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Trying to solve the issue of labor unrest and poverty, he built a company town adjacent to his factory; it featured housing, shopping areas, churches, theaters, parks, hotel and library for his factory employees. The 1, original structures were designed by Beman. The centerpiece of the complex was the Administration Building and a man-made lake. The Hotel Florence, named for Pullman's daughter, was built nearby. Pullman believed that the country air and fine facilities, without agitators, saloons and city vice districts, would result in a happy, loyal workforce.

The model planned community became a leading attraction for visitors who attended the World's Columbian Exposition of In , when manufacturing demand fell off, Pullman cut jobs and wages and increased working hours in his plant to lower costs and keep profits, but he did not lower rents or prices in the company town. The workers eventually launched a strike. When violence broke out, he gained the support of President Cleveland for the use of US troops. The strike and boycott shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit. Under the leadership of Debs, sympathetic railroad workers across the nation tied up rail traffic to the Pacific.

Strikers and Debs gave Pullman five days to respond to the union demands but Pullman refused to negotiate. It is likely that the Pullman people will make the first deliveries of cabinets during the last week in September. This arrangement will greatly facilitate the delivery of completed phonographs to Mid-Western dealers and will bring considerable benefit to Eastern and Pacific Coast dealers, because it will enable the Edison Co. Still another new manufacturer will begin the delivery of oak Sheratons a little later in the month, and Heppelwhites, in all finishes, will be flowing from a new manufacturer before the end of September.

As explained at the Dealers' Convention in New York, in June, the principal cause for the decreased output of the Edison old manufacturers was the Edison Co. The November 11, issue of Business Digest and Investment Weekly announced that Pullman had just gotten a contract to produce 4, automobile bodies for Packard: Vanderbilt to the directorate.

The November 15, issue of the Lumberman carried the following news. The company is not now busy, it is believed that with the return of the railroads to their owners by the Government, which is expected within the next few weeks, more orders for equipment will be forthcoming from the carriers. The company has received several car inquiries from abroad and is now working on an order for freight and passenger cars for Belgium. The company is not confining its attention to car building alone. These bodies were produced in a plant constructed in in the north part of the manufacturing area at Maryland Avenue and rd Street.

During , 50, phonograph cabinets were produced in this plant for the Edison Phonograph Works. Wilson and later on Murray and Briggs. The February 9, issue of Automotive Industries reported that Pullman was ramping up to get bodies per month to Packard: The company has maintained a Packard department for some time, but its operation has been sluggish for several months. Henry Smith has been appointed manager of sales of the automobile body department of the Pullman Co. This company for a number of years has been building bodies on a limited scale for high class automobiles, but with the growth and enlargement of the business the company has created an automobile body department as an established functioning part of the organization.

The manager of the automobile body department is J. Henry Smith who announces that the company is prepared to turn out bodies in any quantity. This service includes painting and trimming and tops for the open models. The Pullman company also has entered largely into the production of metal stampings and pressings. This company for a number of years has been building bodies on a limited scale for higher priced automobiles. Increases in demand is not likely to be sensational. Sport types also have strong appeal. Plan must be made to get dealers models they want when they want them or sales will suffer.

Taking the output of the entire industry for , the percentage of closed cars probably has averaged between 27 and On the same basis, the percentage for next year probably will average from 33 to According to price classifications, the closed car production for next year probably will be between 25 and 30 per cent in the low-priced lines; between 30 and 40 per cent in the medium field and between 40 and 60 per cent in the high price class.

The big business in closed cars this year has been due in large measure to the development of low-priced models early in the year by two or three far-sighted companies which sensed the trend of public demand. When it became apparent that with a sharp reduction in price there would be large sales of closed models, practically all companies went after a share of the business.

Notwithstanding the heavy sales of closed cars this year, there is a strong feeling in Detroit that will bring a pronounced demand for special sport models and that public interest will be centered on them. Until the last few months, prospects have had to make their selections, for the most part, from standard open models, low-priced closed jobs or standard closed cars. Practically all manufacturers have made haste recently to get into the sport model field. It remains to be seen whether this estimate of demand is entirely correct. It may be that the sport models will prove to be more or less of a fad, although there probably will be a strong demand for them in the spring.

It undoubtedly will be found in the future, as the prices of closed models are brought steadily nearer to those of open cars, as they will be, that the volume of closed car sales will approach more closely the total of open model business and ultimately exceed it to a considerable degree. When there is no great difference between the price of a touring car and a coupe or sedan, it will be found j hat the average purchaser in cities and towns where the weather is not mild the year 'round, will favor the closed model. There always will be, however, a big field for the sale of open cars in sections of the country where there is no real winter and among farmers.

The sport model, or anything 'different', also will have a strong appeal to many persons, especially the younger generation and there is substantial reason for expecting a heavy sale of such cars. It unquestionably is true that the shortage of bodies has held down the sales of closed cars all this year and some of the companies making popular lines are far behind on deliveries even now. The demand for closed models, at reasonable prices, was underestimated early in the year and a great many people who actually preferred them have had to be content with something else because they could not get what they wanted.

When they come into the replacement market the chances are that they will still want a closed job. Some system must be worked out in the automotive industry under which people can get what they wan1 when they want it. It is comparatively easy to buy closed cars in the spring and open cars in the winter, but no plan has been devised under which dealers and prospects can get an ample supply of the kind of vehicles they desire at all seasons. Dealers in the more popular lines have been far behind in deliveries of closed cars all year and this fact has cost them many sales. When a dealer or a distributer can sell more closed cars than he can get in November and December it doesn't soothe his temper to have his factory sales manager tell him what a noble thing it would be for him to stock a lot of nice, new open cars for spring delivery so his customers won't have to wait.

The sales he's going to make in the spring don't pay overhead in the winter.

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It should not be forgotten, either, that when he stocks open cars for spring sales, he has to pay cash for them and if the factory decides, before the spring selling season opens, to reduce prices the dealer has to pocket a loss instead of make a profit in a good many cases. F'ACTORIES are going to have increasing difficulty in convincing dealers that it's their patriotic duty to pay cash for cars and then warehouse them for three or four months just so they'll have a stock on hand when they get a chance to sell them.

They'll contend that it's the business of the factories to make prompt deliveries of merchandise when it can be sold to the best advantage. They will point, for example, to the clothing industry, in which summer clothes are made in winter and winter clothes in summer. One outstanding reason for the shortage of closed car this year has been the inadequate body building capacity of the country.

This condition will be greatly improved by the beginning of and manufacturers generally seem to have provided for their needs. Ford, in its own factory at River Rouge, can build about sedans daily and the Briggs Mfg. Chevrolet, soon after the first of the year, will complete body plants at many of its car manufacturing and assembly plants which will give it adequate body supply to meet any demand.

The body plants will be operated by Fisher. Practically all the closed bodies for General Motors cars are being built by Fisher, though there are exceptions in which they are made by companies outside the corporation. Fisher is operating upward of thirty plants in and around Detroit and Cleveland, and except for General Motors is building only closed bodies.

Approaching completion is a huge plant in Detroit which will give Fisher an additional 1,, ft. Dort makes all its own bodies and declares its plant facilities adequate to meet demand. Hupp controls its source of body supply and is prepared to meet increased business. Maxwell-Chalmers has its own body plants and while these have fallen down badly in meeting closed body demand this fall, their facilities are being extended to meet additional requirements.

Studebaker operates its own body plants and is extending them to provide for a larger closed car business. Hudson-Essex has been hard pushed to meet demands for its coach models, but has kept abreast of them fairly well because of simplified assembly. The Hudson sedan body is made in Amesbury, Mass. Hudson has not announced plans for more adequate supply, but undoubtedly will make them. Lincoln bodies are being made by custom body builders exclusively and output is consequently limited. The completion of an addition to the Lincoln plant now under way is expected to provide for the building of some body types there, so that production in these models will be greatly increased.

Gray bodies are being made by the Kelsey Wheel Co" which has facilities to manufacture any number of any type required. Packard gets its closed bodies from the Towson Body Co. Both of these companies are equipped to handle any increase in Packard business which may arise. Paige-Jewett bodies are made by the Wilson Body Co. The Durant body supply for Stars and Durants is not anywhere near ample to meet the production requirements they have outlined, but plans have been made to meet requirements by the organization of new companies.

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George Pullman

Closed-Car demand is now running about 33 per cent with Ford and Chevrolet; Hudson and Essex, with their coach popularity, are exceeding 50 per cent. The same is true of cars like Cadillac and Packard, whose demand is close to 75 per cent. Similarly, the General Motors companies with low-priced closed models with Fisher bodies are having a closed business approximating 50 per cent. This figure probably is an average for all medium-priced cars now. Many factories, however, are not able to get closed bodies up to this figure.

Sport cars now are winning buyers who otherwise would be in the closed-car market, easing the situation somewhat. Now that provision has been made for meeting the body needs of the industry, there will be less legitimate excuse for those manufacturers who fail to fill orders promptly. Conceding that it will be impossible at the beginning of each year for factories to establish arbitrary production schedules for models of various types, they can determine more definitely than they have in the past, by scientific sales analysis, what the probable demand will be.

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It is perfectly logical to assume, for example, that inasmuch as the major part of automobile buying this year has been in the larger cities and industrial centers, it will switch in to the agricultural sections which possess 45 per cent of the country's buying- power. The farmer, generally speaking, is not addicted to the closed car. He wants not only open cars, but open cars without frills, so he is not an enthusiast over sport models, either.

He is the man to whom the Ford is sold without starter or demountable rims.


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He buys with an eye to economy. While it is logical to assume that buying will shift to the rural districts in a few months, buying ability isn't going to be equal in all such sections. This is one illustration of why careful market analyses now will mean profits a few months from now. What seems on the surface like a perfectly logical conclusion does not always work out in practice. Body design and body production methods are becoming increasingly important. Body changes and refinements rather than chassis improvements will be featured at the New York and Chicago shows.

No matter how long the strides which may be taken in body design and production, however, they will not attain their full measure of importance unless manufacturers can work out better than they have in the past the problem of getting into the hands of dealers a plentiful supply of the models prospects want when they want them. Listed as president is E. Carry with William Bonn as Body Superintendent. This division was listed as "building passenger car bodies both open and closed made of wood and metal construction.

Apel, the company built experimental prototypes for Packard and Willys-Overland and manufactured bodies for Moon and Peerless automobiles. Pullman's auto-related patents consist of the following closed metal body: Metal automobile body — US Pat. Thompson, an experienced automobile manufacturing man, to have full charge of the manufacturing facilities of its automobile body plant at Pullman.

Thompson has been actively connected with the Peerless, Cadillac and Packard companies, and has been associated with companies manufacturing bodies for other automobiles. Men of Industry column in the April 12, issue of Automotive Industries: Pullman constructed open bodies for the Packard Model Sport models. This will be shown on a Packard chassis, and it is said that the steel body is fifty pounds lighter than the ordinary automobile closed body.

Among the advantages claimed for the Pullman steel body are freedom from warping, squeaking and loosening of joints, greater strength and rigidity without increase in weight, safety and economy in production. The body is made in sectional assembly units which are joined together by bolts with lock washers. Fabric saturated with paint is placed in the joints. The cowl and windshield frame are welded together in one unit, which is slid over the front end of the bottom frame in assembling, and supported thereon.

The front posts of the side frames are joined to the corner posts telescopically, while the box-shaped top plate is provided with a ridge to receive the overlapping roof. A box-shaped top plate and "U" shaped sill or shoe are used for the sides into which posts are fitted and held by "U" brace plates. The front post is made to fit into the comer post of the front section door openings with hinge lugs. The rear unit connects the twin side framing members by means of a flanged and bolted joint, concealed on the outside by a moulding which is clamped tight before the bolts are fitted.

At the top is a ridge to receive the overlapping roof; at the bottom there is a flange for fastening the bottom frame. The side doors also have a steel frame, all parts being assembled and welded together in jigs.

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Schipper appeared in the February 7, issue of Automotive Industries: The berline type seems likely to replace limousine. The fenders and running gear are the same color as the rest of the body. This all-steel model follows Pullman railway car practice in its construction. The body has been under development for over a year and represents an experiment to show what can be done in all-steel construction. Pullman company officials state that they are convinced that the cost can be made equal to wood-framed bodies in moderate quantities and lower in large quantities.

The body at the show is a deluxe type and has not been constructed with a view to maximum economy. The back, window frames, doors, etc. By using square corners, by eliminating lefts and rights, and by standardizing such parts as the doors, marked economies might be effected. Probably the most interesting feature of this body, which is built up entirely of pressed steel parts over pressed steel structural members, is that it is a rigid unit in itself and does not depend on the chassis for requisite stiffness.

Tests at high speed on rough roads, it is claimed, have failed to produce any working of the joints or to cause squeaks or rattles. The body is built like a railway coach, with a steel frame bottom unit having integral sills and a web acting as a floor. When this is applied to the chassis frame it acts not only as a foundation for the body, but also as a large plate cross-member in the chassis itself.

The front unit comprises a one-piece cowl, dash, part of windshield pillars, and the front quarter side panels. This unit is a spot-welded and bolted assembly. The side units are constructed so that the front pillars telescope, and when drawn together by the fastening bolts combine to form a box section which is narrow, light and strong. The side units comprise part of the front pillars, the door frames and the rear quarters.

In the case of the inside-drive car shown on the Packard single six chassis at the show, the rear quarters are steel. The rear unit includes the back panel and the frame for the rear light.

George M. Pullman

In the car shown at the salon, the steel rear window frame has been arranged to take a rear window which swings out, giving back ventilation. The curve forming the rear part of the roof is also in this rear unit. The entire structure is tied together by the roof, which acts not only as a cover, but as a structural member. The roof is supported on steel cross-beams and is tied to longitudinal members of combined Z bar and channel section. Anti-squeak material is inserted at the joint. Bolts are used to draw the side structure and the roof structure together in such a way that when the assembly is complete the equivalent of a longitudinal box beam is secured for the length of the car along the sides of the roof.

Considering the entire car as a beam supported between the wheels, these members are at the greatest distance from the neutral axis of the car and consequently are a large factor in maintaining the rigidity of the entire structure. Most of the joints are so arranged that when the assembly is complete a section is formed which will contribute to the rigidity of the u nit. The joints are fastened together by bolts with lock washers, Fabric saturated with paint is placed the joints. The cowl and windshield framings are welded together into one unit which, in assembling, is slid over the front end of the bottom frame and is supported by it.

George M. Pullman (U.S. National Park Service)

The corner posts receive the front post of the side frame telescopically, the joint being completed by bolting. The box-shaped top plate is provided with a ridge to receive the overlapping roof. With box-shaped top plate and the "U" shaped sill or horseshoe construction into which posts are fitted and held by "U" brace plates, the sides present a strong and rigid structure thoroughly welded together. The front post is made to fit into the corner post of the front section door openings with hinge lugs jigged for doors.

The top plate is provided with a ridge to receive the overlapping roof. The rear unit connects the two side framing units by means of a special flanged and bolted joint concealed on the outside by a molding which is clamped tightly before the bolts are fitted. At the top is a ridge to receive the overlapping roof, at the bottom, a flange for fastening to the bottom frame.

Side doors have all-steel frame to insure perfect and uniform fit. All parts are assembled and welded together in jigs. Hinges are secured to metal only and will not become loose in service. The particular all-steel body exhibited at the Drake Salon on the Packard chassis is claimed to be 50 lb. During several other all steel prototypes were constructed on Willys-Overland and Packard chassis in the hopes of securing a large order from the two firms, however the two automakers decided to pursue other options and all the money and time spent on developing the beautiful all-steel Berline displayed at the Chicago Salon did not produce any new business for the firm.

Pullman manufactured the coachwork for the Peerless Model 5-passenger touring phaeton, of which one example survives today. It's unknown whether the survivor was a production vehicle or a prototype although the Pullman archives contain daily production reports, , for both Moon and Peerless auto bodies and financial records monthly financial statements, , billing records, , and journals, The Pullman archives also note that "some" Pullman bodies for Peerless cars were in storage during although no distinction is made as to if they are production or prototype bodies.

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Introduced in January, production of the Peerless spanned from March, to March, , when the mechanically similar but re-designed replaced it. The Model featured a new radiator shell, new hood and boat-tail rear decks on the roadsters and roadster coupes. By the fall of operations at Pullman's automobile body department started to wind down, and Walter F. Thompson, its director, left to pursue other opportunities, the October 23, issue of Automotive Industries reporting: The production of passenger car bodies will be continued, but in the future the company will also specialize in bus and commercial bodies.

Thompson has been elected president and general manager of the company to succeed G. Gast, who becomes vice-president. George Mercer and C.

Lester French continue as secretary and treasurer respectively. Since that time he has been associated with the Peerless Motor Car Co. Over time Packard, at one time one of Pullman's largest customers, had become disenchanted with its various production body suppliers. A switch to Briggs brought complaints of poor quality with higher prices sought as more rigid controls were instituted by Packard.

Gradually more body fabrication was brought in-house and, on October 14th, , board minutes noted, ". The parent company, The Pullman Co. The best years for Pullman were the mids, and in its banner year of the Pullman operating system included 9, cars, which were manned by 28, conductors and 12, porters. No further automobile work is mentioned in the Pullman Co. However they did make several thousand trolley coaches aka trolley bus that found favor with several east coast operators.

Just prior to the initial acquisition, Osgood Bradley had produced a prototype trolley-coach for a Brooklyn surface transit operator. In the customer ordered six examples of the prototype which resulted in several more batches of similar coaches for other operators during the following few years. After the introduction of single-motor coaches in , interest in their trolleys and trolley coaches increased, and Pullman's Worcester subsidiary won a sizable share of the east coast business. A modified design for the export trade was offered after , and some were sold to Valparaiso and Sao Paulo.

Between and Pullman-Standard constructed approximately 2, trolley-coaches in its Worcester plant and many of its coaches remained in service into the s. The Depression marked the end of prosperity for the Pullman Co. Both the number of car orders and passengers for their sleeping cars declined precipitously forcing massive layoffs. Just as the firm was returning to prosperity the U. The court concurred and in ordered Pullman Incorporated to divest itself of either the Pullman Company operating or the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company manufacturing.

Harding was named President of this new Pullman Companywhich started out optimistically in with good passenger traffic figures, but the years following brought steady and marked decline. Regularly scheduled lines were cancelled, all shops except St. Louis and Chicago were closed, employees were furloughed, and major railroad owners such as the New York Central and Pennsylvania Railroad totally or partially withdrew from service.

Although not directly related to their automobile body business, Pullman constructed one of the largest road-going vehicles ever manufactured, the Pullman Arctic Explorer popularly known as Admiral Byrd's Snow Cruiser. Dubbed the Penguin by the press, and 'Big Bertha' by its crew, the massive vehicle was constructed at Pullman's th street plant from August to October for use by Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd's 3rd Antarctic expedition which ran from late into Byrd's expedition relied upon Citroen half-tracks which proved to be too cold and cramped for long-distance travel. Poulter, Byrd's second-in-command, envisioned an all-in-one solution for the next journey which would not only be impervious to the extreme conditions, but serve as a mobile base of exploration.

The novel vehicle featured a number of innovative features designed to handle the harsh climate and terrain of the World's southernmost continent. To prevent cracking of the ply Goodyear rubber tires, its wheels could be retracted into housings where they warmed by the engine's exhaust gases. Long overhangs front and rear assisted the vehicle to traverse crevices of up to 15 feet - the front wheels would retract, allowing the rear wheels to push it across the divide.

Once safely over the crevice the front wheels would be extended, and the rear retracted, allowing the vehicle to pull its rear half to safety. A hybrid Diesel-electric drive train provided an exceptionally spacious interior and had the secondary benefit of providing built-in heat. A pair of General Electric generators powered by two hp cu. Cummins diesels supplied the electricity to four 75 hp GE electric motors, each one powering one of the Goodyear-equipped wheels.

The Cummins' antifreeze circulated through radiators to heat the living quarters and the GE generators also supplied current to a bank of storage batteries that powered the vehicle's equipment when the engine wasn't running. A pad on top of the vehicle carried a hp 5-passenger Beechcraft Model 17 'Staggerwing' observation plane that could be offloaded by the crew. The Explorer carried 5 persons and included a kitchen, living quarters, a darkroom and a machine shop as well as a rear storage area which housed 2 spare tires, provisions and two fuel tanks - a 2, gallon tank of low-temperature diesel for the Cummins engines and a 1, gallon tank of aviation fuel for the Beechcraft.

Pullman commenced construction of the Arctic Explorer on August 8, and on October 24, , it began its shakedown cruise — a well-covered 1, mile journey from Chicago to the Boston Army Wharf where it would loaded onto the North Star, en route to Antarctica. The vehicle was covered in great detail inside the pages of the December, issue of MoTor by the periodical's technical editor, Harold F. Not only to the Pole itself, which is miles south from the Bay of Whales, but to everywhere else of interest except where high mountains get in the way or where there are areas with deep crevasses too broad to cross.

Yet that is exactly what the Snow Cruiser was built to do. All that is lacking is transportation which may some day be provided by a fleet of snow cruisers to take supplies to the mines and bring back precious metals. Such is the dream of a certain professor. Antarctic Service under Admiral Byrd's command, is to speed up exploration work and scientific investigation as well as to claim the continent as a United States possession by maintaining colonies there for three years as required by international agreement. Assisted by a five-passenger airplane, it is believed that the Snow Cruiser will add as much to the knowledge of the South Polar regions in two or three months as all previous expeditions combined.

This plane, along with others, is expected to map most of the South Polar Continent by means of aerial cameras. The Snow Cruiser, world's newest and largest automobile, has almost nothing in common with conventional cars except that it runs on four pneumatic tires, but even this comparison is not exact because the tires are so large and soft that a spring suspension is unnecessary.

Unlike an ordinary car, it has two engines instead of one, four-wheel drive, four-wheel steering by two levers instead of a steering wheel, two accelerator pedals, two brake pedals, a built in hydraulic jack on each wheel, enough Diesel fuel for a mile run gallons , gallons of airplane gasoline, bunks for four men and food for a year. Wheels are steered by oil at pounds pressure under the guidance of two levers located at either side of the driver who sits in an individual chair in the center of the control room.

The right lever steers the front wheels and the left one the rear. On July 4, Pres. The strike ended within the week, and the troops were recalled on July George Pullman and his business thrived in the years immediately following the strike. Soon afterward the company faded away, and its plants shut down; the remaining assets were sold off in The labour movement continued to revile Pullman.

After he died of a heart attack in , he was buried at night in a lead-lined coffin within an elaborately reinforced steel-and-concrete vault. Workers then poured several tons of cement over the vault to prevent his body from being exhumed and desecrated by labour activists.

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Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Later in the century George M. Pullman fostered the construction of a community near the Pullman Palace Car Company the town of Pullman, now part of Chicago that would house all the employees and provide for all the essential facilities. In the early period of the Pullman Company, the…. Pullman , he refused to meet with them and ordered them fired. The delegation then voted to strike, and Pullman workers walked off the job on May 11, As soon as the plant had emptied, company representatives posted signs at all the gates: Pullman , cut the wages of its workers by 25 percent in response to the depression of , about 3, workers, organized in the American Railroad Union ARU , walked off the job.

An effective nationwide boycott of Pullman cars by ARU members was organized…. The association with the company worked fairly well for these men and women, who were desperately…. More About George M. Pullman 6 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References contribution to railroads In sleeping car establishment of industrial community In industrial relations: The strike and boycott. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.