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They speak of their language as Kcdo, but of course they also use the ordinary term, which I have heard them pronounce variously Romani, Rtimani, Romanes, Romanes, and Rdmanditch. Rom, or Rdm, of course signifies a Gypsy: But although Horn is here, as everywhere, equivalent to " Gypsy " and to " husband " , yet here, as Dr.

Paspati tells us is the case in Turkey, the word is sometimes inaccurately applied to others. Paspati says of their brethren in Turkey, that although they sometimes " extend the. The Gypsy population of Eoussillon is estimated at about persons, says De Eochas, while the Beziers colony numbers about , and that of Toulouse sixty. In Narbonne there are only two or three families. Thus, including those of Bordeaux and Valence whose numbers he does not give, but who are not likely numerous , we may assume the total number of Catalan Gypsies living north of the Pyrenees to be or Although the modern province of Catalonia, lying wholly in Spain, has always constituted nearly the whole of " Catalonia," De Eochas says nothing as to the size of its Gypsy population.

The reason of this is no doubt that his experience were chiefly of French Catalonia. Nor can the present writer say anything noteworthy about those of Spanish Catalonia, since he only saw a few of them in the town of Gerona, and occasional stragglers on the French side of the borders. In spite, however, of this division into two separate groups, he states in another place, when speaking of the Toulouse colony, that " like their brothers of Eoussillon, they frequent all the fairs within a radius of fifty leagues"; while the few families in Beziers " are still half-nomadic.

But the fact seems to be that no such line of demarca- tion can be drawn. If we except the families of wealthy educated Gypsies of which there are examples in Perpignan, Beziers, Toulouse, and Lerida , and also those who are unfit to travel by reason of age or infirmity, it may be affirmed with some certainty that all those town-dwellers lead the nomadic life, in some cases without a break, during the greater part of the year. And that, on the other hand, the most if not all of them are house-dwellers during the incle- ment weather of winter.

Indeed, the non-Gypsy nomads would appear to be more incessantly nomadic than the Gypsies. During a winter residence of some seven weeks in a French Catalonian village, I saw many nomads knife-grinders, tinkers, etc. There they hibernated, and only emerged at intervals for a brief waggon-trip, on the chance of getting some-. This wandering life they greatly prefer. But to lead it in winter is impossible. For one thing, the law only allows them twenty-four hours in one place, as nomads, and this irksome enough in fine weather is more than irksome during severe cold.

Moreover, they can get little enough work in the towns during winter, without attempting the country. The chief occupation of these Catalan Gypsies is clipping horses, mules, etc. Thus there is every inducement for them to spend the winter months in the towns, where, being then house-dwellers, they may live in one place as long as they like. In the above paragraph a passing reference has been made to the nomadic knife-grinders, tinkers, etc. It is a curious thing that these occupations, so much identified with Gypsies in other countries, should here be apparently quite dissociated from them.

Metal-working, De Eochas tells us, is almost quite a lost art among the French Gitanos, and is in decadence even in Spain, although it was not so in former times. The almost exclusive occupation of the Catalan Gypsy is that of clipping and trimming horses, combined often with horse-dealing. It is as horse-dealers that certain Gitanos have attained to wealth a wealth sufficient to give a college education to their sons and to bring up their daughters as ladies and even the poorest Gitano is a horse-dealer when he has the chance.

But the profession of esquila- ddr, tondeur or, in Spanish Romanes , munrabaddr, is their main- stay, " horses, mules, donkeys or dogs, they are ready for all. In the towns, such as Toulouse and Perpignan presumably also those of Catalonia proper , the Gypsies,. He would try to shave an egg," he makes rather a wide state- ment. When I asked one of them, who had just been showing me his instruments with evident pride, whether he was in the habit of shearing sheep, he repudiated the idea with astonishment, and with some slight indignation.

Those, of course, who by successful trafficking in horse-flesh rise to become capitalists do not work as esquiladores, although these are themselves horse-dealers when they get a chance. In addition to this twofold occupation, however, there are others which they follow. Sometimes, says De Eochas, they are " mountebanks, chiromancers, mesmerists, 1 and clairvoyants," palmis- try and clairvoyance being specially managed by the women.

He qualifies this remark by further stating that although fortune-telling still flourishes in Spain, it is no longer permitted in French- Catalonia, though slyly prosecuted in the booths at fairs. To these pleasing accomplishments the Gitanas add those of pilfering, 2 and of selling contraband goods. This gift of music and love of the guitar remarks De Eochas forms yet another feature distinguishing the Eoussillon Gypsies from the other natives. Besides these various forms of industry, roulette engages the attention of the men to a considerable extent, and probably pocket-.

Under the name of glamour, the mesmeric power was formerly associated with the Gypsies in Scotland. Thus, in the old ballad of ' Johnnie Faa,' the elopement of the Countess of Cassillis with a Gipsy leader is imputed to fascination. And he relates an incident, told to him a long time previously, in which " a Gypsy exercised his glamour over a number of people at Haddington. Not only have British Gypsies been accused of "jugglery," but the Scotch Act of Parlia- ment of was directed against "the idle people calling themselves Egyptians, or any other that fancy themselves to have knowledge of prophecy, charming, or other abused sciences.

See Simson's History, p. This I realised from some almost reverential references to English pickpockets as " very adroit," " tres forts" etc. This, and the roulette-table, as well as other Gypsy proclivities, naturally makes them the prey of the officers of the law. However, it is but fair to add that a country Gypsy whom I sounded on this subject repudi- ated any feeling of dislike to the gendarmes, remarking that if one didn't " do anything " one had no cause to fear or dislike them. He had a very frank, honest face, this young Gypsy, and very likely stuck closely to his legitimate business of horse-trimming and horse- dealing.

Nevertheless, Gypsy ideas of right and wrong are radically different, in some respects, from those recognised by the laws of Europe. And yet it is a mistake to suppose that the Gypsies of Spain, or indeed of Europe, do not share the religious beliefs common to Europe. In the seventeenth-century tale of Alonso, quoted by Borrow, we read of Gypsies praying to the saints The Zincali, , pp. From these very Catalonian Gitanos M. Bataillard has received two Chris- tian legends referred to on pp. De Eochas' account one reads how sacredly they observe All- Hallowtide and Christmas, at which latter time friends and relations separated all the year gather together to renew their friendship and to renounce all enmity.

Mention is made, indeed, of one Gypsy who came from Barcelona to Perpignan at Christinas-time for no other reason than to be reconciled to his brother. These things testify, says De Eochas, to the existence of " religious sentiments that one would not have expected to find among people too often described as living without either faith or law. This latter imputation continues De Eochas is not as trifling as the other at least not as regards the past for the Spanish Gypsies had a name for the poison they administered to animals, which they called drao.

At any rate I found that a reference to batttcho-drao elicited an interchange of looks, and the laughing remark that " he knows all about it. Curiously enough, they do not seem to have a Roman! And although snails are cooked in France by the gadje, yet some Gitauos whom I interrogated assured me they never use them as food. As for the word I got for " snail " on this occasion, it was obviously not Romanes. The man who offered me this word was a somewhat dangerous guide.

He not only, like his brother-Gypsies, could speak Catalan and French or Spanish, when they are Spanish- Catalans , but he also knew Hungarian and Italian. He had travelled much, and in his travels he had gained a certain amount of education and polish, which raised him immensely above even his own brother, and which caused him to be regarded as a perfect savant by all his friends, as indeed he was.

He could and did discourse with easy fluency upon " vagabondage," " the nomadic races," and "la vie de Boheme," like any philosopher. And yet a more thorough knave one could hardly meet: One result, then, of all his experiences is that, while really a master of Romanes, he has added to his vocabulary various words that are not genuine.

This appeared when he told me that the Romani word for a "snail" 'is shntk, and again when he in- sisted, in the teeth of his friends who protested humbly , that pdnali is not the proper word for " brandy " though that is the real Catalan-Romanes , but that it ought to be called Irantuina. And shnoofa, he said, was Romanes for " tobacco. He was ignorant of the language to which they really belonged, and hearing them used by Romane he had assumed they were Romanes.

One has always to guard against similar errors. Probably there are several such errors in this dialect of the language.

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It is probable that De Bochas himself has taken a Catalan word as Komanes when he includes do signifying " of " or " of the " in his vocabulary. The French-Gitano use of ddi, as in the preceding paragraph, is worthy of remark. As elsewhere, ddi is in Catalonia the Eomani for "mother.

That the Gypsies of the French-Basque country have the same usage may be seen from Baudrimont's " baro day a" with the meaning of "magistrate. And the word grdi, introduced above, is also worth referring to in its Catalonian aspect. In England it is the singular of " horse " in the plural gram. According to De Eochas, " horse " is grast or gras in the singular, and grasts in the plural. The form grdi is not mentioned by him. Paspati says that grdi, as a singular noun, is known to the Sedentary division of the Turkish Gypsies, but that their almost invariable word is grast, gras, or gra.

The Nomads use only grdi. To refer more particularly to the noteworthy features of the Catalan dialect is not within the limits of this paper.

But it may be remarked that the guttural sounds decaying in England, where they are often represented by k, h, and sh are found here in their full vigour. In tnese instances the word asked for must have been " mere," which the Gypsy interrogated had heard as " maire. It is cognate with vdreko or vdresn any , vdrekdy somewhere , etc. He under- stands see Heia'voVa.

Salimusti kdva, A joke sal. IT may well be a legitimate source of pride to all who belong to the Gypsy Lore Society that contemporary with it there ap- peared a work by our fellow-member the Archduke Josef of Austro- Hungary on the subject of the Eomany race and their language, which is of such marked excellence that it cannot fail to be read with deep interest by every philologist or student of anthropology. For, as its author was one of the first half-dozen who formed the Association, the appearance of such a work at such a time may be regarded as a curious coincidence perhaps, as " Gypsies," we may be allowed to consider it as a happy omen.

This work, Czigany Nyehatan, or " The Gypsy Language," is the result of many years' personal experience among the wanderers, as well as of very extensive study of the " large literature " of " Eoman- ology. That the Archduke is practically regarded as a living storehouse of Gypsy lore, appears from an assurance in the Pester Lloyd that when a Eom in Hungary is asked some question as to his race which he cannot answer, he replies, " We don't understand that now only the Archduke can answer that.

It is remarkable, but we have the best authority for the state- ment, that the Archduke, not being aware that scholars had preceded him in the discovery, after having studied for some time several Indian tongues, observed with some astonishment that Eomany had a marked likeness to Hindustani. This was when he was quite young.


Since that time his reading has extended, as the book before me indicates, to a thorough knowledge of almost the entire literature of the subject. The work in question embraces a valuable grammar and vocabularies of the Hungarian Gypsy dialects, compared with ten or twelve Indian tongues. With this it gives a mass of historical information, and a critical bibliography which will be fully appre- ciated, not only by the Eomany Eye, but by every librarian.

That the erudition displayed in the work should be extensive, or even well condensed and harmonised, is not so remarkable when we know that the author has the largest special library on his subject in the world, with learned professors to act as secretaries. But with all this there is evident on every page the oculus magistri, while the genial freshness and sagacity of what is manifestly original in the book show that its writer was the right man in the right place for his work.

In one thing only is it to a certain degree wanting the account of English and American Gypsy literature, several books of comparative im- portance not being mentioned. But as French and German versions of the Czigdny Nyelvatan are to appear, it is to be hoped that this omission will be corrected in them. It is a great merit in the Eomany grammar given in this work that it is extremely clear and practical, giving few rules but many examples.

We see in it throughout the hand of the true philological artist or scholar, and nowhere the weakness of the amateur. It will be welcome news to the Eomany-lorists that the author is now engaged on a Gypsy Dictionary, which, with its copious illustrations, will extend to folio pages. As a substantival cryptic ending this is very commonly used by English Gypsies.

It is also with them interchangeable with -open, -ipen, -open. It seems common also with Danubian Gypsies. Is it a relic of -ismus, or what is its etymology? Giles Fair, Winchester, A. The word may be connected with Dinant near Namur, where there was a great manufacture of Dinanderie, i. A friend suggests Dinant-batteurs as the origin. Batteur was the proper title of these workers in metal.

Bataillard's treatises will at once recognise the possible significance of both passage and note. Solf has communicated to the Orientalische Gesellschaft of Berlin an interesting paper upon the peculiar organisation of the Gypsies in Germany, which contains many facts hitherto unknown to the general public. It appears that the Gypsies wandering through Germany are organised into three distinct ' tribes '-. Each tribe has its own banner and symbol. A ' captain ' pre- sides over each tribe.

He is elected for seven years. His powers are both regal and sacerdotal. He marries, divorces, excommunicates and reconciles those who have forfeited honours and privileges. He is also the keeper of the official seal, upon which a hedgehog is engraved a beast held as sacred by all the Gypsies. At great festivals of the tribe the captain always wears a crown a three-cornered hat, ornamented with silver tassels and a ribbon round his arm with the colours of the tribe.

Nearly all the marriages are celebrated on Whitsunday. Great care is taken at present to avoid marriages between the degrees prohibited by the German law, although they are otherwise allowable by Gypsy custom and tradition.

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Adultery is exceedingly rare, and is punished with severity. The offending woman has her nose cut, and the man is shot in the knee or the elbow. The German Gypsies have a peculiar shyness of Protestantism. The children are baptized, and handsome presents are always expected from the god-parents. If a child is born while they are lodging near a village, they usually take him to the parish church for baptism. They wear no mourning at a death. Solf describes the Gypsy as ' full of piety.

When and how they got into Central Asia is unknown, but it is believed that the Masang migrated from Turkey and the Ljuli from India. Both tribes speak Turkish and Persian, and are Mohammedans. The Masang are small traders and pedlars, wandering from town to town, and settlement to settlement, while the Ljuli lead a half-nomad life, living in winter in the settlements of other races, and in summer moving in the cultivated oases, with their possessions, from place to place.

The whole of the Gypsies scattered over the region can scarcely number more than or families. That these Ljuli, Luli, or Liiri have inhabited the Syr Darya region for many generations, we know from an Arab writer cited by Professor De Goeje , who states that they were there " during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This we are told by Firdusi, in his Shah-Nama. At the present day the Persian Gypsies are known as Luri or Luti, and are regarded as the descendants of those immigrants.

Wiessenburch, in the year , who "notices that in Hungary? They resented to extremity any attempt on the part of other Gypsies to intrude on their province. The Lull of the Syr Darya region, therefore, are clearly descended from those of the same name inhabiting that district in the sixteenth century, who presumably were an offshoot from the main body in Persia. That John Bunyan was a Gypsy has never been clearly proved, but there is no doubt that he was a tinker which is often the same thing. And the recently published warrant for his arrest, which describes him as " one John Bunnyon of ye said Towne [Bedford], Tynker," seems to indicate plainly that he was by occu- pation a tinker at the very period when he was engaged in preaching at Non- conformist conventicles.

A precisely similar case in Scotland, and in the same century, is alluded to by Sir Walter Scott. In The Heart of Midlothian ch. For " caird " being the Gaelic ceard, an artificer , is, or was, an every- day Scotch equivalent for " tinker " which itself is the Cornish " tin-heard ". In course of time it attached to certain families as a surname, like Smith, Weaver, and a host of other names derived from special callings. Is there anything further known regarding this man, and what is the source whence Scott drew his information?

We know that as early as the fifteenth century the term " Egyptian " now represented by the English "Gypsy," the Modern Greek "Gyphtos," and the Spanish "Gitano" was applied to the Eomane in various countries of Europe. These people themselves also styled their leaders by such titles as Lord and Earl of Egypt, or of Little Egypt.

In addition to this, there is some reason to believe that certain localities distinguished as favourite Gypsy haunts received the name of " Egypt " on that account. Only two instances of this place-name have come under my notice. But if these " Egypts " have been so named because they were well-known Gypsy resorts, then it is not unlikely that other European examples may be found. Both of the places referred to are situated in Scotland. One of them forms a part of the southern outskirts of Edinburgh, and is thus referred to by the late James Grant in his description of the "District of the Burghmuir" Old and New.

By some the origin of these names has been attributed to Puritan times, by others to Gypsies, when the southern side of the Muir was open and unenclosed. Now it is almost quite certain that of all these " Scriptural names " that of " Egypt " is the only one that has been attached to this locality for more than two centuries, because whereas the farm of Egypt was so known in the title-deeds of the estate on which it stood as far back as a charter of the year , the " Hebron Banks " are comparatively modern residences, certainly not of earlier date than the Georgian era, and probably all built within this century.

Indeed we have quite a modern illustration of how the pre-existing name of " Egypt " might suggest a host of similar names in later times, for within the last few years the farm has been cut up into suburban streets and villas, and over the site of the farmhouse itself runs the brand-new " Nile Grove. Of course when a place is designated "Egypt" in a title-deed of the presumption is that it had been so known for a considerable time before that date. Lawyers do not readily accept a recent name not to say a nickname as the correct designation of lands or heritages.

But, in the absence of earlier documen- tary evidence, we cannot take for granted that the name goes further back than the seventeenth century. In this connection it is interesting to remember the quotation in Mr. Groome's In Gypsy Tents p. Still more doubtful, but worth noting, is the reference made in an Edinburgh trial of the year x to a certain Scotch lad who, "when about eight years of age, was taken away by ane Egyptian into Egypt,. Apart from such surmises, it seems tolerably clear that of these two traditions the correct one is that which alleges that this particular place received the name of " Egypt " because of its association with those " Egyptians " whom we now call " Gypsies.

The other Scottish locality bearing the same name is situated in the parish of Farnell, in Forfarshire. It also is a farm. But whether any local tradition con- nects this " Egypt " with Gypsies, I do not know. Are there, then, any other European " Egypts " besides these two in Scotland? Many instances could of course be furnished of places whose names announce.

Groome in his article in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and also by Mr. Crofton in his first essay on the early annals of the English Gypsies. It has been clearly shown by Dr. Thomas Dickson, in his Preface to these Accounts vol. Maximilian had been elected King of the Romans in , and that was his most important title in , although in the very next year he succeeded to the German empire through the death of his father.

It is quite evident from Dr. Crofton has conse- quently omitted him from his revised " Annals," now published in this number of the Society's Journal. Cooper is a frequent Gypsy name, and the clan, not too favourably known to the country gentry, numbers several families. The body was removed last week from the encampment on Datchet Common to the churchyard, being drawn on a car by a favourite mare. The animal was afterwards sacrificed to his manes. Fanciful Orientalists may perhaps be able to trace here a survival of the ancient Aryan offering of the horse, of which there is frequent mention in the ancient Sanscrit books.

I am informed not by a Lowbey that there is a tradition which assigns to them the land of Midian as their original country, and that they were cursed by Jethro for stealing cattle, and doomed to a wandering life. I am inclined, however, to regard this story as a modern invention, seeing that I have not yet discovered a Lowbey who ever heard of Jethro, Moses, or of the land of Midian. In all probability they were descended from the Foulahs, but, if so, it is curious that they should have completely changed their mode of life, the Foulahs being a pastoral and agricultural people, while the Lowbeys almost exclusively confine themselves to the making of the various wooden utensils in use by natives generally.

They have no laws of their own, but are guided by those of the people amongst whom they are for the time being located. In case of war happening they very sensibly remove at once into a district where there is peace. Their language appears to be allied to the Foulah tongue, but they usually speak the language of the tribe with whom they are staying. The Foulahs are a well-known African race, and many travellers have noted their unusual lightness of complexion. The next number of the Journal will contain a notice of the Gypsy articles in the Ethnologische Mitleilungen aus Ungarn, edited by Professor Anthon Herrmann.

A list of members, with addresses, will hereafter be opened, for purposes of inter-correspondence. BY chance I became possessor of two works lately published in Eio de Janeiro, which furnished me with materials of the dialect in question. Garcier, and bear the titles: Calin, gypsy woman cf.

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Galon, gypsy man i. The word may be re- ferred to the Gr. I suppose that the word ought to be spelled chordar cf. Despandinhar, to open; cf.

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Jalar, to go; Gr. I do not hesitate to class juvinhar and jivava together, for the labial v could cause the vowel i to be changed into u. Mensa, I, being the instrumental cause of me. The Basque equivalents adjoined in the list A will show clearly, I think, that there is no nearer connection between the Portuguese. Brazilian and the Basque-Gypsy dialect than between this and that of the Spanish Gypsies. Looking on that as a settled thing, I shall go on to point out the peculiarities in phonology and forma- tion of themes which are common to the Spanish and the Brazilian Gypsy dialects leaving aside the Basque , and which distinguish them from all others; and those which, belonging only to one of the two dialects, separate them from each other.

Even the Spanish Gypsiologists apply the orthography of their vernacular to the Eomany. I cannot decide if the Spanish and Portuguese alphabets are quite fit to express the very sound of the Gypsy words, but I suppose that they are, because the pronuncia- tion of almost all the Gypsy dialects follows rather accurately that of the vernacular of the country they are spoken in. Whether there is a difference in the pronunciation of Moraes' ch and x, of his c and Jc, k and qu, I am not able to decide. I have therefore thought it best to retain in writing the manner of spelling adopted by him.

Moraes marks out the accent only in a few words, viz. Like the Spanish dialect, the Brazilian is fond of prefixing a vowel to words whose first consonant is r. There are no prominent peculiarities in the vocalism which might distinguish the Brazilian and Spanish dialects from the whole set of the others. As in the Spanish dialect, there are no aspirates in the Brazilian at least these are not expressed in writing, and it is very probable that they have disappeared in these as in so many other dialects.

Even the Greek dialect seldom retains the original aspirate, while in. Even the sound x, common to the older Gypsy dialects, though non-original, is absent from the Br. The consonant ch corresponds generally with Spanish ch, whether this be original or peculiar only to the Spanish dialect, thus:. The consonant j stands in lieu of an original j df , the Spanish equivalent of which is ch:. The original d is often retained where the Spanish dialect has changed it to t or ch:. The softened Ih T is never met with, and the Sp. Jceral, is peculiar to the Brazilian dialect.

In the labial class there is a change between b and v to be observed, the I prevailing in the Spanish, the v in the Brazilian dialect, thus:. This difference in pronunciation is the same as that which is found even between the Spanish and the Portuguese vernaculars. On the whole, the Brazilian dialect has retained the original vowels and consonants in some instances, where the Spanish dialect has omitted, confused, or blended them together: The other dialects affording: The old themes of nouns formed in o masc. A number of themes, which in the older dialects end in a con- sonant, in the Brazilian, as in the Spanish, end in e, thus.

Examples of these are:. Such forms as estardon, etc. As specimens of the Brazilian-Gypsy language, Moraes supplies a few verses, with their translation, viz. De nienga dae te jalaste. Quando, 6 dae, tu merinhaste deste gau tao cachardin! From these specimens it is evident that the Brazilian dialect, like the Spanish, having lost the original declension and conjugation, uses instead of it that of the vernacular. Whilst the Spanish dialect has retained the old possessive pronouns, viz.

The Gypsy per- sonal pronouns are in many instances in these examples supplanted by the Portuguese words, thus: Instances of verbal forms are jalaste, thou wentst i. These few instances will sufficiently prove what I said above about the manner of conjugating. The first two, in which a daughter is addressing her departed mother, may be Englished thus: Pray to God for me, who remain without a protector.

When thou diedst, mother, I too died, into such a forlorn condition have I wholly gone. Pray to God for me, for I have prayed for thee. The last verse is this: I know thy beauty wr. The Gypsy dialect of Brazil has a near connection with that ol Spain, as is demonstrated by the following peculiarities which they have in common:.

The Brazilian and the Spanish Gypsy dialects differ from one another in, the following points:. As all the points of agreement between the Brazilian and Spanish forms of Gypsy speech do not seem to be so important as to neces- sitate us to declare that one of them must be a sub-dialect of the other, they both are on the same degree of decay. Domani is the plural form in the Bhoj'purl dialect of the Bihari language. It was originally a genitive plural; so that Romany-Eye, " a Gypsy gentleman," may be well compared with the Bhoj'puri Domani rdy Skr. Domdndm rdjd , " a king of the Doms.

They are also great musicians and horsemen. Fleet has drawn my attention to a South-Indian inscription given in the Ind. Fleet says, with reference to him, " In connection with him Eudradeva , the first record in this inscription is that he subdued a certain Domma, whose strength evidently lay in his cavalry. But the resemblance of the Bhoj'puri and Gypsy dialects is not confined to a similarity of name. The Gypsy grammar is closely connected with Bhqj'puri, or with its original Apabhraihsa Magadhi Prakrit, thus:.

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These examples might be continued at great length, but the above is sufficient to show the close grammatical connection between the two languages. The vocabularies possess even more numerous points of resemblance, which will be evident to any one comparing the two. The following mongrel half-Gypsy, half-English rhyme, taken from Borrow, will show the extraordinary similarity of the two voca- bularies:. The termination of abstract nouns in pen will at once suggest the Indian Gaudian pan, which comes from the Skr.

The Gypsy sign of the comparative is der, Skr. On the verb a whole series of articles might be written. It will be sufficient to point out here identities like the following: This last is in both Gypsy and Bihari a compound tense, and the identity is specially remarkable. The compound is in India peculiar to Bihari, and is only used in Bhoj'puri or the Dialect spoken ly Magahiyd Doms, and in no other dialect.

The pronouns give rise to many suggestive considerations. The word for " I " is m0, the Bihari m6n. But the plural men or mendi is still more interesting. A reference to the Turkish Gypsy shows that this was originally timen or timendi. Amen is the Bihari haman or Jmmani, " we," but how are we to account for the form dmendi?

Here again Bhoj'puri alone gives us the clue. Haman or liamani is really an old genitive plural, the Prakrit amlidna "of us," and means " many of us," hence simply " we. But the genius of the Bihari language, differing from that of the more Western Gaudians, seemed to demand that the nominative plural of nouns should be in a genitive form, and so the Bhoj'puri dialect, when the fact became forgotten that hamani was really a genitive, tacked on to it again Jed, the sign of the genitive, making hamanikd, which again means " many of us," " we.

Now let us take the Gypsy amendi or mendi. We have seen that the element amen is really a genitive. I believe that di is also the sign of the genitive plural from the Mag. The Jat theory of the origin of the Gypsies may be stated as follows: According to the Shdh-Ndma, the Persian monarch Bahrain Gaur received in the fifth century from an Indian king 12, musicians who were known as Luris, and according to the Majmu' au't-Tawdrikh, the Luris or Lulls i.

Gypsies of modern Persia are descendants of these. The historian Hamza Isfahani, who wrote half a century before Ferdusi, the author of the Shdh Ndma, however, calls these imported musicians Zutts, and the Arabic Dictionary Al Qdmds has the following entry: Zott, as the author writes it, is also a term of contempt. Again, according to Istakri and Ibn Haukal, Arabic geographers of the tenth century, the fatherland of these people was the marshy lands of the Indus between Al-Mansura and Makran.

In the course of years numbers of Zotts settled in Persia, especially in the regions of the Lower Tigris, where in A. In this way we have the entry of the Gypsies into Europe accounted for. Now, though it is possible that the Gypsies of Europe are descended from these Zotts who were imported into the Greek Empire, and that they are the same as the Lurls or Persian Gypsies, there appear to me to be two most important flaws in the chain by which it is attempted to connect Gypsies with the Jats or Jatts, as they are always called there of Sindh.

It is admitted by the advocates of the Jat theory that there is " a great unlikeness between Roman! There are several Gypsy populations by whom the language of the Roman! To this the answer is not far to seek. In the first place, though the language test may not be infallible, it is a very powerful one, and throws much doubt on any theory to which it gives an unfavourable reaction. The Gypsies of the present day undoubtedly speak an Indian language, and that language is not, in any way, nearly con- nected with Jataki, so that if we adopt the theory quoted above, we must also adopt the utterly impossible assumption that the Jats left India speaking Jataki, and in the course of their wanderings over Asia and Europe, while they were being or had been scattered into a number of independent tribes, gave up their own language, and exchanged it, not for the languages of their new homes, but all of.

We have not only to assume this, but that clans scattered over Western Asia, and perhaps over Europe, all fortuitously agreed to adopt the same Indian language, though all communication between them was barred. But, even admitting that the test of language when considered alone is not in this case infallible, it becomes so if we consider the circumstances which attended the importation from India of these 12, Zotts or Luris.

Ferdusi says distinctly that they were 12, musicians of both sexes, and the author of the Mtihit adds that they were dancers, and contemptible. I am at a loss to understand how so large a number of degraded persons could be found amongst those from whom were descended the brave defenders of Bharatpur. With all due deference to the authors of the Arabic Dictionary above referred to, it is impossible that these people can have been Jats. The Jats are one of the highest castes of India. They claim to be, after the Bajputs, one of the purest tribes of Kshattriyas Monier Williams, Hinduism, p.

In spite, therefore, of the authority of Bott, of Trumpp, and of De Goeje, I am unable to accept the theory that the descent of the Gypsies from the Jats is proved, even if we admit that the former are descended from the Zotts or Luris of Arabic and Bersian writers. I am informed by Captain B. The Greatest Books Ever Written. Near fine in full black leather.

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