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Gems (?) of German thought
No ratings or reviews yet. Be the first to write a review. Best-selling in Fiction Books See all. A Game of Thrones: Martin Multiple-item retail product, Nine Strangers by Liane Moriarty Paperback. The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho Paperback, The Clockmaker's Daughter by Kate Morton In England, a false dawn of gem collecting was represented by Henry, Prince of Wales ' purchase of the cabinet of the Flemish antiquary Abraham Gorlaeus in ,  and engraved gems featured among the antiquities assembled by Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel.
Later in the century William Cavendish, 2nd Duke of Devonshire , formed a collection of gems that is still conserved at Chatsworth. By the mid-eighteenth century prices had reached such a level that major collections could only be formed by the very wealthy; lesser collectors had to make do with collecting plaster casts ,  which was also very popular, or buying one of many sumptuously illustrated catalogues of collections that were published.
In the eighteenth century British aristocrats were able to outcompete even the agents for royal and princely collectors on the Continent, aided by connoisseur-dealers like Count Antonio Maria Zanetti and Philipp von Stosch. Zanetti travelled Europe in pursuit of gems hidden in private collections for the British aristocrats he tutored in connoisseurship;  his own collection was described in A.
Gori , Le gemme antiche di Anton Maria Zanetti Venice, , illustrated with eighty plates of engravings from his own drawings. Baron Philipp von Stosch — , a Prussian who lived in Rome and then Florence, was a major collector, as well as a dealer in engraved gems: He also encouraged Johann Lorenz Natter — whom Stosch set to copying ancient carved gems in Florence.
Frederick the Great of Prussia bought Stosch's collection in and built the Antique Temple in the park of the Sanssouci Palace to house his collections of ancient sculpture, coins and over 4, gems — the two were naturally often grouped together. The gems are now in the Antikensammlung Berlin.
The collections of Charles Towneley , Richard Payne Knight and Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode were bought by or bequeathed to the British Museum , founding their very important collection. As in other fields, not many ancient artists' names are known from literary sources, although some gems are signed. According to Pliny, Pyrgoteles was the only artist allowed to carve gems for the seal rings of Alexander the Great.
Most of the most famous Roman artists were Greeks, like Dioskurides, who is thought to have produced the Gemma Augustea, and is recorded as the artist of the matching signet rings of Augustus — very carefully controlled, they allowed orders to be issued in his name by his most trusted associates. Other works survive signed by him rather more than are all likely to be genuine , and his son Hyllos was also a gem engraver.
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The Anichini family were leading artists in Venice and elsewhere in the 15th and 16th centuries. Many Renaissance artists no doubt kept their activities quiet, as they were passing their products off as antique. Other sculptors also carved gems, or had someone in their workshop who did.
Leone Leoni said he personally spent two months on a double-sided cameo gem with portraits of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife and son. The Scot James Tassie — , and his nephew William — developed methods for taking hard impressions from old gems, and also for casting new designs from carved wax in enamel , enabling a huge production of what are really imitation engraved gems. The fullest catalogue of his impressions "Tassie gems" was published in , with 15, items. The engraved gem fell permanently out of fashion from about the s,  perhaps partly as a growing realization of the number of gems that were not what they seemed to be scared collectors.
Among the last practitioners was James Robertson , who sensibly moved into the new art of photography.
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Perhaps the best known gem engraver of the 20th century, working in a contemporary idiom, is the British artist Ronald Pennell ,  whose work is held in the British Crafts Council Collection among many others. Cameo glass was invented by the Romans in about 30BC to imitate engraved hardstone cameos, with the advantage that consistent layering could be achieved even on round vessels — impossible with natural gemstones.
Catalog Record: gems of German thought | Hathi Trust Digital Library
It was however very difficult to manufacture and surviving pieces, mostly famously the Portland Vase , are actually much rarer than Roman gemstone cameos. The Middle Ages, which lived by charters and other sealed documents, were at least as keen on using seals as the ancient world, now creating them for towns and church institutions, but they normally used metal matrices and signet rings. However some objects, like a 13th-century Venetian Seven Sleepers of Ephesus , mimicked the engraved gem. Another offshoot of the mania for engraved gems is the fine-grained slightly translucent stoneware called jasperware that was developed by Josiah Wedgwood and perfected in Wedgwood made notable jasperware copies of the Portland Vase and the Marlborough gem , a famous head of Antinous ,  and interpreted in jasperware casts from antique gems by James Tassie.
John Flaxman 's neoclassical designs for jasperware were carried out in the extremely low relief typical of cameo production. Gems were a favourite topic for antiquaries from the Renaissance onwards, culminating in the work of Philipp von Stosch, described above. Among recent scholars Sir John Boardman b. Gertrud Seidmann — moved into the subject, having previously been a German teacher.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See Theophilius's article for full on-line texts. Susanna Crystal , British Museum. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, —. Farago ed Leonardo's projects, c. Generally, Trieste books are purchased singly - on demand, however they may also be purchased in bulk. Readers interested in bulk purchases are invited to contact us directly to enquire about our tailored bulk rates.
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