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If blood is drawn, even the tiniest bit, it is supposed to be filed to the Ministry of Health. Pat Gillick usually sweeps the floor and tells stories as he waits for his turn in the chair. The majority of their clients bring their children and grandchildren in, deeming a Frank and Jimmy haircut as a Toronto rite of passage. At Cabbagetown, we always want our clients to leave with a smile. Nascosta tra Carlton e Parliament, si trova il loro salone di barbiere.

I due amici, grazie alla perizia nel tagliare i capelli ed al loro pungente umorismo sono diventati un punto di riferimento del paesaggio torontino. Jimmy, nato a Gesualdo Avellino , e Frank, nato a Roccamorice Abruzzo , si sono incontrati nel quando Jimmy era andato a tagliarsi i capelli al Trade School, salone dove lavorava Frank. Hanno appreso il mestiere a West Park nel e in seguito alla Barber School dove hanno studiato e fatto pratica su pazienti malati di cancro e anziani, per poi ottenere il diploma alla Toronto Barber School. Jimmy descrive la loro chimica in termini di hockey: Dopo aver completato la Barber School, i due si sono ritrovati allo Sheraton Centre dove hanno lavorato per Joseph De Francesco, un grande maestro per entrambi.

Se andate al salone di barbiere di Frank. Hanno lavorato allo Sheraton dal al per poi decidere di mettersi in proprio. Hanno comprato il D. Anche il minimo taglio della pelle, doveva essere segnalato al Ministero della Salute. Siamo quindi orgogliosi di essere rimasti leali al nostro modo collaudato di lavorare. Pat Gillick di solito spazza il pavimento e racconta qualche aneddoto mentre aspetta il suo turno sulla sedia. Frank fa il filosofo quando dice che sta invecchiando con i suoi clienti.

There are hairstylists that send me clients to do a barber shave. The difference is that the hairstylists make clients pay for the time they spend while I can do a cut in 5 minutes for half the price. The first barber shops in Ancient Greece and Rome acted as a social club for men, where they enjoyed long conversations about philosophy, politics, or communal matters. Visiting the barber shop was a weekly and sometimes daily habit.

Men would stop in not only for a haircut and a shave, but also to fraternize with friends and chew the fat. The moment a man stepped inside, he was enveloped in the warm and welcoming familiarity. Men started to grow their hair longer and shaggier, and their visits to the barber became less frequent or stopped completely. Young people want something more exciting. Recent health regulations are once-more threatening the vitality of these centres of manliness. At first, there were only barber shops, and now hairstylists and barbers co-exist.

He had been cutting hair in Italy for two local barbers, but when he moved to Toronto, he had to start all over: Clair and has been working there for the past 40 years. Macchia Valfortore CB Price: Then at 17 I began at a local barber shop and then came to Canada two years later. From then on I always cut hair Why did you become a barber? No, nei paesi impari a guardare e a lavorare Philosophy: Keep your clients happy and stay with the times.

He was lucky enough to start working as a barber after two weeks of training. His boss, an Italian from Caserta NA , welcomed him at his shop and treated him as if he were his son. When he passed away, Corrado inherited his barber shop. Corrado Piro il pero Birthplace: Pachino SR , alla punta della Sicilia Price: Poi ho incontrato mia moglie, ora siamo sposati da 50 anni, abbiamo una famiglia Philosophy: Marcello Mastroianni Favourite cut: When barbers only use a buzzer. You need to put more care into a cut than that!

After working for five years in a barber shop on Eglinton and Bathurst, he opened his own business at the Royal York Hotel in Dipignano CS Cutting hair since: I learned from my father in a salon in Dipignano. I did my first shave at 7. When I arrived from Luxembourg, where it was customary to use a razor, I participated in several competitions in Boston and in New York.

I also won the Canadian championship at the King Edward Hotel, where almost no one knew how to use a razor Philosophy: Quality to be a good barber: Your hand needs to be steady and your eyes sharp. You also need to be able to adapt to different situations Worst haircut: Taglio classico, capelli medium-length, con la riga. La rifinitura nel taglio del capello Thing you would never do: I did all types of cuts in my career — fades, tails, brush cuts I prefer a more refined clientle. Who cuts your hair? I cut my own hair. With the few I have left, I can buy a brush and give myself a shoe shine!

What do you think of hairdressers? I do a quick job and make people happy Clientele: Some politicians and big businessmen About retiring: Ogni tanto mi chiedono di fargli la barba in testa Stress and being rushed Favourite thing about your job: I have clients that first came in at 12 years-old who are now in their sixties Who cuts your hair? Sometimes my assistant Adam who comes in on Sundays, or some of my friends What do you think of hairdressers? Trick of the trade: Essere svegli e veloci. La gente si stanca a stare sulla sedia Thing you would never do: Un taglio o una barba cattiva.

Hai un rasoio in mano, se sbagli lo tagli! About the decline of the trade: Oggi quasi nessuno impara. Bisogna imparare come abbiamo imparato noi a pigliare la scopa e pulire, poi fare la saponata, la barbetta ai ragazzi di 16 anni, poi a tuo padre, a tuo zio, ai vicini. You build a business like it should be My clients are my stories. They come from all over - Sault St. Marie, San Francisco, Hong Kong Ogni cliente ha il suo taglio Strangest request: Veramente non ne ho mai avuta nessuna. Qui viene tutta gente di ufficio, dottori, avvocati Who cuts your hair?

My colleagues Quality to be a good barber: The way you present yourself. You need to be polite, speak well, and treat your clients with respect What do you think of hairdressers? To each their own profession. Fino a quando stiamo bene si lavora. In , he opened his own shop and has been loving it ever since. Alanno PE Why did you become a barber: My father was a barber. When I attended elementary school, I used to cut my eye-brows using clippers and get reprimanded by my father for doing it! Rovito CS Why did you become a barber?

Ero un ragazzo, avevo 12 anni, pulivo, poi ho imparato i capelli, la barba, ecc. It takes years of training. You need a lot of experience to get it right. You need to respect your clients to get respect back Favourite thing about your job: I get many Professors and Senators Favourite cut: Anything with a fade Worst cut: Non mi piaceva la square con la riga e il brush cut era molto difficile. Who cuts your hair: When Toronto had employees working for Hydro Canada, they would come in at a time.

I had to make them happy and do it quickly! I work three days a week. I capelli come i galli, le creste. Io non li faccio, li passo alle ragazze. We get doctors from Mount Sinai, lawyers, and everyday people Thing you love about your job: I also have to thank Canada because I came with nothing and was able to have an honest and quiet life Who cuts your hair? My daughters or other girls here at the salon What do you think of hairdressers?

Not much of a difference, just the number of female clients About retiring: I come here to keep the place in order About the decline of the trade: Se sei professionale e sai lavorare, non muore mai. In , he opened his business Promenade and moved it to Charles St. The barber shop was located inside the building for 42 years until Dollarama bought the location in Faccio anche il colore per gli uomini vanitosi! Why did you become a barber? I always liked to work with people. I would go to school in the morning and to the salon in the afternoon.

I first had to sweep up hair for a year and then graduated to washing hair. After two years, I was allowed to give my friends, my brother and my boss shaves. Quando vieni qui devi avere la terza media. Tornavo a casa a mezzanotte Quality to be a good barber: You need to be nice to your clients — treat them right.

It was very difficult at times, but I always kept my cool The age of 14 Thing you love about your job: I have no stress. Io voglio essere uno dei primi, uno dei migliori. Anche quando giocavo al pallone o al nuoto in Italia, era questa la mia filosofia. One client wanted a half-shaved head with a line of hair going down the middle Trick of the trade: Usare la tovaglia calda 2 volte, ammorbidisce la pelle e fa uscire i peli.

Nobody wants to take the time to learn to be a barber. When Salvatore came to Canada in the 60s, he started to work in Scarborough with two other partners from the same town. His father-in-law, Pasquale, who had been a barber for over 65 years, decided to retire in and Salvatore inherited his barber shop, now located in front of the Art Gallery of Ontario. Pachino SR Cutting hair for: My brother was in Canada, and before I came he told me: My mother would bring me there. Essere sempre amichevoli e sorridenti con i clienti.

They had been partners for 35 years, until Sam retired to Wasaga Beach. Today, Nick is still one of the best barbers on College St. I started out in Italy. My mother would send me to learn after school to keep me off the streets. In those days it was my favourite thing to do Philosophy: Bobby grew up in Woodbridge and attended Marvel Hair Studios. The year-old hair-stylist is part-owner of Colour Central Hair Studios. Why did you become a hairstylist?

Hairstyling is in my blood Who taught you? My father started in Sicily at 11 years old learning how to shave and cut hair on dead bodies. Education is important and I never stop learning Italian roots? My mother and father both hail from the town of Delia in Sicily Strangest request from a customer: A gentleman asked me to give him the look of grey hair to look more distinguished Favourite part of the job: Seeing the smile on my.

Thing you love about your job: Parlare con la gente. Loro ti parlano di cose familiari, la moglie, i figli, il lavoro, i problemi He hardly spoke; he was a serious person, while I was always joking around. He would tell me: Do their hair and throw them out! Ci vuole passione, immaginazione per vedere i visi dei clienti e immaginare come ci starebbe uno stile. Devi fare quello che dicono, ma se puoi suggerire I can do anything, but time is money Who cuts your hair: A friend of mine who has a barber shop close to my house.

By myself I would need four hands! I had to learn how to be a hairdresser as well. Noi siamo gli operai del cliente. Bisogna cercare di accontentarli Favourite cut: Basic cut Worst cut: Punk rock Strangest request: Someone asked me to only shave the top of his head Who cuts your hair? Il mio ex socio, Sam. Io li taglio a lui, lui a me What do you think of hairdressers? Ho imparato con la pratica, poi in Canada ho preso la licenza.

Sono andato a scuola per 6 mesi per pratica e teoria. Allora era come la George Brown. In Italia, potevi solo guardare ma non toccare About retiring: It depends on my health. For now, I still feel like working About the decline of the trade: Even if there are fewer now, there will always be one nearby. I love to make people happy Qualities of a good stylist: Creativity, passion and understanding. Find the most suitable cut based on the parameters of the person and never stop learning. Style and aesthetics are always evolving and it is important to adapt to suit the needs of your clients Decline of the barber, rise of stylist?

For the majority, service is lacking. People want service and they want to feel unique. Ponytail cut - all layers with ponytails which maintains shape and graduates from short to long. Bobby bang — 3 in 1 bang short fringe with side ponytail and full fringe that is side swept and placed to the side. Corpi restituiti alla famiglie senza troppe spiegazioni come quello del fratello di Hamid, Alborz, 48 anni, una moglie e due figli.

Quelli detenuti nella sezione , come Hamid, sono prigionieri di coscienza, molte volte condannati a morte senza prove e senza processo, spesso torturati nella mente e nel corpo. Ti hanno fatto il regalo di compleanno. Quanti non si sa. Ha perfino firmato la sua condanna a morte. Antonella lo sente le poche volte in cui lui riesce a chiamare: Una manciata di minuti per consolarsi a vicenda e rimettere insieme i passi della campagna che Antonella sta portando avanti per liberarlo. Indeed, if not for this tragic fact, I would have been named Michael, after my grandfather, instead of Salvatore.

The subject pained him so. Whenever I pressed him for more details about this enigmatic, war-fallen uncle whose name I carried, he would give me cryptic fragments.

The Third Industrial Revolution: A Radical New Sharing Economy

I knew only that my uncle was a few years older than my father, that they had grown up so poor they shared a bed and one pair of good shoes, and that he had been, in some vague, half-realized way, a good man, a good soul, perhaps someone capable of great things, and someone who had mattered deeply to my family. Of the few things my father did say about my uncle before he himself died of lung cancer in , he never said that he died on the Russian front, only that he went missing there, something I had always found disquieting.

Growing up during the Soviet era, and prone to the fancies of an overactive imagination, as a youth I walked around with this half-baked notion of my uncle Salvatore alive and well, living in Moscow, wearing a ushanka, speaking Russian. This went so far that when a ship flying what I thought was a Soviet flag floated into the Hamilton Harbour, not far from my house, I wondered if my uncle was on it. That was, until my neighbour Patty Sullivan pointed out it was the Turkish flag. More than twenty years after my father died I visited Bompensiere, his home town in the rugged Sicilian province of Caltanissetta.

I had been there as a child with my family but this was my first trip as an adult. Get in on the ground floor and rise with us. Send a covering e-mail telling us why you want a sales career in print media sales and your resume to: I learned that my father had been a bit of a troublemaker as a young man, particularly when Salvatore departed for combat, and that my uncle himself was a gentleman, a charmer.

For years they harboured the impossible hope that somewhere he was still alive. She went on to tell me that back in the s, an unscrupulous man in nearby Racalmuto had taken advantage of that hope and swindled my grandparents into believing Salvatore, traumatized from the war, was living in Palermo.

Needless to say, the man took their money, they went to Palermo, but never found their son. Then my aunt said something that made my heart leap. The letters, dated from July to December , and hastily written in the ornate calligraphy of the time, immediately struck me on a number of counts. Non riferite mai, a voce o per iscritto, notizie che riguardano il vostro servizio. Tacete con tutti; anche con i vostri cari! The letters are touchingly addressed.

This date coincides with one of the last letters received from my uncle Salvatore before they ceased altogether. In , well into his third year of studies at York University in History and Political Science, Cianciulli realized that his ambitions were very different than the ones his parents had laid out for him. Just as he was saving up for a big European trip before beginning Law School the next Fall, the young man was able to seize an important opportunity. Called upon to temporarily replace an employee on maternity leave at ConferTech conference calling center, Frank immediately accepted a second job offer at Darome Teleconferencing now Bell Conferencing that would change his life forever.

When Darome was eventually sold, the trusting atmosphere that had once kept Frank tied to the company had suddenly changed: I thought I should start my own conferencing company, but I had no formal business education, no idea how to create a business plan. In my model, having other entrepreneurs who are passionate and educated in their field, who want to invest in this opportunity, is a better way to duplicate my leadership rather than scaling out into a larger organization.

When I took that leap of faith, failure was not an option. Frank Cianciulli was only 23 when he embarked on his first entrepreneurial adventure. Now Chairman and CEO of Wish Group, a network of businesses in the conference calling sector which extends throughout Canada, the young Italian-Torontonian is one of the most accomplished under 40 business owners in the country.

A proud history of staffing the factory, restaurant, banquet facility, hotel, clerical and general labour industries for over 15 years within GTA. Committed to offering our applicants and business clients the highest level of customer service to meet your employment or staffing needs! Be it part-time, full-time or weekends! I watched my dad courageously battle cancer for five years. He persevered and never complained and fought his illness with dignity while still maintaining a wonderful sense of humour.

The image of seeing someone you love so much, who has always been there, take his last breath while I held his hand is something I will never forget. I have often asked myself, "What would I do, if I had one more day to spend with my dad? He had many titles including a loving and devoted husband, father, grandfather, uncle and friend just to name a few and he brought much joy to everyone he touched. I think our day would definitely start with a Tim Horton's coffee and a few donuts which he really enjoyed.

I would love to hear his stories again of what it was like growing up in Toronto, his first few jobs as a young man, his 57 Chevy Convertible that he sold when he married my mother and of course raising four sons. I think that we would then go for a drive and visit the old neighbourhoods, remembering what it was like. The rest of the day I would love to see my dad doing what gave him the most joy which was sitting around the dinner table enjoying a plate of nonna's home made gnocchi with all his sons and their families. The day could end with dad singing and playing his guitar or harmonica surrounded by us all.

You left us on March 27, and not a day goes by that I don't think of you! I wish we had a few more years, but that would be selfish, you suffered enough. Love always, Len Mizzoni. Annina Lanzillotta Boscaglia If just for one day I could see you again My mother always made sure that there was food to eat and never made you leave until you had a full stomach.

She was this way with anyone who went to visit; no one ever left her home empty handed. Where two eat, three can eat. My mother had the strength and courage of a lion, living life without the knowledge of reading and writing. She was not given the privilege as a little girl to go to school and get an education.

Unfortunately, it was not a necessity at the time. She and her siblings had to work and help the family. She always taught us there is nothing to fear as long as we had faith in God and in ourselves. She taught us to walk with our heads held high and to never be ashamed of where we came from. My mother was a fighter. She fought for her rights on the job, making sure things were fair for her and her coworkers.

I know she is now in a better place but I do miss her so. Not one day goes by without wishing I could share another word with her, a hug, a smile, a cup of coffee. Ma, enjoy yourself because you are truly somewhere where all long to go one day. We miss you so much and we think of you ever day. You will always have a piece of our hearts. Parents are a wonderful gift from God. I lost not only a father, but also a best friend and mentor.

It is very difficult to lose a parent. Parents give so much to their children. My father was always so giving never expecting anything in return. Then, when all of a sudden he became sick with cancer, followed by a major stroke, it was especially difficult to watch such a strong and independent man endure great pain and degenerate. The day before my father passed away, I told him that we would go to Italy as soon as he was well and out of the hospital, so if I had one more day with him, we would spend it in our favourite city — Venice, Italy. There we would walk together while enjoying the breath-taking views that Venice has to offer.

I would listen to him tell me unending stories of how he would walk these streets as a boy and hear about what life was like during the war. He would always have a story for us. His stories were all special, because like fables, they would always have morals to them. From his stories, I would learn lessons of how to save money wisely, how to have patience when troubles strike, how to be a good person, etc.

After our relaxing ride, we would hit the shops and end off the day for dinner in the square. Once the splendid day was over, I would also wish for a thousand more! A year may have gone by since we lost him, but he is still very much alive in our hearts, thoughts, and prayers. I love him, miss him and look forward to one day be reunited with him again.

Want to share your story? Sometimes legend can trump history and as the ages have demonstrated, the romance of a less-than-factual story can endure for centuries on end. Just look at the 14th of February. Valentine has been largely dispelled since the Roman Catholic Church relabeled the feast day as a general commemoration on the liturgical calendar. What survives is the romantic theme attached to the legend, fostered over the centuries by great poets and authors such as Geoffrey Chaucer. So what makes February 14 such a strong symbol of romance?

Maybe the fact that its story derives from Italy? There seems to be some magnetism towards the Belpaese that makes it interchangeable with the celebration of love. And what about the opera? Paris may as well be a city with a few nice pastry shops and a fancy tower with Christmas lights when put side to side with Italy, an entire country associated with the concept of love.

Whether Romeo and Juliet were fact or fiction, Verona is without a doubt the perfect city for a pair of star crossed lovers. Surrounded by picturesque hillsides, castles and the Adige River, its pristine city centre is ideal to spend the day exploring. Stop on one of the bridges over the connecting rivers before heading for a candlelit aperitivo.

Piazzale Michelangelo with a one-of-a-kind view of Florence and the Tuscan countryside. Come in the late afternoon and stay for sunset. Marechiaro — immortalized in the song of the same name by poet Salvatore di Giacomo, this fishing village is perfect for a romantic stroll and dinner. Isole Eolie — a cluster of stunning islands off the northern coast of Sicily in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Rent a boat for the day and set off on your own little adventure to the islands of Lipari, Vulcano, Stromboli and Salina where Il Postino was filmed.

It is a place nestled less than twenty nautical miles off the coast of Naples, in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the largest of the Phlegrean Islands, with a rich history, authentic traditional cuisine, thermal springs and beautiful coastlines attracting over six million tourists every year to its enchanting shores. If you were asked for the name of this idyllic setting, the island of Capri would surely be your first guess. Cast your gaze inland for views of the meter tall Mont Epomeo, a landscape rife with lush foliage and outcroppings of volcanic rock.

This view is eclipsed only by looking over your shoulder to see a peaceful shoreline marked by the interplay of beaches, cliffs and thick greenery. Ischia is divided into six separate communes: Each of these places is as diverse and as wonderful as the next. It is filled with tiny shops, original artists producing one-of-a-kind pieces, delicious Neapolitan foods, spices, and the typical Ischitan liqueurs: Rucolino a liqueur based on Arugula and Limoncello. The beauty and authenticity of this place is accentuated by il Castello Aragonese, an old castle first built in BC by Hiero I of Syracuse.

It sits perched on a naturally occurring peer. A short drive or delightful walk away, one finds S. Angelo, a beautiful coastal town with a variety of seaside seafood restaurants serving up the Neapolitan special spaghetti alle vongole. For all of its natural splendour, the main reason that tourists come to the island is to benefit from the numerous thermal spas and volcanic mud baths that occur naturally on the island as a direct result of the constant volcanic activity: They help alleviate persistent aches, pains, and a variety of dermatological problems because of their temperature and unique natural composition.

The history of the Terme goes back to the seventh century when the Euboins, a Greek people, first discovered them on the island. Recent archaeological discoveries prove that the Greeks used the thermal waters to replenish and heal the body and soul. In fact, the Greeks used the thermal waters to treat war wounds in a time period where there were no antibiotics. They attributed supernatural powers to the waters, and the fact that many of the old thermal baths still standing in Ischia today have statues of the Greek gods Apollo and Delfi lend credence to this assertion.

If the Greeks were the discoverers, the Romans transformed the use of the Terme into one of public benefit. They built large edifices where all of the locals could go and make use of the Terme in different ways. The Terme came into disuse throughout the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, Giulio Iasolino, a Calabrian doctor, fascinated by the island and its volcanic activity, decided to study the phenomenon scientifically. His book sparked interest in the Terme and put them back on track to become the popular tourist destination they are today. The health benefits that Iasolino descibed have been so pronounced that.

In modern times, to experience the Terme to their absolute fullest, one needs to visit Forio. Situated twenty meters from the sea, one finds the Giardini Poseidon, a thermal park that has every amenity imaginable. It is the culmination of what Ischia has to offer. The island of Ischia has everything an individual could want for a relaxing vacation.

As the Greeks first believed, and the Romans asserted after them, Ischia truly is a remedy for the soul. Both regions are home to extraordinary art and architecture, colourful festivals, genuine cuisines, and picture-perfect green landscapes. Its serene landscapes, stunning sights and picturesque hill towns still look almost as they do in the canvases painted by Perugino and Raphael four centuries ago. Midway between Florence and Rome is the grand hill town of Orvieto, which sits majestically 1, feet above the valley floor on a large butte of tufo, a sandy, volcanic rock.

Therefore, the process of translation must involve a certain degree of interpretation on the part of the translator. As Nida describes it, the message in the receptor language should match as closely as possible the different elements of the source language; constant comparison of the two is necessary to determine accuracy and correspondence.

One must reproduce as literally and meaningfully the form and content of the original, and make as close an approximation as possible. One should identify with the person in the source language, understand his or her customs, manner of thought, and means of expression. A good translation should fulfil the same purpose in the new language as the original did in the source language. It should have the feel of the original. This would seem to be a prescription which most anthropologists should follow in their own fieldwork. Chiaramente, distinzioni di questo tipo sono significative per qualsiasi traduzione.

Fino a che punto una traduzione riproduce il testo o gli enunciati originali? Inoltre il processo traduttivo richiede un certo grado di interpretazione da parte del traduttore. Nella lingua ricevente, una buona traduzione deve prefiggersi lo stesso obiettivo del testo originale nella lingua emittente. Questa sembrerebbe una norma che gli antropologi devono rispettare durante il lavoro sul campo. The solution, as he sees it, is some sort of dynamic equivalence that balances both concerns.

Though the equivalence should be source-oriented, at the same time it must conform to and be comprehensible in the receptor language and culture. Nida goes into details in his volume, The Science of Translation, regarding the methods the translator should use to get the closest approximation of the source language, including using footnotes to illuminate cultural differences when close approximations cannot be found. This is what has been referred to above as glossing. He also talks about problems of translating the emotional content of the original, and the need to convey the sarcasm, irony, whimsy, and emotive elements of meaning of the original Nida in Venuti Bisogna a ogni modo ricordare che il lavoro di Nida nasce da valori missionari, visto che lui ha sviluppato la sua scienza traduttiva con il chiaro obiettivo di essere usata dai missionari nei loro compiti di traduzione biblica e di testi religiosi a disposizione di persone che parlano lingue diverse in varie parti del mondo.

The differences of the foreign text are to be stressed. A foreignized translation is one which reflects and emphasizes the cultural differences between source and target languages. No concessions should be made to make the description more acceptable and palatable to the target audience except for intelligibility.

Different societies have different traditions regarding translation. Fluency is the dominant idea for the English. This means that there is a preference for the use of current English usage in translation, rather than colloquial and archaic language though the translator may see the latter as more suitable in conveying the meanings and genre of the original. The importance of immediate intelligibility is associated with the purely instrumental use of language and the emphasis on facts Venuti One must realize in the target language the textual relations of the source language with no breach of the target language basic linguistic system.

Le differenze del testo straniero devono essere accentuate. La traduzione estraniante riflette e accentua le differenze culturali tra lingua emittente e lingua ricevente. Nella lingua ricevente si devono rendere le relazioni testuali della lingua emittente senza violare il sistema linguistico basilare della lingua ricevente. However, incompatibilities will always be present which must be dealt with by additional discussion and contextualization, what we called glossing above. Clearly, anthropologists need to deal with these different aspects of translation and to concern themselves with which kind of balance should be achieved in the work that they do.

An important point raised, which relates more directly to translations by anthropologists, is that the foreign text depends upon its own culture for intelligibility.

It is therefore usually necessary to supply supplementary information, annotations and the like to anthropological translations. This is what is referred to as glossing. This is especially necessary when the source language and its culture have no exact linguistic and cultural equivalent in the target language. Irreducible differences in language and culture, the inherent indeterminacy of language, as well as the unavoidable instability of the signifying process, are seen as problems which must be overcome if one is to do a translation. Translation is doomed to inadequacy because of irreducible differences not only between languages and cultures, but within them as well.

The view that language itself is indeterminate and the signifying process unstable would seem to preclude the possibility of any kind of adequate translation. Chiaramente, gli antropologi devono affrontare questi differenti aspetti della traduzione e devono preoccuparsi del tipo di equilibrio da conferire al lavoro che stanno facendo. Questa si rivela particolarmente necessaria quando la lingua emittente e la sua cultura non hanno un equivalente linguistico e culturale nella lingua ricevente.

When a text is retranslated at a latter period in time, it frequently differs from the first translation because of the changes in the historical and cultural context. Translation is a re-codification, a transfer of codes. Synonymy is not necessarily possible, but a form of translation can still take place. The inadequacies of the translation must be dealt with in an accompanying commentary. The transformations, which a translation embodies, should take place on the semantic, syntactic and discursive levels. It can never and should never aim to remove these dissimilarities entirely.

A translated text should be the site at which a different culture emerges, where a reader gets a glimpse of a cultural other and resistency. Le inadeguatezze della traduzione vanno affrontate con commentari aggiuntivi. La trasformazione, incorporata nella traduzione, deve verificarsi a livello semantico, sintattico e discorsuale. To Venuti, translation has become a battleground between the hegemonic forces — the target culture and language, and the formerly subjugated non-Western world.

The nature of translation must be shifted to emphasize the resistance of the latter to the domination of the former. Where does translation in anthropology stand in this ongoing dialogue in Translation Studies? This begins in the field, in the recording of information, and continues in the analysis of data and in decisions as to the nature of the ethnographic text which will be produced.

On the other hand, the text must be comprehensible to the readership of that text, professional or non-professional. In the final analysis, it is a matter of the balance or trade-off between the need to be comprehensible to the particular readership of the text and the need to convey as much of the original as is possible. The question at issue is how to achieve this balance. Translations should, in the final analysis, negotiate the linguistic and cultural differences between the source language and culture and that of the target audience for the translation. La natura della traduzione va spostata in modo da enfatizzare la resistenza di queste ultime alla dominazione delle prime.

A questo proposito, le osservazioni di Venuti sono simili alla posizione della maggior parte degli antropologi. In definitiva, la traduzione deve negoziare le differenze linguistiche e culturali tra la lingua e la cultura emittente e quella del pubblico ricevente. And it is necessary to see the process of translation, on the one hand, as a complex of interlinguistic, intralinguistic, and intersemiotic translations, and on the other hand, as a complex of linguistic, cultural, economic, and ideological activity.

Translators work at the boundaries of languages, cultures, and societies. They position themselves between the poles of specificity and adaptation in accordance with the strategies of their translational behaviour. They either preserve the otherness of the other or they transform the other into self. By the same token, they cease to be simple mediators, because in a semiotic sense they are capable of generating new languages for the description of a foreign language, text, or culture, and of renewing a culture or of having an influence on the dialogic capacity of a culture with other cultures as well as with itself.

In this way, translators work not only with natural languages but also with metalanguages, languages of description. One of the missions of the translator is to increase the receptivity and dialogic capability of a culture, and through these also the internal variety of that culture. As mediators between languages, translators are important creators of new metalanguages.

In quanto mediatori tra lingue, i traduttori sono importanti creatori di metalinguaggi. The status of translation and the translator have changed from one historical era to the next, and at the beginning of the 21st century we are confronting the need for a complex understanding of them both. At the core of this complex understanding is the universality of translation. The universality of translation comes from its connections with thought processes.

For Lotman everything begins with the need for dialogue: The need for dialogue can be viewed either at the level of a comprehensive theoretical understanding or at the level of the deep-seated mechanism of individual behavior. The need for dialogue is tied in a complementary way both to the needs of an audience, which can be studied in the theory of mass communication McQuail , and to various personal needs self-understanding, enjoyment, escapism and social needs knowledge about the world, self-confidence, stability, self-esteem, the strengthening of connections with family and friends in the theory of communication Fiske Any form of identity also depends on the need for dialogue.

At the core of personal, national, or social identity is recognition of the boundary between self and other. The boundary not only divides but also unites and thus participates in dialogic processes. To a large extent dialogue within the boundaries depends on dialogue at the boundaries. Questa deriva dai legami della traduzione stessa con i processi di pensiero. Come afferma Jurij Lotman: Questo confine oltre a dividere unisce, e in questo modo prende parte ai processi dialogici. In larga misura, il dialogo entro i confini dipende dal dialogo ai confini.

Letteratura artistica: maggio

What does translation process mean from the methodological viewpoint? A cognitive, linguistic, cultural or social process can take place between minds, languages, cultures and societies, but it can also take place within a single mind, language, culture or society. Inevitably, all these processes have to be described in very different description languages metalanguages , and it would be very difficult to create disciplinary unity in these analyses and descriptions. Therefore, the translation process has to be brought closer to its beginning and to its end.

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The process of translation happens between two messages or two texts. In the beginning there is the original and at the end there is the translation. The original and the translation are simultaneously both the beginning and the end of the process as well as the cause and the result of the process. Focusing on the process of translation as the main object of research in a science of translation makes it possible to typologize translations as the principle means of transmission of one set of languages-texts-cultures by another.

But it does not negate the necessity of also seeing other parameters in the process of translation, in the first place economic and ideological aspects of translation that are in turn associated with professional ethics or with the professional ethics of the translator. The practice of translation is even more complex, and the behaviour of the translator and the quality of his work do not depend solely on his linguistic or literary abilities. Il processo traduttivo deve essere quindi avvicinato maggiormente al suo inizio e alla sua fine.

Il processo traduttivo avviene tra due messaggi o due testi. The translator is simultaneously a mediator, creator, producer, manager, critic, and sometimes ideologue. All of these roles make up various aspects of cultural behaviour and can be correlated to the entire textual corpus of a culture. An actualization of the various cultural and social roles of the translator reflects the general effort of analysts toward a complex understanding of the phenomenon of translation in the processes of culture.

Each culture develops in its own way, has its own technological environment and its own traditions of analyzing culture texts. In the process of description and understanding, an important role is played by the multiplicity of texts, by the interrelatedness of communication with metacommunication. The multiplicity of texts makes it possible to view communication processes as translation processes. But besides immediate textual transformations, the analysis of these transformations — that is, their translation into various metalanguages — has a strong significance in culture.

Both in the case of textual transformations and their translations into metalanguages, an important role is performed by the addressees, their ability to recognize the nature of the text at hand, and their readiness to communicate. Just as in translation culture, there is also an infinite retranslation and variation taking place in translation studies. In order to understand different aspects of translation activity, new description languages are constantly being created in translation studies, and the same phenomena are at different times described in different metalanguages.

1. Prefazione

Come nella cultura traduttiva, anche nella scienza della traduzione troviamo una ritraduzione e una variazione infinita. When the diversity of actual translation activity takes a form different from the diversity of scientific approaches to that activity, then one can speak of a methodological crisis, of the hybridization or creolization of scientific languages. A new, comprehensive approach in the science can provide one way out of the given situation. Another way is a review of the history of the discipline and a search there for the lost unity within that discipline.

The works of Roman Jacobson provide such a critical point for the history of translation science. Although Jacobson wrote about translation, he was not a translation theorist. He saw translation within the framework of his understanding of the processes of communication, and without this background it is difficult to understand correctly his specific meditations on translation activity.

Le opere di Roman Jakobson offrono uno spunto nella storia della scienza della traduzione. Sebbene Jakobson abbia scritto sulla traduzione, non era un teorico della traduzione. On the one hand, the given model ties its components to various functions of language: On the other hand, along with the various functions of language, it is also important for Jakobson to distinguish two principle levels of language — the level of objective language and the level of metalanguage: He begins from the metalinguistic aspect of the linguistic development of a child: But the development of a child corresponds to the development of an entire culture.

For the development of a culture, it is important that the natural language of this culture satisfy all the demands for the description of foreign or of new phenomena and by the same token ensure not only the dialogic capacity but also the creativity and integrity of the culture, its cultural identity: Da un lato il modello dato collega i suoi componenti a varie funzioni del linguaggio: In this way, the above-mentioned role of translators as creators of new metalanguages languages of description and languages of dialogue is vitally important for a culture.

The very concept of metalanguage turns out to be important both at the level of scientific languages and at the level of everyday communication.


From complementarity comes a more flexible approach to the translatable, since natural language manifests itself as a universal means of communication: Complementarity also extends to the definition of types of translation. The concept of interpretation becomes generalized: As a result, it is possible to speak of three types of translation: If the matter concerns poetic translation or translation of the untranslatable, then Jakobson applies the concept of transposition:. Only creative transposition is possible: In sum, alongside objective language and metalanguage arises the complemetary pair — interpretation and transposition.

This complementarity leads to still another — the complementarity of code-units and of the message as a whole. The translator works simultaneously with the code-units of languages and with complete messages, with a plan of expression and content, with object- and meta-language, and the division not only into three types of translation but also into two simultaneous translation processes comes precisely from an understanding of this:.

Such a translation is a reported speech: Thus translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes. Insomma, accanto al linguaggio oggetto e al metalinguaggio si presenta la coppia complementare: In questo modo la traduzione coinvolge due messaggi equivalenti in due codici diversi Jakobson The concept of the dominant is significant for the description of translation practice, since underlying various descriptions of the method of a translation or a translator is a determination of that element or level of the text considered most important by the translator.

The type of textual integrity also depends on the selection of the dominant for translation, since the authorial dominant underlies the integration of elements in the entire text. Jakobson sums up the research in the following way: From the point of view of contemporary translation practice and of theoretical or critical thought on this practice, the distinction underlined by Jakobson between communication and information is significant: Thus, translations that deprive the original of authorship, age, nationality, or genre become simply information about the original.

The same can be observed on the narrative level, when various points of view in the text are not distinguished, or are mixed-up or reconceptualized for details see: Uno di questi aspetti risale a una relazione avvenuta nel lontano e pubblicata per la prima volta nel Jakobson riassume questa ricerca come segue: The second aspect of the above-mentioned article flows from the first. The integrating dominant presupposes the existence of a hierarchy in the structure of the message text.

But the process of communication is also viewed hierarchically by Jakobson, so that a comprehension of his model of communication has to rest not so much on a statistical, theoretical basis as on a dynamic, empirical one. Jakobson in his article calls for a consideration of the specificity of each act of communication and correspondingly sees in the act of communication an hierarchy not only of linguistic but also of semiotic functions:.

The cardinal functions of language — referential, emotive, conative, phatic, poetic, and metalingual — and their different hierarchy in the diverse types of messages have been outlined and repeatedly discussed. This pragmatic approach to language must lead mutatis mutandis to an analogous study of the other semiotic systems: The linguistic and semiotic aspects of communication are interrelated. Questo approccio pragmatico nei confronti della lingua deve portare mutatis mutandis a uno studio analogo degli altri sistemi semiotici: Gli aspetti linguistici e semiotici della comunicazione sono correlati tra loro.

Secondo Jakobson una scienza della comunicazione integrata comprende tre livelli disciplinari:. Jakobson in another article distinguishes only two sciences from a semantic point of view — a science of verbal signs or linguistics and a science of all possible signs or semiotics Jakobson Against this background, it is important to remember the universality of the concept of translation.

Many processes in the sphere of contiguity between linguistics and semiotics become prominent precisely in translation. But very often Jakobson makes use of the concepts of verbalized, non-verbalized, and verbalizable, whereby verbalizable signifies translatability into verbal messages see for example Jakobson When speaking of language as a communicative tool, one must remember that its primary role, interpersonal communication, which bridges space, is supplemented by a no less important function which may be characterized as intrapersonal communication.

Linguistically, this means that problems of interlinguistic and intralinguistic translation largely coincide; psychologically, it means that. In un altro articolo Jakobson distingue solo due discipline da un punto di vista semantico: And in the context of Jakobson it follows that we stress once again the homogeneity between internal and external in relation to the person or culture. Even-Zohar appears thus Even-Zohar On the one hand, Even-Zohar was one of the first translation theorists to introduce the concept of the market into the problematic of translation.

Along with the market, the publisher as the consumer or as the representative of the consumer of a translation becomes important. La trasformazione del modello di Jakobson proposta da I. Even-Zohar appare come segue Even-Zohar The translation itself from an economic point of view becomes a saleable commodity, and the price of this commodity will play a role in its consumption.

But the translation as a new text for the receiving culture is often in need of advertisement, or presentation to future readers. This means that along with the new book as a verbal text, various forms of advertisement also enter the culture. In this way, the verbal text receives its visual or audio-visual image. Above we showed the special significance for Jakobson of the metalinguistic function.

In questo modo il testo verbale riceve la sua immagine visiva e audiovisiva. Fuertes-Olivera e i suoi coautori cercano di comprendere la comunicazione pubblicitaria sulla base del modello di Jakobson Fuertes-Olivera Repertoire depends on both the institution and the market. In a revised version, the author distinguishes the concepts of active and passive repertoire: In the case of handling, or consuming, on the other hand, we can speak of a passive operation, or a passive repertoire. Nel caso del manipolare, o del consumare, possiamo parlare di operazione passiva, o repertorio passivo.

From the application of this model for the description of advertising communication comes the problem of the intersemiotic nature of metalanguages, since a verbal text can enter a culture and exist there with the support of non-verbal elements of the texts. The composition of endogenic parameters is also three-fold: Problems of ideology and economics are difficult to view in isolation, since the concept of the market already combines in itself aspects of both the local and the global market Apter The confluence of the economic and the ideological is especially characteristic of mass literature.

Along with neutralized texts in response to the pragmatic laws of mass culture, there are also ideological laws at work in culture. One example of the manifestation of such laws is the emergence within a repertoire or market of a particular local culture and a global mass culture and the attempt to establish an intermediate market and repertoire, for example, in the European community. Cronin associates this with the concepts of micro-cosmopolitanism and of the negentropic translational perspective:. What we would like to propose is precisely a way of thinking about translation and identity which is grounded in cultural negentropy.

The ideological problems of translation activity have become important both on an empirical and on a theoretical level compare: The introduction of an author into a culture is already ideologically and politically colored. The channels through which an author enters a culture by means of translation can be divided into two groups — the channel of authorized discourse and the channel of unauthorized discourse. Insieme a testi neutralizzati in risposta alle leggi pragmatiche della cultura di massa, ci sono inoltre leggi ideologiche che operano nella cultura.

I canali attraverso i quali un autore entra in una cultura mediante la traduzione possono essere divisi in due gruppi: Tra i discorsi autorizzati I. The image of the author has an effect not only on the audience but also on the text of the translation. The ideological aspect of translation activity is one of the factors that includes translation within the process of the autocommunication of a culture. Hermans has expanded the boundaries of the understanding of the phenomenon of translation with the help of the concept of ideology:. Paradoxically, this ideological slant is precisely what makes translation interesting as a cultural and historical phenomenon.

If it were a matter of technical code-switching only, translation would be as a photocopier. Translation is of interest because it offers first-hand evidence of the prejudice of perception. Cultures, communities and groups construe their sense of self in relation to others and by regulating the channels of contact with the outside world. In other words, the normative apparatus which governs the selection, production and reception of translation, together with the way translations are conceptualized at certain moments, provides us with an index of cultural self-definition.

It would be only a mild exaggeration to claim that translations tell us more about those who translate and their clients than about the corresponding source texts Hermans Se fosse solo una questione tecnica di code switching , la traduzione sarebbe come una fotocopiatrice. At the beginning of the present article we wrote about the needs that are satisfied in the process of communication. Translation theory has led in its development to problems of conflict, to problems not only of professional ethics but of the mission of the translator.

The mentality of conflict-events for the mass-media audience also depends on translators. On the one hand, translators, like journalists, can turn out to be politically engaged, because they work for a concrete channel of the mass-media, and this also means the representative of a particular position. Baker affirms on this point: The role of the translator becomes even more responsible when he is embedded among information sources about events or among journalists who are writing about these events Palmer In such a situation of translating an original, the motives and interests both of the source and of the translator come into play.

Hard conflicts are public events and immediately attract. Durante il suo sviluppo la teoria traduttiva ha portato a problemi di conflitto, a problemi non solo di etica professionale ma della missione del traduttore. Su questo punto M. In una situazione del genere in cui si traduce un originale, entrano in gioco le ragioni e gli interessi sia della fonte sia del traduttore.

I conflitti aspri sono eventi pubblici e, se solo il traduttore omette informazioni o fa errori, attraggono immediatamente. Soft conflicts are more latent and do not provoke stormy reactions in response:. In a translational context, soft conflicts often derive from cultural differences in value systems, social conventions and ways of thinking. If the target culture is dominant, then the translator will have to handle the target text carefully to minimise potential problems of miscomprehension, cultural discomfort or resistance on the part of the receiver.

Notwithstanding the fact that the source text may appear to be purpose-free, the translating act and target text are purpose-bound, and any translation must fulfill specific functions. Cultural discomfort, uneasiness or misunderstandings and unnecessary hatred or enmity are to be minimized in the target version Tang In soft conflicts, an interweaving of the ideological and psychological aspects of the translation is unavoidable.

For an understanding of the specifics of a translation activity, it is necessary to attempt to discriminate those ideological aspects in the text of the translation that trace back to the editorial board of a particular publication or to the editing of the mass-media. And that makes it appropriate to distinguish the method of the translation from the method of the translator.

The method of the translation signifies, on the one hand, the general rules or traditions of translation for a particular type of text, the overall understanding of what makes a high-quality or low-quality translation. It includes on the other hand those social, economic, and ideological norms to which the selection of texts and authors for translation is subordinated in a given society, the editing and the publishing of translations. In un contesto traduttivo, i conflitti tenui derivano spesso da differenze culturali tra sistemi di valori, convenzioni sociali e modi di pensare.

Questo ci porta a distinguere il metodo della traduzione dal metodo del traduttore. The method of the translation and the method of the translator can turn out to be in conflict, but they may also come together when the translator works above all for a customer and not for the author of the original. For example, depending on the motives of the translator or publisher, one and the same translation text may enter into various repertoires and have various artistic or ideological dominants.

Robinson writes, for example, about translation in a post-colonial context:. Translation plays three sequential but overlapping roles in postcolonial studies: Thus tabulated, three roles mark separate stages in a utopian narrative that informs much of postcolonial studies: In this way, the mentality of a certain historical era is realized in the translation and may depend both on the translator and on the publisher. Robinson per esempio scrive sulla traduzione in un contesto postcoloniale:. The portrait of translators derived from most reference books is not flattering — you might find that the Italians coined the catch-phrase traduttore, traditore translator, traitor.

Purchasers of language services are often unaware of the skill needed to recast text in a foreign tongue — the typical response to a translation request in many US corporations used to be: Translation is often thankless; ask a dozen marketing managers for their experience, and their only memories will be of translation errors. A professional translation does not enjoy praise — it merely avoids criticism Sprung It turns out that there is no single, universal ethic comparable to the Hippocratic oath in medicine. Chesterman has made a very serious attempt at a transition from communication to autocommunication, from various ethical models to a unified understanding of the professional ethics and likewise moral identity of the translator.

In his opinion, the concepts of the ethics of translation and the translator that exist in translation theory come down to four basic models. The first model is the ethics of representation, at the core of which lies fidelity to the original: The second model is the ethics of service. I committenti di un servizio linguistico spesso non si rendono conto delle competenze necessarie per riformulare un testo in una lingua straniera: Un traduttore professionale non riceve elogi, semplicemente evita le critiche Sprung The fourth model is norm-based ethics, the observation of which guarantees the acceptability of the translation.

The concept of trust is important here: By way of compensation, Chesterman proposes an ethics of commitment, which rests on a practical evaluation of translation activity: An awareness of duty is very close to an oath, and Chesterman calls for us to imagine an oath for translators, or a Hieronymic oath.

He first proposes nine points for this oath with the following key concepts for the comprehension of the professional ethics of translators: Understandably, these keywords are not only bearers of ethical principles — the identity and the self-awareness of translators depend on them as well. Research in the field of translation ethics well illustrates the efforts of one area of culture toward self-understanding and self-description.

Self-description is a process of autocommunication, and its result can be a self-modelling that fixes the dominants, the principles of unification, and the generative language of self-description. Lotman sees in culture three types of realization of self-modelling: The movement in the direction of a Hieronymic oath is the creation of a self-modelling of the second type, counting toward the change of existing practices.

But if we return to the problem, not of the translator, but of the translation, then it is possible to observe behind the dynamic of development two parallel self-modellings and correspondingly two types of metalanguage. And the mixture of these metalanguages illustrates the deep internal bond between processes of thought and metacommunicative processes in culture, and an understanding of this unity traces back to the work of Jakobson.

His differentiation of interlinguistic, intralinguistic, and intersemiotic translation is an attempt at the modelling of internal speech. Lotman ha definito la modellizzazione sulla base di una cultura in generale. Nella cultura Lotman distingue tre tipi di realizzazione della modellizzazione:. Zhinkin has shown the code-transitions within internal speech and the coexistence of verbal and representational codes. He has also extended the results of the analyis of internal speech to the processes of understanding: The semiotics of culture clarifies the difficulty of this process, where the comparability of personality and of culture as a collective personality is important.

In this way, if the three types of translation outlined by Jakobson reflect the simultaneity of three processes in the psychological process of translation, then the same simultaneous process takes place in culture. And the result is that the entire culture can be conceived of as a process of translation. The creative and mediating processes operating in culture can be treated as a communicative, metacommunicative and autocommunicative complex. Zhinkin ha mostrato le transizioni dei codici nel discorso interno e la coesistenza dei codici rappresentativi e verbali.

Tutti questi metatesti possono essere tipologizzati sulla base della classificazione di Jakobson. I processi creativi e mediativi che operano nella cultura possono essere trattati come un complesso comunicativo, metacomunicativo e autocomunicativo. The same happens with culture as a collective creator. Designed by brilliant aeronautical engineer Dante Giacosa, the Cinquecento was built to the tune of half a million units from to Powered by a 4-cylinder cc engine located in the front, this very small car 3. But war was looming again in Europe and Fiat, with its 55, employees, was asked to convert some of its capabilities to heavy industry.

The Fiat hit the market in and spread all over Europe. Success was immediate and this latest Cinquecento took the streets by storm, often replacing scooters and bicycles as preferred mode of transport of the working class. Just like the founders of the company had imagined on , Fiat became synonymous with affordable personal transportation. Flash forward to the 21st century; when brilliant Fiat executive, Five years later, in , a new baby is born: Called Lingotto because of its rectangular shape, it was the largest factory in Europe when completed in On top of its five storey structure is an oval track with two sharply inclined turns at each end for testing the cars completed on the fifth floor.

The Lingotto was decommissioned in and converted by renowned architect Renzo Piano to a modern complex, with concert halls, theatre, a convention centre, shopping arcades and a hotel. The eastern portion of the building houses the Automotive Engineering faculty of the Polytechnic University of Turin. The track was retained, and can still be visited today on the top floor of the shopping mall and hotel. Instructions Melt the chocolate and the sugar in a small saucepan over low heat.

Mix well, then remove from heat and pour the chocolate into clear heat-proof glasses. In equal parts, pour in the hot espresso, and complete with the cream or whipped cream on top. Istruzioni Fate sciogliere il cioccolato e lo zucchero in un pentolino a fiamma bassa. Instructions for the veal Marinate the meat in white wine with, bay leaf, cloves, sage and celery cut into pieces for about 24 hours, turning it 2 or 3 times. For the sauce Strain anchovies, tuna, hard-boiled egg yolks and half the capers and place everything in a tureen, adding vinegar, lemon juice and the remaining olive oil.

Blend well until smooth. Lasciate marinare per circa 24 ore, girandola due o tre volte. Poi bagnate con il vino della marinata e lasciate cuocere per altri 20 minuti. For serving Slice the cold meat thinly, arrange it in a plate and coat with the sauce, garnishing with the remaining capers. Per servire Affettate sottilmente la carne fredda e disponetela nei piatti, ricoprendola con la salsa e decorandola con i capperi rimanenti. Instructions for the meat Finely chop shallots, put them in a saucepan with the wine and herbs and cook over medium heat until the wine is reduced by one third.

Filter the liquid, pour it back into the same saucepan, and keep it warm. Cut fillets of beef into rounds of g each. Warm 30 g of butter and a spoonful of oil in a nonstick skillet. Once butter and oil become bubbly, cook the fillets over high heat for minutes per side, keeping the inner meat pink medium-rare. Keep the meat warm while heating up the wine; as soon as it starts boiling remove from heat and gradually add 50 g of butter cut into small pieces, beating the mixture with a whisk. Instructions for the side dish Cut carrots, zucchini, shallots and leek into julienne strips.

Arrange the fillets on dishes, pour over the remaining wine sauce left in the skillet, then garnish with the vegetables and the mushrooms.

Relatore Prof. Bruno OSIMO

Filtrate il liquido, riversatelo nella stessa casseruola e tenetelo al caldo. Tagliate dalla carne dei filetti da g ciascuno, di forma rotonda. Tenete la carne in caldo e nel frattempo riscaldate il vino; non appena inizia a bollire toglietelo dal fuoco e incorporatevi, gradualmente, 50 g di burro a pezzetti, sbattendolo con una frusta. Istruzioni per il contorno Tagliate a julienne le carote, le zucchine, lo scalogno e il porro, saltateli in padella per minuti, con olio extravergine, timo, sale e pepe, mantenendoli croccanti.

Tagliate i funghi a quadretti e cuoceteli con lo scalogno affettato e rosolato , la maggiorana, il burro, il sale e il pepe. Sistemate il filetto nei piatti ed aggiungete la salsa al vino rimasta nella padella, guarnite con le verdure e i funghi di contorno. One day Rosato happened to be watching Indiana Jones. At the time she was set on being an archeologist.

In her late teens Rosato took acting classes and soon secured an agent. A year later she landed her first paying role in an episode of the television sitcom, Fries With That. With a few credits under her belt, she went to Los Angeles to study acting and to break into the local scene. This year Rosato landed a big role in a new American show that allowed her to spend most of her summer shooting in Montreal. All 10 episodes of the drama series premiered on Crackle on November Her multilingual talents have served her well.

Rosato has worked on both English- and French-language shows, sometimes playing a character with an Italian or even Spanish accent. Once you start working with someone here, they want you to do well and keep working. But, Rosato admits, the opportunities in Canada are limited. She is grateful that she has been able to work on both sides of the border. This coming January, as pilot season begins in Los Angeles — when thousands of actors vie for roles in hundreds of new shows — Rosato will be there. She and her agents are gambling on the success of The Art of More to land her more roles. But they came around.

My grandmother is really happy for me, especially now when her friends call to tell her they saw me on television. Margherita is working on a movie based on the acquisition of an Italian company — affected by the economic crisis by an American one — whose general manager is played by an extraordinary John Turturro. Margherita finds herself both in the crux of a managerial drama and the approaching death of her mother, all while having to deal with her brother Giovanni Nanni Moretti , whose personality is very different from hers. Panoram Italia had the opportunity to meet with Nanni Moretti, the iconic Italian filmmaker, when he was in Toronto to promote the movie.

Have you noticed a difference in reception between Italian and Canadian audiences? In Italy, my being a public figure requires that I am constantly asked to intervene. Is he a left-winger? No one cares if I give few interviews or for which political party I vote. Nota differenze tra il pubblico italiano e quello canadese? Qui vedono il mio film e basta. Mi piace, non mi piace. In Canada, invece, la gente vede il film, si congratula e non gli interessa se rilascio poche interviste o per chi voto.

Not for comedies, not for dramas. I mix ingredients from both genres. What is important to me is to never be accidently ridiculous, such as happens when one wants to produce a serious film but instead gets laughter. The loss of a parent is a moment of transition to a new stage. Would it be correct to say that more than talking about grief, you are expressing our sense of inadequacy? Speaking of transition, of grief, there is a detail that is not explicitly mentioned in the script that renders that transition even more painful.

Margherita and Giovanni do not believe in heaven. Margherita as a character possesses the same sense of inadequacy as I do. I have instilled Margherita with such traits that are usually found in my male characters. A sort of neurosis with work and a sense of failure in the ability to nurse a family member. Is this film a second chance for you to make up for the past? In truth, Margherita is very much like me. Giovanni is how I would like to be. I was interested in dealing with intimacy and complicity between siblings, as well as underlining the differences in attitude and temperament.

Uso un mix di entrambi. Sono contento se si ride nei momenti comici, ma mi piace vedere alla fine del film persone commosse ed emozionate. La perdita di un genitore segna un passaggio a una nuova fase. Le ho affidato caratteristiche che solitamente sono di personaggi maschili: Cerco di vedere la storia attraverso gli occhi di una donna Il dolore per la madre, il film da fare, le preoccupazioni per la figlia Cerco di non girare ricordi e sogni in maniera stilisticamente troppo diversa dalle scene reali, per creare un intreccio piuttosto omogeneo. Pensiamo per esempio ai nomi di strada, ai detti popolari spesso ispirati dalla Bibbia, ai nostri valori I calendari sono sempre stati creati intorno ai cicli solari o lunari.

Questo ci dimostra anche un fatto importante che cerchiamo spesso di negare. Nonostante i suoi errori e le sue mancanze, questo infatti rimane ancora oggi lo scopo della Chiesa: You consider yourself a professional, independent and hard worker. You head in to work believing that this would be a hectic, busy but regular work day. However, it soon becomes clear that you Pasquale Artuso were wrong. A message from the Revenue Agency advises you that you have been chosen to be audited.

And so, your nightmare begins. You return the call, trying to restrain your agitation and frustration at the events unfolding. The man on the other end of the line proceeds to inform you that you are the "lucky" person selected to be audited. He wants to arrange a meeting to discuss the auditing process. During this meeting, you are expected to explain how your affairs are conducted and how your business is operated. You hang up the phone and try to calm your breathing. Your mind is racing and you do not know where to begin. Immediately, you contact your accountant to obtain some reassurance, but this to no avail as he, too, is unaware of the auditing process.

From the time of the first phone call with the Revenue Agency to the moment just before the initial meeting, your mind does not rest and the anxiety does not cease. I've always paid my taxes. I run my business honestly. What documents will they want to see? The infamous day of your meeting with the Revenue Agency has arrived.

The sky is clear and the sun is bright, but as you head to work, everything feels sombre and gloomy. Two men arrive at your place of business, the auditor and his team leader. They begin explaining which years they will be auditing and the documents you must provide. Much to your astonishment, you discover that they have full access to all your financial documents, bank books, lists of assets owned by you, your family members, and related companies.

They request an office space, settle in, and immediately begin working. You simply try to recover from shock. During the days, weeks and months that they are in your place of business, they ask for any and every piece of documentation they believe is necessary and overwhelm you with questions. As you are obliged by law to cooperate with the auditor, you submit yourself to their demands by digging through years of paperwork and answering every question to the best of your abilities.

After what feels like an eternity, the auditors have completed their investigation and are ready to leave your place of business. However, one last meeting is necessary before their departure where they proceed to give you their potential assessment. You are rendered speechless by this incredible amount, which surpasses any amount you ever imagined.

They fail to provide you with an explanation as to. Instead, you are asked prove why their proposed assessment is incorrect and justify your position with the appropriate documentation. They depart but the nightmare remains. Frustrated by their attitude, you begin to ask yourself: Instead, you are provided with an arbitrary assessment based on simple presumptions.

Along with your accountant, specialist and lawyer, you are now forced to begin an investigation into this erroneous assessment in order to obtain a fair and accurate number. If, by any stoke of "luck" you, or someone you know is being audited, our law firm, along with accountants and consultants, will be able to assist you before, during, and after this nightmare on Les gens adorent Lidia et veulent lui parler.

Meet Austin — he was recently diagnosed with rare immunodeficiency disease called chronic Granulomatous Disease GCD and is in desperate need of a bone marrow transplant. From the moment he was born, Austin has been fighting to stay healthy. This rare disease has limited Austin from really experiencing the early stages of his childhood life. Austin has used antibiotics, anti-fungal medication, and steroids in place of his own immune system, but the only available cure is through a bone marrow transplant.

His parents and brother were a negative match, and the subsequent extensive global search was also unable to find a match for Austin. Austin needs you to join the registry to help save his life. Registering is pain-free and done with a cotton swap. Oui, je pense bien. Photography by Daniele Tomelleri. If you were to ask Italian soccer fans who the most important lady in their life is, a large number would tell you Juventus.

While Juve retains the largest fan base within Serie A, the team actually falls behind Inter and Milan in total fans worldwide. Most recently, the team has won the past four consecutive Scudetti and lost a difficult Champions League final against Barcelona last season. When you are the richest and most successful club, you tend to be accused of cheating when you win and ridiculed when For most soccer fans, allegiance is important; the need to establish oneself as part of a collective reality binds you to the game and hooks you for life.

Juve was in the middle of a slump and all kids my age had a Boninsegna 9 Inter jersey. From there I was hooked. Ever since I can remember I have been supporting the bianconeri. Over the course of its rich history, Juventus has had the privilege of fielding some of the greatest players to ever play the game, while nurturing Italian talent along the way. When it finally settles, I see hockey players skating around on the rink.

But these are no regular hockey players — these are the former hockey greats who played for the most storied franchise in all of sports: They look exactly as they did when they were in their prime. The very calm Tom Johnson is playing defence with the great Doug Harvey who was the best rushing defenceman of his era. Claude Provost skates bull-legged as if he were sitting on a horse. The legendary Elmer Lach looks so content skating up and down the ice.

One of the best defenceman of his generation, J. The smooth-skating Carol Vadnais and Dollard St. Laurent have fun fighting for the puck in the corner of the rink. Then there are the goalies: Jacques Plante and Gump Worsley, without masks, making incredible saves. He tells me that my skates have seen better days and recommends I buy a new pair. I finally head over to my backyard skating rink in order to play and have some fun with the hockey legends.

The pace on the ice is fast and I have a hard time keeping up. All of a sudden, the great P. Then, one by one, all of the hockey greats skate toward me to shake my hand and thank me for giving them a chance to play one more day. As I approach Beliveau, I tell him I have something important to ask.

When the storm ends a few minutes later, I see that my backyard skating rink has disappeared. December 1, Deadline: Nov 4, Draws: Subscribe to the magazine online at www. Pirsig D uring my tenure as President of the Foundation, I have asked myself, and others, many difficult questions. Sincerely, Joey Saputo President joey fcciq. COM Tanto lavoro meritava un riconoscimento. COM Cristoforetti says she needed her space buddies for simple things like haircuts, which where a challenging two-hour process in a zero gravity environment. COM also noticed another ritual that all the Italian men on his street took part in just before the winter chill set in.

COM high-energy game and Italians are very passionate and emotional by nature, so the two go very well together. The Searcher engages in a metaphysical 40 dialogue with Antonietta, adding an imaginative, gripping and unexpectedly personal twist to the often-staid genre of historical drama. A re you a realist or a dreamer?