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A new study by the World Health Organization found that the U. The study, published in medical journal BMC online last week, found that depression is more likely to strike in high-income countries than in poor ones. The biggest findings, according to redOrbit , were that France and the U. The Tehran Times broke it down a little: Income inequality, which is larger in high-income countries, promotes a slew of chronic conditions, including depression, the researchers speculate. One factor that held true across countries was the gender ratio of depression.

No matter the nationality, women were twice as likely as men to have experienced depression. Read more about France, America and the world beyond in the latest issue of Carnet Atlantique. Bloomberg reported that many previous disagreements had centered around just what in the hell should be done with Greece:.

European leaders have faced criticism for their slow, piecemeal efforts to stem the debt crisis. Sky News broke it down: Read all about another wretched economic crisis in the Carnet Atlantique. Most European competitors support lobbying for some of the TV income from the Amaury Sport Organisation, although French squads are wary of confronting organizers because they risk having their invitation to ride withdrawn , said Jonathan Vaughters, manager of the Boulder, Colorado-based Garmin team.

Read more about money and power struggles in the latest issue of Carnet Atlantique. Voices of America reports that while Fillon swears there is no expectation of resuming an exclusive partnership between the two countries, France is definitely interested in… investing in the area. A few more details, courtesy of Xinhua: French President Nicolas Sarkozy said his government would reduce the strong Licorne forces to or members. Minoru OZAWA, who teaches at the University of Tokyo, chaired the first session, devoted to the question of religious movements as an expression or a tool of cultural exchange.

He dealt with the dynamic Song period twelve and thirteenth century CE , during which society was ruled by a caste of scholarly or erudite officials and which transformed Eastern Asia. It was very interesting to see the way the artefacts were observed in the collection of the noble Song dynasty.

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Sanderval, Aimé Olivier Comte de 1840-

These treasures are now kept in Japan and China. They offer numerous clues with which to understand the cultural politics of the emperors and the erudite officials, as well as the expansion of Buddhism through this artistic and cultural channel, even though in certain periods some officials fought this expansion because of the profit made sometimes from some superstitious practices used as a tool of power.

But he also focused on the way conversion changed the societies that were the sources of the conversion movement as well. Alban showed how this was particularly true for the cult of saints and martyrs in England and for prayers for ancestors and friends. It is also the case with the practice of penance in Ireland, which was received in Frankia and Italy, and with sacral kingship and holy war in Germany as well.

So, the phenomenon has to be studied as a cultural exchange, not as a mere transfer. Alban also showed that the metamorphosis was already far advanced, due in part to an internal transformation of the balance and nature of power within these territories. The fruitful discussion that followed brought some new examples of these reciprocal phenomena of transfer such as baptism of the dead practised by Mormons.

The question of pagan ancestors of Christianized people, particularly in Japan, was also addressed. Another question that arose was about relics as holy objects transferred from one place to another by emperors to strengthen their power. A final question that was asked was if the abandon of a religious faith in a target society, as a consequence of a conquest, may be seen as cultural transfer. Even if there were actual contacts, for example with Portuguese ships, these distant countries were for the most part not seen directly, but through intermediaries like the travel story of a Chinese Buddhist monk several centuries before and through other written sources that influenced the view of the foreign: He wrote about India at a time when there were no direct contacts between India and Japan.

The crucial document here was written in , partly in Persian and partly in classical Japanese. A second example was of an imaginary landscape based on a voyage from China to India. A third example was taken from the muromachi period and the story of Sangoku Denki in the first half of the 15 th century, with characters representing people from India, China and Japan who describe their countries. We heard that there is some evidence of a ship coming from India to Japan in , sent by a powerful Chinese resident in Palembang.

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We also heard about this fictional dialogue of cultures putting on the stage an Indian, a Chinese and a Persian character. Finally, Kenji IGAWA showed that India represented an imaginary and longed-for world for medieval Japanese, who described India based on limited sources that had reached Japan in earlier periods. He argued that Iberian people, including St Francis Xavier, may have been recognized as an extension of this kind of imaginary India.

They were scions of the dynasty of the Valois dukes of Burgundy and related to the French kings.

Carnets de Geologie - Notebooks on Geology

The Far East was unknown and thus envisioned with imagination, linked as well to the lands conquered by Alexander the Great. One of the points made is that the stories and other fictional works about exotic regions played a very important role as a vehicle of scientific knowledge. In manuscripts, these stories were transposed into a contemporary setting, for example in the depiction of clothing in a way recognizable to a fifteenth — century readership.


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This book was considered to be a scientific book about the knowledge and nature of the world, just as the books about the life of Alexander the Great were considered didactic works to educate princes and other members of the court. The example of Alexander shown as a hero was an incentive to conquer or rule the Eastern world, also with a view to spreading Christianity. The third session was about the Effects of Literary Cultural Exchanges. She assumed the point of view of the French texts disseminated in Italy, and tried to see them from a theoretical point of view.

She argued that the trap of anachronism, with the present extremely centralized perspective of the hegemony of a single and unified French language, must be avoided.


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These literary productions were not subordinated to a centralized state or nation or to a dominant French court culture in a French-oriented and one-dimensional world, but must be seen as a language specific to a part of the world in this case, the Mediterranean region. As a lingua franca, this Medieval French-Italian language took many different forms, depending on the widely varying places where it was used, and depending on the literary or administrative genres in which it was used.

In any case, French was a secondary, supra-local language used in medieval societies where multilingualism was an everyday reality. The last speaker of this session was Prof. Philippe encouraged the king to reconquer Jerusalem but, as Y.

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Kobayashi showed, Gower used arguments based on natural law to avoid tyranny. Both writers use the character of Alexander, connected to Aristotle, as a counter-example. It was interesting to see how the same ideas were endorsed, albeit with different nuances, by the British writer John Gower.

He stressed the fact that it is necessary to distinguish clearly between objects before comparing them one to another. He suggested that we should have a Eurasian point of view on cultural areas. In this particularly fruitful session, the first two papers were dedicated to heraldry, a discipline that is rather recently regaining ground in Medieval Studies. She stressed their value in both cultures as a validating, authenticating and performative visual symbol, but also as a social codification of a very important representation of membership in a social and institutional group.

Beyond a common anthropological practice and the shared attention to religious protection, she emphasized some differences, such as the lasting and more costly material used in Japan and the heavier weight given in Japan to the representation of the individual. In Japan, the individual identity seems to be more present in the seal. In a richly illustrated paper, Laurent HABLOT asked some crucial methodological questions about the long-lasting and dazzling Japanese practice of Mon or Camon, linked to the exercise of all kinds of powers, and, on the other hand, about the use of coats of arms, badges and emblems in Europe.

He highlighted the methodological problem, real since the 19 th century, of using the same European and Western lexis or terminology to translate and explain the Japanese emblems, and he showed the risk of misunderstanding that doing so can give rise to in comparative studies. Therefore, in a very clear presentation of the various functions of the emblems, L. Hablot sought to propose an analytical grid applicable to both systems, that would, as a second step, make it possible to analyze each system within its own context and evolution. This is the best way to understand the performativity of the system.

In his paper, he stressed the importance of going back to the source itself, and the method of cataloguing heraldry systematically in databases. He also pleaded for abandoning the comparative history of heraldry from a Eurocentric point of view. The speakers showed the respective representations of communities as bodies, and analyzed the various ways in which unity and diversity were represented from plurality, in language and other symbols. They chose the case-study of several ikki of commoners in Muromachi Japan between the fourteenth and the sixteenth centuries, to study the language of legitimacy and union they use to represent themselves.

By means of examples about the temple of Honganji and passages from the pastoral letters of Rennyo in the middle of the fifteenth century, they investigated the balance between the inner self, the outer part, and faith in the perception of the body, on a comparative basis with the metaphors about the body in the western Middle Ages. They showed that Esoteric Buddhism was a source for the legitimation of the ikki.