK it may only take seven years to progress from undergraduate to doctoral level — in some cases six, since having a Master's is not always a precondition for embarking on a doctoral degree. This contrasts with nine years in the United States, reflecting differences in the educational systems. Some doctorates, such as the Doctor of Clinical Psychology DClinPsy qualification, confirm competence to practice in particular professions.
UK post-secondary qualifications are defined at different levels, with levels denoting further education and levels denoting higher education. Within this structure, a foundation degree is at level 5; a Bachelor's at level 6; at Master's at level 7; and a doctoral degree at level 8. See also graduate certificate , graduate diploma , postgraduate certificate , postgraduate diploma and British degree abbreviations. The standard undergraduate degree for natural and social science subjects is the Bachelor of Science.
Students can work towards a first degree at either ordinary or honours level. The ordinary degree need not be in a specific subject, but can involve study across a range of subjects within and sometimes beyond the relevant faculty, in which case it may also be called a general degree; if a third year or junior honours subject is included, the ordinary degree in that named discipline is awarded.
The honours degree involves two years of study at a sub-honours level in which a range of subjects within the relevant faculty are studied, and then two years of study at honours level which is specialised in a single field for example classics, history, chemistry, biology, etc. Not all Universities in Scotland adhere to this, in some you study in several subjects within a faculty for three years and can then specialise in two areas and attain a joint honours degree in fourth year.
This also reflects the broader scope of the final years of Scottish secondary education , where traditionally five Highers are studied, compared to typically three English or Welsh A-Levels. The Higher is a one-year qualification, as opposed to the two years of A-Levels, which accounts for Scottish honours degrees being a year longer than those in England.
Advanced Highers add an optional final year of secondary education, bringing students up to the level of their A-Level counterparts — students with strong A-Levels or Advanced Highers may be offered entry directly into the second year at Scottish universities. Students who complete all the requirements for an honours degree, but do not receive sufficient merit to be awarded third-class honours may be awarded a Special Degree ordinary degree — bachelor's level SCQF Level 9.
In most respects, the criteria for awarding qualifications at honours level and above are the same as in the rest of the UK see above under England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Postgraduate qualifications are not designated Master of Arts as in the rest of the UK, as this is an undergraduate degree. Postgraduate degrees in arts and humanities subjects are usually designated Master of Letters M.
Litt or, in natural and social sciences, Master of Science M. Non-doctoral postgraduate research degrees are usually designated Master of Philosophy M. Phil or Master of Research M. In Canada, education is the responsibility of the provinces and territories, rather than the federal government. However, all of Canada follows the three level bachelor's—master's—doctorate system common to the Anglophone world, with a few variations.
A common framework for degrees was agreed between the provinces and territories in Bachelor's degrees are normally three to four years in duration, although more commonly three years in Quebec where they follow on from college courses rather than directly from secondary education. Master's degrees take one to three years, again with the exception of Quebec where they take one and a half to two years, and doctorates take a minimum of three years.
Alone among Canadian provinces and territories, British Columbia offers two year associate degrees , allowing credit to be transferred into a four-year bachelor's program. In the province of Quebec , the majority of students must attend college prior to entering university. Upon completion of a two-year pre-university program, such as in Sciences or Humanities, or a three-year technical program, such as Nursing or Computer Science, college graduates obtain a college diploma , which is a prerequisite access for university-level studies.
Although the previously mentioned college programs are typical, they are not offered in every institution in the province. For example, Dawson College in Montreal has nearly sixty different programs leading to a college diploma.
Special programs, such as physical rehabilitation therapy , are offered in some colleges as well. These programs are particularly interesting because they allow students to enter professional university programs, such as physiotherapy which consists of an integrated Bachelor of Science in Physiotherapy and Master of Physical Therapy , without having to meet the usual grade and course prerequisites required from students holding a pre-university science diploma. A similar option is offered for college nursing graduates as they can pursue their studies in university to obtain a Bachelor of Nursing in two years rather than the usual three or four years, depending on whether the student has completed a college diploma in Quebec.
Additionally, whereas aspiring medical students are usually required to complete an undergraduate degree before applying to medical schools, Quebec college graduates have the option to enter:. Education in Mexico follows a three-degree system similar to that of Canada and the US. The pre-university academic level is the bachillerato also called preparatoria , similar to high school. Students typically leave preparatoria at the age of 18 for university, at which point they choose to specialize in a specific academic area a carrera.
Once in university, students begin the carrera , the study of a precise academic branch like economics, business administration, sciences, law, engineering, or medicine.
Students will be in university for semesters of full-time study, which typically takes 4—5 years. Upon graduation, students receive a licenciatura in their chosen subject area, which is equivalent to an American Bachelor's degree. They can also get the degree of "ingenieria" or "medico" that refers to an engineer or MD respectively. After receiving the licenciatura , students may take extra courses called diplomados similar to a Certification but issued by a university. These courses last 4—12 months and are a means to further study without continuing to the next degree level, usually studied to demonstrate that the student still updated in his field.
Post-graduate students in Mexico typically enter a master's program after a few years in the workforce and often continue working while studying. Traditionally, students who have completed the maestria may continue on to the doctorado , or the doctorate. Doctoral study typically lasts 3—4 years. In last years this schemes has become flexible such that in some PhD programmes, students are accepted before, or not completing at all a Master course.
In the United States, since the late 19th century, the threefold degree system of bachelor, master and doctor has been in place, but has evolved into a slightly different pattern from the European equivalent. Department of Education now classifies degrees in six categories: The standard academic progression remains bachelor's—master's— research doctorate. Most standard academic programs are based on the four-year bachelor's degree, most often Bachelor of Arts B. This timetable is only approximate, however, as students in accelerated programs can sometimes earn a bachelor's degree in three years or, on the other hand, a particular dissertation project might take four or more years to complete.
In addition, a graduate may wait an indeterminate time between degrees before candidacy in the next level, or even an additional degree at a level already completed. Therefore, there is no time-limit on the accumulation of academic degrees. By far the most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph. The Doctor of Education Ed. Some schools, mostly junior colleges and community colleges and some four-year schools, offer an associate degree for two full years of study. These may be in professional or academic fields, and the most common awards are the Associate of Arts A.
Articulation agreements may allow credit earned on an associate degree to be counted toward completion of a bachelor's degree. The " first professional degree " is a graduate level degree program designed to prepare graduates for professional practice in various fields other than academic scholarship and research. First professional degrees require a minimum of two years prior college-level education to enter the program, and a minimum of six years total college-level education including that undertaken prior to entry to complete the program. Many first professional degrees, e. Intermediate graduate qualifications lie between master's level and the doctorate.
In 21 US jurisdictions, religious institutions can be authorized to grant religious-exempt rel. Traditionally more men than women attended and earned degrees at the world's universities. A milestone was reached in the United States according to results of the census, as women surpassed men in attaining master's degrees, for the first time. The first year that women surpassed men in earning bachelor's degrees was in Students, the media, and the general public have shown much concern over the value of getting a higher degree in the US ever since the Great Recession of A survey of 2, adults of which were graduates , implemented by an education technology company called Greenwood Hall, reported that more than half of the graduates surveyed believe those getting their degree now will be receiving a lower return on their investment than their counterparts 10—15 years ago.
These are the associate degree level 6 , which normally takes 2 years, the bachelor degree level 7 , which normally takes 3 years, the bachelor honours degree level 8 , which normally takes 1 year after the bachelor degree, and is mostly taken as an optional extension year depending of the discipline, the master degree level 9 , which normally takes 1 — 2 years for "research" or "coursework" degrees and 3 — 4 years for an "extended" degree and follows on from either a bachelor or honours degree, and the doctoral degree level 10 , which normally takes 3 — 4 years following on from a master's degree or a Class I or IIa honours qualification.
Also included within the higher education system are graduate certificates and graduate diplomas , both of which are at level 8 honours degree level , as well as advanced diplomas, at level 6 associate degree level and diplomas at level 5 first year of a degree course. Doctorates in Australia may be research doctorates normally titled PhDs or professional doctorates normally titled to refer to the field of practice, e. Professional doctorates still require research leading to "a significant and original contribution to knowledge in the context of professional practice" and should not be confused with extended master's degrees that bear similar names for historical reasons: Despite their names, these extended master's degrees may not be described as doctoral degrees nor do they confer the right to use the title of doctor on their recipients.
Some bachelor's degrees e. Like Australia, New Zealand has a level qualifications framework the New Zealand Qualifications Framework; NZQF , and a referencing exercise has found a one-to-one correspondence between the levels of the two frameworks. These are the bachelor's degree level 7 , bachelor honours degree level 8 , master's degree level 9 and the doctoral degree level In addition to these, the NZQF has certificates across levels 1 — 6, diplomas at levels 5 and 6, graduate certificates and graduate diplomas at level 7 bachelor's , and postgraduate certificates and postgraduate diplomas at level 8 honours.
Non-degree qualifications at levels 7 — 9 were not included in the study. Undergraduate students in Brazilian universities graduate either with a bachelor's degree, a Licentiate degree or a Technologist degree. Bachelor degrees in Brazil normally takes four or five years of full-time study to complete, with the exception of the human medicine course which requires six years. Licentiate degree, normally takes four-years length degrees, available for students who want to qualify as school teachers. Licenciatura courses exist mostly in mathematics, humanities, and natural sciences.
Technologist degree is available in technology-related fields and can be normally obtained in three years. These degrees are turned to fast entry the industry. Admission as an undergraduate student in most top public or private universities in Brazil requires that the applicant pass a competitive entrance examination known as Vestibular. Contrary to what happens in the United States, candidates must declare their intended university major when they register for the Vestibular.
Undergraduate curricula tend to be more rigid than in the United States and there is little room to take classes outside one's major. Individuals who hold either a bachelor's degree, Licentiate or Technologist are eligible for admission into graduate courses leading to advanced master 's or doctor's degrees.
Criteria for admission into master's and doctor's programs vary in Brazil. Some universities require that candidates take entrance exams; others make admission decisions based solely on undergraduate transcripts, letters of recommendation, and possibly oral interviews.
There are two types of post-graduate programs, lato sensu specialization and MBAs and stricto sensu Professional Masters, Master and Doctorate:. Specializations or MBAs are courses that include taking a minimum number minimum hours of graduate classes but with no need to do research nor defend a thesis, only present a final work showing the knowledge. It's a professional level where theory and practice are focused in a broad sense. Professional Master's or master's degrees usually takes one to two years of full-time study. Requirements for an academic master's degree include taking a minimum number of advanced graduate classes typically between five and eight and submitting a research thesis which is examined orally by a panel of at least two examiners three is the preferred number , sometimes including one external member who must be from another university or research institute.
The emphasis of the thesis must be in adding some value to the academic knowledge, but not necessarily in being original. Doctor's degrees normally take four additional years of full-time study to complete. Requirements for obtaining a doctor's degree include taking additional advanced courses, passing an oral qualifying exam, and submitting a longer doctoral dissertation which must represent a significant original contribution to knowledge in the field to which the dissertation topic is related. See also Universities and Higher Education in Brazil.
In Colombia, the system of academic degrees is based in the British model been similar to the U. After completing their "bachillerato" high school , students can take one of three options. The first one is called a " Profesional " professional career , which is similar to a bachelor's degree requiring from four to 6 years of study according to the chosen program. Formal education after the bachelor's degree is the master's degree with the title of " Maestro ", and Doctorate's degree known as " Doctorado " doctorate.
The master's degree normally consists of two years. These programs, like in the U. A similar situation in Colombia, when compared to the U.
In Chile, the system in a nutshell is as follows: After completion of high school, students may follow professional or technical studies at Universities or Technical schools. In general, traditional professions require an Academic Degree, but there are many professions that not require the degree because they were conceived as strictly "professional" not academic.
The degrees are as follows:. This degree is enough to continue developing an academic career, however, to get a professional title -which is not academic, but allows you to get a professional practice, you have to continue one or two additional years of study. For example, to be an engineer it is necessary to study four years to get a Licentiate in Engineering Sciences, and two additional years to get a Professional Title and become an engineer.
Sometimes it is possible to take additional subjects and get a " Magister " degree besides the professional title. There is no separate classification for Professional Doctorates. In particular, the engineering profession may be complicated for the foreigner since there are two types of engineers: They are not able, by law, to authorise plans or drawings like engineers with a degree or architects.
The reason for this diversity is because some schools provide vocational education as part of their high school curriculum thereby allowing them to hand out "Technician" titles while elsewhere, the student is required to decide whether to study Sciences or Humanities for the last two years of secondary school. Titles at the higher education level usually depend on the institution handing them out. Universities award the student with the title of Ingeniero Engineer or with the title Licenciado Licentiate after completing a five-year program.
The Engineer have more physics subjects than the Licentiate, but both are five-year careers. Some higher education institutions may award Diplomados Diploma but the time necessary to obtain one varies. Post-graduate education follows conventions of the United States being named "Master's" and "Doctorate" after the programs there.
The nature of academic degrees from ecclesiastical institutions of education is outlined in the apostolic constitution Sapientia Christiana , . If you are on a benchmarking team, you will find that this workbook is a tool to help get at the practical aspects; aspects with which books of theory just cannot cope. It includes examples from actual cases self-diagnostic "what to do" sections forms, checklists and questionnaires The Benchmarking Workbook helps you organize your research clarify your thinking prioritize your findings The Benchmarking Workbook has been developed by KarlAAf and Partners.
It is the practical companion to the original book Benchmarking: