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Several small kingdoms were established in the North, but it was not until the eleventh century that Alfonso VI united under one rule the hitherto separate kingdoms of Leon, Castile, the Asturias, and Galicia. Although selfish and unscrupulous, he was possessed of a match- less valor and fierce spirit of independence, which soon made him the idol of the Spanish people. Jean Delumeau: Books

This victory was the first decisive blow struck by the Christians in the long War of Reconquest, which ended in the final expulsion of the Moors from Spain. The remarkable hero- ism shown by him at that time has made the siege forever memorable. Civil strife was rampant in the Moorish kingdom. Muley Hassan had been deposed and his son, Boabdil, placed upon the throne by his mother, a Christian by birth and blood. During the struggle which ensued between father and son, the city of Granada was made tributary to the Spanish crown.

But Ferdinand and Isabella were not content with having the Moors as vassals. Fired with religious enthusiasm and the desire for political unity, they decided to drive the Moslems from Spain once and for all. Strengthened with the forces of church and state, they laid siege to Granada in Such was their determination, their unflinching devotion and perseverance in spite of all difiiculties, that Boabdil lost heart, and surrendered the city to them in January Reinaba en Granada pavoroso silencio. The history of his reign is really the history of Europe, for his dominions exceeded those of any other monarch of his time.

Hence the support given to the Inquisition during his reign iSiS98 - Philip III and Philip IV were both inept rulers, whose lack of administrative ability did much to hasten the decline of Spain. Murieron en esta batalla treinta mil turcos, se hicieron diez mil prisioneros, se rescataron quince mil cautivos con- denados al remo, se apresaron ciento treinta galeras y fueron echadas a pique cincuenta. Queen Elizabeth's execution of Mary Stuart, and the aid given by the former to the Netherlands in their revolt against Spanish tyranny, gave him a pretext for an invasion of Britain.

For that purpose Philip spared no pains in the preparation of a magnificent fleet, which he trusted would be invincible. But Portugal always resented Spanish rule, and in proclaimed her independence, electing the Duke of Braganza king. Spain tried to regain possession of the country, but her efforts met with failure, and in , by the treaty of Lisbon, she was forced to recogpiize Portugal's independence.

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Soon after, Napoleon enticed the royal family into France, declared Charles's abdication null, and imprisoned Ferdinand. Mean- while French troops were pouring into Spain. When these reached Madrid, and Napoleon assumed control of the government, Spanish in- dignation burst its bounds. The natives of Madrid, on May 2, , rose to a man in protest against Napoleon's policy. Vencidos a la vez por la imperturbable calma de aquel hombre superior, se sometie- ron sin condiciones, tomando a la obediencia. Accounts of a great South Sea and of lands beyond, rich in gold, inspired him with the desire to go in search of them.

With picked men, and about natives, he set out from Antigua, in Darien, Sept i, , in search of the South Sea. On the sixth he be- gan his march across the isthmus. The difficulties he encountered appear to us well-nigh insuper- able, in view of the limited equipment at his command. But Balboa's persistence and dauntless energy conquered all obstacles, and the Sea was reached.

In November, , Balboa started on his homeward march. Passing through the strait and continuing westward, Magellan touched at the Philippines, where he met his death. A feW of his men, in spite of great hardships, still kept to the west, reached the East Indies, and finally returned to Spain after an absence of three years, being the first to circumnavigate the globe.

After several desperate encounters with the natives he entered the Aztec capital November 8, 1 1 where the emperor Montezuma received him royally. Subsequently the Aztecs revolted against the Spanish rule, under which they were gradually being brought ; but, in spite of a heroic re- sistance, they were finally subdued August, and their country made subject to the Spanish crown.

El bagaje ocupaba el centro y cerraban la retaguardia las indisciplinadas filas de los guerreros tlascalte- cas. Rodeaban su cuello y brazos collares y brazaletes de mosaicos hechos de turquesas, en las cuales estaban curiosa- I o mente mezcladas delicadas plumas; y llevaban adornadas las orejas, labios inferiores y algunas veces la nariz, con pendientes de piedras preciosas o medias lunas de reluciente oro. Iban todos des- calzos ; caminaban con tardo y mesurado paso, y con los ojos 20 inclinados a la tierra. Era alto y delgado, pero no mal formado. Su cabello negro y lacio no era muy largo; llevarlo corto era considerado como impropio de per- sonas de rango.

Some years later the natives rose in revolt against the invaders and laid siege to their former capital, Cuzco. In the absence of Pizarro the city was bravely defended by his brothers.

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Con esta arma terrible derribaba a cuantos trataban de penetrar en la fortaleza. These accounts awakened the cupidity of Diego de Almagro, a Spanish adventurer and companion of Pizarro, who, in 1 , set out for Chile. Wherefore he was forced to return to Peru. Almagro's expedition was signalized by many cruelties toward the natives. Many of them were butchered, their huts and villages burned, and their provisions stolen. This treatment they received in spite of friendliness and hospitality, because they had no gold with which to sate the cupidity of the invaders.

Este 5 buen proceder dio los mejores resultados. Los sitios fueron distribuidos entre los conquista- dores, quienes se ocuparon inmediatamente en construir sus habitaciones. Necesitando recursos para alcanzar la conquista y extenderla 20 al sur. Igual destino dio al 5 escaso trigo salvado del fuego.

Toda autoridad en las colonias emanaba, pues, de la Corona.

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Los regidores eran vitalicios. Empero hubo otros virreyes que fueron verdaderos y honora- 30 bles gobernantes, cumpliendo la ley y haciendo progresar las colonias. En el siglo xvii adquirieron terrible fama los fili- busteros. Desde entonces Drake no se dio punto de reposo. A fines del siglo xviii la parte occidental de la isla estaba bajo el dominio de Francia.

Estas proposiciones despertaron la codicia S de los ingleses. At first, the colonies on the whole remained faithful to Ferdinand. Juntas were established, modeled on that of Seville. But when autonomy was denied these juntas, the colonies rose in revolt The real causes of this insurrection, however, were Spain's inef- ficient colonial policy, the example of the recent emancipation of the United States of America, and the spread of the liberal doctrines promulgated by the French Revolution. The 'time was ripe for an assertion of independence.

The following year the natives of Argentina took matters into their own hands, and drove the invaders from the country. When the Junta at Madrid fell into the hands of the French, the people of Buenos Aires demanded of their viceroy, Cisneros, that an open parliament cabildo abierto be held. Delays on the part of the royalist party caused the patriots to make preparations for armed resistance, if necessary. This happened on May 25, 18 Los hombres de Buenos Aires huyeron del apresuramiento. Los revolucionarios confiaron el mando a una junta gubernativa, compuesta de tres miembros: Pedro Juan Caballero, D.

Fulgencio Yegros y 20 el doctor D. Su sistema de gobierno necesitaba el aislamiento para sos- tenerse. After a series of struggles between royalists and liberals, the patriot army finally suffered defeat at Rancagua, and Spanish power was restored in Chile for three years Meanwhile, General San Martin had been preparing an army in Argentina. A year later, Chile's independence was formally proclaimed.

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By the end of 18 18, the only remaining strong- hold of the Spaniards in Chile was Valdivia. This city was finally captured by a force under the command of a British naval officer, Thomas Cochrane, in February, Oficiales y soldados, perdida la disciplina, huyeron en confuso tropel por el camino que conduce a Santiago.

The ability of the Spanish viceroy kept the country a stronghold of Spanish power for many years, in spite of liberal tendencies among the people. In July , however. General San Martin, with an army, of 5, Argentines and Chileans, entered the capital, and proclaimed Peru a republic and himself temporary dictator. Failing to get help from Bolivar, he soon resigned all authority in Peru.

New difficulties forced the Peruvians to ask help of Bolivar in May, Bolivar arrived at Callao and was proclaimed absolute dictator September, With a force of 10, men he set out on a final campaign. On August 6, , Canterac, in command of the Spanish forces, was defeated by him in the battle of Junin. A principios de el estado de la causa de la independencia era lastimoso en el Peni y marchaba desatentadamente a la ruina.

Montevideo was the last stronghold of Spanish power in Uruguay to surrender to the army of Buenos Aires in 18 Soon after, in 18 17, Artigas quarreled with Brazil, with the result that by all Uruguay was conquered, and remained a province of Brazil until Pero los independientes no cejaron. French troops invaded Mexico, declared in favor of an empire, and chose Maximilian, archduke of Austria, as emperor The protest of the United States against these proceedings con- vinced Napoleon that he had better withdraw his troops from Mexico Maximilian, however, was prevailed upon by his supporters to endeavor to maintain his authority in Mexico at all costs.

Meanwhile the Mexican patriots had been steadily strengthening their forces. Las azo- teas y los balcones de las calles, que conducen al llano donde se levanta el Cerro de las Campanas, se hallaban apretadas de 5 gente, en cuyos semblantes estaban pintados la pena y el dolor.

Los tres iban a recibir a un mismo tiempo la muerte. La muerte del general D. Los soldados formaron en hileras y regresaron a la ciudad, cuyos habitantes se hallaban conmovidos por la dolorosa 20 escena que acababa de verificarse. Su padre era D. Sin embargo, no pudo tenerse tranquilo, y estuvo de nuevo proscrito. Chile saw the danger for her in this alliance, and declared war on Santa Cruz. A Chilean army sent to Peru in was forced to retreat, but a second expedition defeated the allies on the plains of Yungai Jan.

Ordenado el avance, los soldados marcharon en perfecto or- den contra las posiciones ocupadas por las tropas de Santa 25 Cruz. Con admirable valor los chilenos ejecutaron esta orden, usando sus fusiles como punto de apoyo para subir por las escarpadas laderas del monte. Vencido en el campo de batalla y abandonado por el pueblo, Santa Cruz se vio en la necesidad de marcharse al extranjero.

This difficulty about boundaries had led to the signing of several treaties between the two countries. In , however, Chile, declaring all previous treaties null and void, seized the harbor of Antofagasta. Peru offered to intervene in order to prevent war. But on Chile's discovering that since there had existed a secret treaty between Bolivia and Peru, she declared war on both April By the Chileans had taken Tacna and Arica from the Bolivians. The latter straightway gave up the struggle, but the Peruvians made extensive preparations for further resistance.

El 13 de enero, las tropas chilenas barrieron a la bayoneta, con 15 empuje irresistible, las fortificaciones de Chorrillos. Era necesario volver a empezar. Sin embargo, se enviaban a Francia noticias optimistas acerca del gran pro- 20 greso que se iba realizando. On the union of Castile and Leon it was made the capital of Castile, and remained such until , when the royal residence was transferred to Toledo.

Some six miles to the north of Burgos is the village of Vivar, whence the Cid took his name. Of the twelve nobles assembled at the church of Santa Gadea, in Burgos, the Cid was the only one bold enough to beard the future sovereign and administer to him the oath. As a result, Alfonso always felt more or less enmity toward the Cid for the affront which he felt had been placed upon him at his coronation. Saragossa, capital of the province of the same name, in northeast Spain.

During the Moslem domination it was a petty kingdom, like many other cities of the Peninsula. In Barcelona was established as an independent county. By Sancho was master of Christian Spain, except the city of Zamora, during the siege of which he met his death.


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Current Sociology, 41 2 The news before the storm. Foreign Policy in the Gulf War. The media and Canadian Politics in an Era of Globalization. The complete reference guide. With more than fifty scientific papers published in Portugal, Spain, Belgium and Brazil, her work delumeau el miedo en occidente the exercise of conceptual revision in Art History, the heritage sciences, as well as the fields of painting, sculpture and architecture from the late Middle Ages to the neoclassical period.