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It is celebrated on 7 September , the anniversary of the date in that prince regent Dom Pedro declared Brazil's independence from the former United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarves. Formal recognition came with a treaty three years later, signed by both the new Empire of Brazil and the Kingdom of Portugal in late Though the first settlement was founded in , colonization was effectively started in when King John III divided the territory into fifteen hereditary captaincies.

This arrangement proved problematic, however, and in the king assigned a Governor-General to administer the entire colony. The Portuguese assimilated some of the native tribes while others slowly disappeared in long wars or by European diseases to which they had developed no immunity.. By the mid- 16th century , sugar had become Brazil's most important export due to the increasing international demand for sugar. To profit from the situation, by over , African slaves had been brought across the Atlantic Ocean to work in the plantations of Brazil. More Africans were brought to Brazil up until that date than to all the other places in The Americas Western Hemisphere combined.

They sent military expeditions to the northwest of the South American continent to the Amazon River basin rainforest and conquered competing English and Dutch strongholds, founding villages and forts from In they reached the far southeast and founded Sacramento on the bank of the Rio de la Plata , in the Banda Oriental region present-day Uruguay. From all over Brazil, as well as from Portugal, thousands of immigrants came to the mines in an early "gold rush". The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion northwest, west, southwest and southeast into the territory that belonged to them according to the Treaty of Tordesillas division of the New World of The Americas by the Bishop and Pope of Rome , Pope Alexander VI , reigned and succeeded in conquering the Banda Oriental region in However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso , signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian southeastern border.

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This had the side effect of soon creating within Brazil, many of the institutions required to exist as an independent state; most importantly, it freed Brazil to trade with other nations at will. After Napoleon's Imperial French army was finally defeated at Waterloo in June , in order to maintain the capital in Brazil and allay Brazilian fears of being returned to colonial status, King John VI of Portugal raised the de jure status of Brazil to an equal, integral part of a new status in a United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves , rather than a mere colony, a status which it enjoyed for the next seven years, sending his son, Dom Pedro as prince regent.

In the Constitutionalist Revolution erupted in Portugal. The movement initiated by the liberal constitutionalists resulted in the meeting of the Cortes or Constituent Assembly , that would have to create the kingdom's first constitution. The Portuguese military officers headquartered in Brazil were completely sympathetic to the Constitutionalist movement in Portugal. Both were loyal allies of Pedro, who had become a pawn in the hands of the military. Prince Pedro became for all purposes only the governor of the Rio de Janeiro Province.

Dissatisfaction over the Cortes measures among most residents in Brazil both Brazilian-born and Portuguese-born rose to a point that it soon became publicly known. Both factions had nothing in common in their goals for Brazil, with the sole exception of their desire to keep the country united with Portugal as a sovereign monarchy. The Portuguese deputies of the Cortes showed no respect towards the prince and openly mocked him. Pedro's reply came on 9 January , who, according to newspapers, spoke: Tell the people that I will stay".

After Pedro's decision to defy the Cortes , around 2, men led by Jorge Avilez rioted before concentrating on mount Castelo, which was soon surrounded by 10, armed Brazilians, led by the Royal Police Guard.

Independence, Missouri

He reached its capital on 25 August and remained there until 5 September. It was clear that independence was the only option left. Pedro turned to his companions that included his Guard of Honor and spoke: From today on our relations are broken. No ties can unite us anymore" and continued after he pulled out his blue-white armband that symbolized Portugal: Hail to the independence, to freedom and to the separation of Brazil from Portugal!

This event is remembered as " Cry of Ipiranga ". The Prince was received with great popular celebration and was called not only "King of Brazil" but also "Emperor of Brazil". In it, Pedro still calls himself Prince Regent and his father is considered the King of the independent Brazil.


It was at the same time the beginning of Pedro's reign and also of the Empire of Brazil. The reason for the imperial title was that the title of king would symbolically mean a continuation of the Portuguese dynastic tradition and perhaps of the feared absolutism, while the title of emperor derived from popular acclamation as in Ancient Rome or at least reigning through popular sanction as in the case of Napoleon. The rest of Brazil remained firmly under the control of Portuguese juntas and garrisons.

Independence (probability theory) - Wikipedia

He would later return to the city after two terms as President. Truman Presidential Library and Museum are both located in Independence, as is one of Truman's boyhood residences. According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of As of the census [2] of , there were , people, 48, households, and 30, families residing in the city.

The population density was 1, There were 53, housing units at an average density of The racial makeup of the city was Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. Non-Hispanic Whites were There were 48, households of which The average household size was 2. The median age in the city was The gender makeup of the city was As of the census [4] of , there were , people, 47, households, and 30, families residing in the city. There were 50, housing units at an average density of Independence has a population of , in and , in Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.

There were 47, households out of which In the city, the population was spread out with The median age was 38 years. For every females, there were For every females age 18 and over, there were According to the town's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [15] the top employers in the city are:. Four school districts have areas within the city: Fort Osage High School is adjacent to but not inside the city limits.

Prior to Fall , parts of western Independence in the Van Horn feeder pattern resided in the Kansas City, Missouri School District , [17] but all of these students are now part of the Independence school district. Independence played an important role in the early history of the Latter Day Saint movement , and is home to the headquarters of several separatist denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement , most notably the Community of Christ formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints , whose Temple is located there. A number of Restoration Branches are also located in and around Independence, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints maintains a visitor's center in the town.

The Community of Christ has built a temple in Independence , and also maintains a large auditorium and other buildings nearby. The Lot itself is occupied by a small white-frame church building that serves as the headquarters and local meeting house for the Church of Christ Temple Lot.

One of the oldest churches in Independence is the First Presbyterian Church, founded in Santa-Cali-Gon Days is an annual Labor Day festival held in Independence intermittently since and continuously since , celebrating the city's heritage as a starting point of three major frontier trails: Liberty, five blocks north of the historic Square. The Independence Heritage Festival is a celebration of the diverse culture that exist in Independence. The Independence town square features numerous family-owned shops surrounding the old main courthouse , which was modeled after Philadelphia 's Independence Hall.

This courthouse houses Harry S. Truman's former courtroom and office. Blue River Community College features a soccer program with a men's team and women's team. The Lady Trailblazers women finished as runners up in the region. Independence has the following Sister city:. It was established in and has undergone many changes and upgrades.

One change was moving from the old Dodgion Street plant where the Roger T. IPL also draws power from other sources: IPL has an "Out of Sight" power line burial program. Edit this page Read in another language Independence, Missouri. Decennial Census [11] Estimate [3] census Edit As of the census [2] of , there were , people, 48, households, and 30, families residing in the city. Top employers Edit According to the town's Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [15] the top employers in the city are: There are five Catholic churches and several Episcopal churches in Independence.

It is also referred to as The Independence Examiner. Museum and interpretive center dedicated to the history of the Overland Trails and the settlement of the American West. Independence, also known as the Queen City of the Trails, hosted thousands of settlers, pioneers, soldiers and merchants as they prepared to cross the plans along one of three trails: The museum offers film, a children's activity room, artifacts, journal entries, maps, and covered wagons, among other highlights.

Truman Presidential Library and Museum: Official library of the 33rd U. President located at U. Hailed as America's "best presidential museum" by the Dallas Morning News , the Truman Library offers theaters, a museum, store, and interactive hands-on exhibits together with a Decision Theater. The museum contains a colorful mural by Thomas Hart Benton , Independence and the Opening of the West , together with a reproduction of the Oval Office. The courtyard contains the graves of Harry, Bess and their daughter Margaret.

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  5. The museum seeks to educate patrons about the major world-shaping decisions that Truman was involved in as President, together with details of his personal life. The lower level offers an area where children can dress up like Harry and Bess, explore "feely" boxes, engage in an interactive computerized race, sort mail, make campaign buttons and posters and play a trivia game. Leila's Hair Museum , S. Museum of Victorian-era art of hair jewelry and wreaths.

    The Hair Museum, believed to be the only one of its kind in the world, houses over hair "wreaths" and 1, pieces of artwork or jewelry made partially or completely out of human hair. Puppetry Arts Institute , E. This non-profit organization is home to hundreds of puppets and marionettes from around the world and features a collection of remnants from the world's largest puppet factory which used to be in neighboring Kansas City, which was owned and operated by famous toy puppet creator Hazelle Rollins.

    Visitors can use the puppet resource library and see changing museum displays. Children can choose a puppet head from the now-closed factory inventory, paint it with professional puppet paint, attach a body, and stage an impromptu performance on one of the institute's stages. Monthly puppet shows performed by professional puppeteers are also performed. Truman National Historic Site , N.

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    4. The Truman home is operated by the National Park Service. It allows visitors to see how President Truman and his wife, Bess, lived in their simple but comfortable "Summer White House". Left just as it was when the Trumans lived there, you'll see their dishes on the table, books and records on the shelf, and Harry's hat, coat and cane in the front entry. The dungeon-like cells of the Jail housed thousands of prisoners during the bloodiest period of Jackson County's history.

      Part of the exhibit details how the local marshal and his family lived in the adjoining Federal brick two-story home. An s-era schoolhouse and museum completes the site. A "historic homes combo" discount ticket is available for use with the Bingham-Waggoner Estate and the Vaile Mansion.

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      Closed for the winter from January through March. Bingham-Waggoner Estate , W. Extensively renovated in the s, many furnishings and accessories from the era may be seen in the home. A gift shop is located in the carriage house. Chicago and Alton Depot , W. Built in , this wooden depot is believed to be the oldest two-story frame railroad depot remaining in Missouri.

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      Filled with hundreds of railroad artifacts, it also served as the living quarters for the station master and his family on the upper level, which is furnished with period treasures. Vaile Mansion , N. This thirty-one-room mansion was built by frontier business tycon Harvey Vaile in Recognized as one of the finest examples of Second Empire Victorian architecture in the U.

      Community of Christ International Headquarters.