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In Thailand, the presence of A. Picking mushrooms , especially in summer and autumn, is still very popular in Poland. Despite raising awareness of poisonous mushrooms in the Polish society, year after year hospitals treat many patients diagnosed with poisoning with the most common toxic species of mushroom found in our country. Furthermore, growing interest in hallucinogenic mushrooms among young people has become a serious medical problem of our time.

Websites make it incredibly easy for people to obtain information on the morphology and appearance of mushrooms with psychoactive properties, which leads inexperienced pickers to misidentification, resulting frequently in a fatal outcome. The article explores the subject of poisoning with the most common mushrooms with neurotropic effects, these are: Amanita muscaria, Amanita pantherina, Inocybe rubescens, Clitocybe dealbata, Clitocybe rivulosa and Psilocybe semilanceata. Toxins found in these species show symptoms that affect the central nervous system, parasympathetic system as well as the gastro-intestinal system.

The effects of poisoning in the mushroom species mentioned above are mild in general, liver and kidney damage occur rarely, but the symptoms depend on both the dosage of the consumed toxins and individual susceptibility. In most cases the treatment is of symptomatic nature. There is no specific treatment. Medical procedures mainly involve induced gastrolavage--stomach pumping providing that the patient is conscious , prescription of active carbon as well as replacement of lost body fluids and electrolytes.

If the muscarinic symptoms prevail it is generally advised to dose atropine. Patients showing the signs of hyperactivity receive tranquilizers or narcoleptics to eliminate psychotic symptoms. Microanalysis characterization of bioactive protein-bound polysaccharides produced by Amanita ponderosa cultures. Different compounds of edible mushrooms are responsible for their bioactivity. The ability to synthesize polysaccharides, namely protein-polysaccharide PPS complexes, is related to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds and present great interest in preventing a number of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and auto-immune diseases, and accelerated aging.

Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in Mediterranean "montado" areas [Portuguese name given to cork oak Quercus suber and holm oak Quercus ilex forests]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of PPS complexes obtained from A. Microanalysis using Fourier-transform infrared using attenuated total reflection and Raman spectroscopy of PPS samples showed spectra compatible with identification of this type of compound in culture extracts.

PPS separated by size-exclusion chromatography showed seven main complexes. Molecular weights of the main PPS complexes isolated from cultures ranged between 1. Application of this microanalytical approach to monitoring the production of PPS compounds can be successfully applied in biotechnological processes.

Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits.

Selenium in edible mushrooms. Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide.

Of the species reviewed belonging to 21 families and 56 genera , most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements.

Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom , and A. Defining the phylogenetic position of Amanita species from Andean Colombia. Amanita is a worldwide-distributed fungal genus, with approximately known species. Most species within the genus are ectomycorrhizal ECM , with some saprotrophic representatives.

In this study, we constructed the first comprehensive phylogeny including ECM species from Colombia collected in native Quercus humboldtii forests and in introduced Pinus patula plantations. We included 8 species A. Morphological taxonomic keys together with a phylogenetic approach using three nuclear gene regions: Several highly supported clades were obtained from the phylogenetic hypotheses obtained by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood approaches, allowing us to position the Colombian collections in a coherent infrageneric level and to contribute to the knowledge of local Amanita diversity.

The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly within 0. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms , treatment and prognosis.

Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index CSI.

Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index.

These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan.

The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. This list of mushrooms can be used in. We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index CSI.

Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus. Transposable elements TEs are ubiquitous inhabitants of eukaryotic genomes and their proliferation and dispersal shape genome architectures and diversity. Nevertheless, TE dynamics are often explored for one species at a time and are rarely considered in ecological contexts.

Recent work with plant pathogens suggests a link between symbiosis and TE abundance. The genomes of pathogenic fungi appear to house an increased abundance of TEs, and TEs are frequently associated with the genes involved in symbiosis. We used methods developed to interrogate both assembled and unassembled sequences, and characterized and quantified TEs across three AS and three ECM species, including the AS outgroup Volvariella volvacea. The ECM genomes are characterized by abundant numbers of TEs, an especially prominent feature of unassembled sequencing libraries. Increased TE activity in ECM species is also supported by phylogenetic analysis of the three most abundant TE superfamilies; phylogenies revealed many radiations within contemporary ECM species.

However, the AS species Amanita thiersii also houses extensive amplifications of elements, highlighting the influence of additional evolutionary parameters on TE abundance. The Gondwanan connection - Southern temperate Amanita lineages and the description of the first sequestrate species from the Americas. Amanita is a diverse and cosmopolitan genus of ectomycorrhizal fungi. We describe Amanita nouhrae sp. This constitutes the first report of a sequestrate Amanita from the Americas.

Thick-walled basidiospores ornamented on the interior spore wall 'crassospores' were observed consistently in A. This date suggests a broadly distributed ancestor in the Southern Hemisphere, which probably diversified as a result of continental drift, as well as the initiation of the Antarctic glaciation. By comparison, we show that this clade follows an exceptional biogeographic pattern within a genus otherwise seemingly dominated by Northern Hemisphere dispersal.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. The first observations revealed altered mental state and elevated blood pressure. The examination of cooked mushroom fragments allowed a preliminary identification of Amanita pantherina.

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS showed the presence of muscimol in urine. After 4 days of supportive treatment, activated charcoal, silybin and N-acetylcysteine, the patient recovered being discharged 10 days post-ingestion with no organ complications. The prompt and appropriate therapy protocol for life-threatening amatoxins toxicity probably saved the patient's life as oral absorption was decreased and also supportive care was immediately started. The oldest fossil mushroom. A new fossil mushroom is described and illustrated from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeast Brazil.

Gondwanagaricites represents the oldest fossil mushroom to date and the first fossil mushroom from Gondwana. Jared; Ruffatto, Danielle M. Increased C3 productivity in Midwestern lawns since revealed by carbon isotopes in Amanita thiersii. How climate and rising carbon dioxide concentrations pCO2 have influenced competition between C3 and C4 plants over the last 50 years is a critical uncertainty in climate change research. Between and , pCO2 rose by 46 ppm and the relative contribution of C3 photosynthesis to Amanita thiersii carbon increased Study of three interesting Amanita species from Thailand: Morphology, multiple-gene phylogeny and toxin analysis.

Thongbai, Benjarong; Miller, Steven L. Amanita ballerina and A. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. On the one hand, the morphology of A. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg.

We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey. The intake of heavy metals Pb, Cd and other metals Fe, Cu, Zn by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. Among the two primers, 5'-6FAM-SpC3-DHB CGA 5 provided more reliable data for identification purposes, by grouping samples of the same species and clustering closely related species together in a dendrogram based on amplicon similarities.

A high degree of intra-specific variation between the 15 A. Functional foods from mushroom. Mushrooms constitute 22, known species Geographically structured host specificity is caused by the range expansions and host shifts of a symbiotic fungus. The inability to associate with local species may constrain the spread of mutualists arriving to new habitats, but the fates of introduced, microbial mutualists are largely unknown.

The deadly poisonous ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides the death cap is native to Europe and introduced to the East and West Coasts of North America. By cataloging host associations across the two continents, we record dramatic changes in specificity among the three ranges. On the East Coast, where the fungus is restricted in its distribution, it associates almost exclusively with pines, which are rarely hosts of A. In California, where the fungus is widespread and locally abundant, it associates almost exclusively with oaks, mirroring the host associations observed in Europe.

The most common host of the death cap in California is the endemic coast live oak Quercus agrifolia , and the current distribution of A. In California, host shifts to native plants are also associated with a near doubling in the resources allocated to sexual reproduction and a prolonged fruiting period; mushrooms are twice as large as they are elsewhere and mushrooms are found throughout the year.

Host and niche shifts are likely to shape the continuing range expansion of A. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case. Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources.

Methods In we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. This index included eight variables: Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer.

It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into. Evidence for strong inter- and intracontinental phylogeographic structure in Amanita muscaria, a wind-dispersed ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete. Agrowing number of molecular studies show that many fungi have phylogeographic structures and that their distinct lineages are usually limited to different continents.

As a conservative test of the extent to which wind-dispersed mycorrhizal fungi may exhibit phylogeographic structure, we chose to study Amanita muscaria, a host-generalist, Amanita caesarea, an edible mushroom found mainly in Asia and southern Europe, has been reported to show good antioxidative activities. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of A. Compared with HT22 exposed only to l-Glu cells, AC enhanced the phosphorylation activities of protein kinase B Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR , and suppressed the phosphorylation activities of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten PTEN.

Taken together, our data provide experimental evidence that A. Poisoning by different kinds of toxic mushrooms is unfortunately becoming an increasingly important medical problem, evident from the growing number of reports worldwide since the s. Mycetism being a health concern, deserves scientific attention. In this perspective, the present study aims to assess the potential effects of ingesting the selected wild mushrooms from regions of the Western Ghats, India.

The preliminary cytotoxicity of the selected mushrooms was studied in vitro on the intestinal NCM and the Chang's liver cell lines on the basis of cell viability. Further, the hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring biologically relevant endpoints such as membrane integrity, mitochondrial stress and oxidative status. The hematological and serum analysis as well as histological examinations were carried out to evaluate their in vivo toxicity. GC-MS analysis of the mushrooms facilitated the identification of their volatile chemical profile.

The in vitro intestinal cytotoxicity exhibited by these wild mushrooms in comparison to the edible mushroom indicated their potential gastrointestinal toxicity. The pathological findings in small intestine on exposure to Chlorophyllum molybdites and Agaricus endoxanthus also validates the speculations about their intestinal toxicity. The potential toxicity exhibited by these representative mushrooms from the wild warrants caution about their consumption.

The present work could also have broader implications for global mycetism. Medicinal Mushrooms in Guatemala. Guatemala, located in Central America, has a long and rich history in the traditional use of edible, medicinal, and hallucinogenic mushrooms. This article describes the use of these mushrooms and presents studies on the scientific validation of native and foreign species.

Mushroom Use by College Students. Surveyed 1, college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs 17 percent , over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic psilocybin mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin. The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms , as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed.

Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins , and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc.

The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. Accumulation of several heavy metals and lanthanides in mushrooms Agaricales from the Chicago region.

This study explored the differences in metal uptake in sporocarps of ectomycorrhizae-forming fungi relative to 1 fungal species; 2 collection location; 3 differential metal uptake and variation within single-species, single-area populations; and 4 mobile metal content of soil substrate for the fungi.

In addition, this study examined levels of some of the lanthanides in these mushrooms , as lanthanide uptake in higher fungi has not been quantified to date. Soil was also collected from the Cowles Bog plots; metals were extracted from the soil, either with local Lake Michigan water or with nitric acid. These two extractions were meant to simulate the natural soil equilibrium concentrations of soluble metals and the maximum possible effects of any fungal chelating chemicals, respectively. An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to analyze soil extracts and nitric acid digests of whole sporocarps for the target analytes.

The metals found at elevated levels in the mushrooms included four of environmental interest Ag, Cd, Ba, and Pb and three lanthanides La, Ce, and Nd. Significant differences in uptake of metals were observed between A. With regard to location, more cadmium was found in Cowles Bog collections of A. Significant specimen-to-specimen variation occurred in all populations examined. Correlation analysis between pairs of trace elements within each sporocarp population revealed strong positive correlations between the lanthanides.

Thirteen popular wild edible mushroom species in Yunnan Province, Boletus bicolor , Boletus speciosus , Boletus sinicus , Boletus craspedius , Boletus griseus , Boletus ornatipes , Xerocomus , Suillus placidus , Boletinus pinetorus , Tricholoma terreum , Tricholomopsis lividipileata , Termitomyces microcarpus , and Amanita hemibapha , were analyzed for their free amino acid compositions by online pre-column derivazation reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography RP-HPLC analysis.

Twenty free amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, praline, cysteine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, histidine, threonine, asparagines, glutamine, arginine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, were determined. The total free amino acid TAA contents ranged from The different species showed distinct free amino acid profiles. Alanine, cysteine, glutamine, and glutamic acid were among the most abundant amino acids present in all species. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms possessed significant free amino acid contents, which may be important compounds contributing to the typical mushroom taste, nutritional value, and potent antioxidant properties of these wild edible mushrooms.

Furthermore, the principal component analysis PCA showed that the accumulative variance contribution rate of the first four principal components reached Cluster analysis revealed EAA composition and content might be an important parameter to separate the mushroom species, and T. Knowledge and use of edible mushrooms in two municipalities of the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico.

The territory consists of canyons and ravines with pine, oak and pine-oak forests in the higher plateaus. A great diversity of potentially edible mushrooms is found in forests of the Municipalities of Bocoyna and Urique. Their residents are the only consumers of wild mushrooms in the Northern Mexico; they have a long tradition of collecting and eating these during the "rainy season. This paper aims to record evidence of the knowledge and use of wild potentially edible mushroom species by inhabitants of towns in the Sierra Tarahumara of Chihuahua, Mexico. Using a semi-structured technique, we surveyed habitants from seven locations in Urique, Bocoyna, and the Cusarare area from to Known fungi, local nomenclature, species consumed, preparation methods, appreciation of taste, forms of preservation, criteria for differentiating toxic and edible fungi, other uses, economic aspects, and traditional teaching were recorded.

To identify the recognized species, photographic stimuli of 22 local edible species and two toxic species were used. The respondents reported preference for five species: Amanita rubescens, Agaricus campestris, Ustilago maydis, Hypomyces lactifluorum, and the Amanita caesarea complex. No apparent differences were found between ethnic groups in terms of preference, although mestizos used other species in Bocoyna Boletus edulis and B. Some different uses of fungi are recognized by respondents, i.

The studied population shows a great appreciation towards five species, mainly the A. Tyrosinase, also known as polyphenol oxidase, is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals, and plants. Nowadays mushroom tyrosinase has become popular because it is readily available and useful in a number of applications. This work presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, especially that derived from mushroom , and describes its biochemical character and inhibition and activation by the various chemicals obtained from natural and synthetic origins with its clinical and industrial importance in the recent prospects.

Much progress in the areas of identification of active components and elucidation of the toxic mechanisms for the principal poisonous mushrooms has been made in the past decade. This affords a more rational approach to therapeutic management which has consequently resulted in a decrease in the morbidity and mortality associated with these species. However, the effectiveness of a large number of adjuvants for Amanita phalloides poisoning still needs critical laboratory evaluation.

The current status of knowledge concerning the toxic potential and contituents of many mushroom species, including the gastroenteric irritants, is inadequate. The problem of geographic variation or genetic strain in the concentration of toxins of many species also requires further investigation. The recent awareness and interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of uncultivated mushrooms in North America and Great Britain should encourage continued active research. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms. This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature.

The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms. Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms , as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly.

Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms , seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food.

This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality. Beringian origins and cryptic speciation events in the fly agaric Amanita muscaria.

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Previous phylogenetic work by others indicates three geographic clades i. However, the historical dispersal patterns of A. In our project, we collected specimens from arctic, boreal and humid temperate regions in Alaska, and generated DNA sequence data from the protein-coding beta-tubulin gene and the internal transcribed spacer ITS and large subunit LSU regions of the ribosomal DNA repeat.

Homologous sequences from additional A. We conducted phylogenetic and nested clade analyses NCA to reveal the phylogeographic history of the species complex. Although phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of the three above-mentioned clades, representatives of all three groups were found to occur sympatrically in Alaska, suggesting that they represent cryptic phylogenetic species with partially overlapping geographic distributions rather than being allopatric populations.

All phylogenetic species share at least two morphological varieties with other species, suggesting ancestral polymorphism in pileus and wart colour pre-dating their speciations. The ancestral population of A. The data suggest that these populations later evolved into species, expanded their range in North America and Eurasia. In addition to range expansions, populations of all three species remained in Beringia and adapted to the cooling climate.

Despite the longstanding use of dried mushrooms and mushroom extracts in traditional Chinese medicine, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of these preparations in the treatment of human disease. Consumers should evaluate assertions made by companies about the miraculous properties of medicinal mushrooms very critically.

The potential harm caused by these natural products is another important consideration. In a more positive vein, the presence of potent toxins and neurotropic compounds in basidiomycete fruit bodies suggests that secondary metabolites with useful pharmacological properties are widespread in these fungi. Major investment in controlled experiments and objective clinical trials is necessary to develop this natural pharmacopeia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. Shiitake mushroom dermatitis is a cutaneous reaction caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shiitake mushrooms.

Symptoms include linear erythematous eruptions with papules, papulovesicles or plaques, and severe pruritus. It is likely caused by lentinan, a heat-inactivated beta-glucan polysaccharide. Cases were initially reported in Japan but have now been documented in other Asian countries, North America, South America, and Europe, as this mushroom is now cultivated and consumed worldwide.

Shiitake mushroom dermatitis may result from mushroom ingestion or from handling, which can result in an allergic contact dermatitis. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system. Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds 5'-nucleotides: Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content The equivalent umami concentration EUC ranged from 1. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement.

The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Gender differences and regionalization of the cultural significance of wild mushrooms around La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala, Mexico.

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Amanita phalloides - Wikipedia

The purpose of this study was to determine the cultural significance of wild mushrooms in 10 communities on the slopes of La Malinche volcano, Tlaxcala. The frequency and order of mention of each mushroom species in interviews of individuals were used as indicators of the relative cultural significance of each species. A X 2 analysis was used to compare the frequency of mention of each species between males and females, and a Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender.

Traditional names for mushroom species were documented and frequency of mention assessed through multivariate statistics. The fungi with highest frequency of mention were Amanita basii, Lyophyllum decastes, Boletus pinophilus, Gomphus floccosus and Cantharellus cibarius complex. We found significant differences in the frequency of mention of different fungi by males and females but no significant difference was found for the total number of fungi mentioned by either gender.

Principal component analysis suggested a cultural regionalization of La Malinche volcano communities based on preferences for consumption and use of traditional names. We observed two groups: San Isidro Buensuceso is the most distinct community, according to the criteria in this study. Correlation between the pattern volatiles and the overall aroma of wild edible mushrooms. Volatile and semivolatile components of 11 wild edible mushrooms , Suillus bellini, Suillus luteus, Suillus granulatus, Tricholomopsis rutilans, Hygrophorus agathosmus, Amanita rubescens, Russula cyanoxantha, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma equestre, Fistulina hepatica, and Cantharellus cibarius, were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction HS-SPME and by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS.

Fifty volatiles and nonvolatiles components were formally identified and 13 others were tentatively identified. Using sensorial analysis, the descriptors "mushroomlike", "farm-feed", "floral", "honeylike", "hay-herb", and "nutty" were obtained. A correlation between sensory descriptors and volatiles was observed by applying multivariate analysis principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchic cluster analysis to the sensorial and chemical data. The studied edible mushrooms can be divided in three groups. One of them is rich in C8 derivatives, such as 3-octanol, 1-octenol, transoctenol, 3-octanone, and 1-octenone; another one is rich in terpenic volatile compounds; and the last one is rich in methional.

The presence and contents of these compounds give a considerable contribution to the sensory characteristics of the analyzed species. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland.

Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk.

Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste.

As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms , there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms. The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms , of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine AB , but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms.

To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species 73 samples over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms , suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms.

The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. Except for Agaricus sp. Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus Psalliota The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value.

However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice.

In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between and , notified with the code There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications.

We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms , with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups from 1 to 85 years , but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time PT.

The study included people. The dependence of knowledge about mushrooms from the place of origin of students, frequency of participation in mushrooming , preferred sources of information about mushrooms , major of study and self-competence in discsriminating of mushrooms was determined.


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Residents of large cities more often that those living in villages and small towns have difficulites in distinguishing the edible and poisonous mushrooms. People often participating in mushrooming retain proper habits during the harvesting and processing of mushrooms. Irrational ways of distinguishing edible mushrooms from poisonous are often rejected by inexperienced people than by frequently gathering mushrooms.

The primary source of knowledge on mushrooms for the majority of responents are parents. There was no correlation between the preferred source of information about mushrooms and belief in the myths about them. Knowledge on the mushrooms of medical students nursing, emergency medical service is not greater than students other courses. Vitamin D4 in mushrooms. An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D 2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D 4 dihydroergocalciferol.

White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.

Amanita phalloides: Invasion of the Death Cap

The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D 4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D 4 content was more than twice that of D 2 6. The vitamin D 4 precursor 22,dihydroergosterol was found in all composites 4. Vitamin D 4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure.

Because vitamin D 4 coeluted with D 3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D 2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D 2 in mushrooms and using D 3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D 3 and D 4. Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer.

Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms , which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms , almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it.

Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, Ra, Pb, and Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts.

Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed. Previous studies of the toxin composition of poisonous Lepiota species relied on analytical methods of low sensitivity or resolution. Using liquid chromatography coupled to UV absorbance and mass spectrometry, we analyzed the spectrum of peptide toxins present in six Italian species of Lepiota, including multiple samples of three of them collected in different locations.

Field taxonomic identifications were confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer ITS regions. For comparison, we also analyzed specimens of Amanita phalloides from Italy and California, a specimen of A. Phallotoxins were not detected in either species. No amatoxins or phallotoxins were detected in L. The Italian and California isolates of A. Amaninamide was detected only in A. Medicinal mushrooms have been used as an addition to standard cancer treatments in Asia.

Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have anticancer effects. Get detailed information about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this clinician summary. Mushrooms are being studied to find out how they affect the immune system and if they have antitumor effects. Learn more about the use of medicinal mushrooms for cancer in this expert-reviewed summary. We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes quantum states of the mushroom billiard proposed by L.

Bunimovich [Chaos 11, ]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy 1. We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death.

The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger Solanaceae , Colchicum species Liliaceae , Conium maculatum Umbelliferae and Prunus species Rosaceae are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides , A.

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Edible mushroom -related poisoning: A study on circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage. The present retrospective study was designed to identify the epidemiology of mushroom poisoning in adults admitted to Krakow's Department of Clinical Toxicology DCT from to This study was conducted retrospectively after examining the files of adult patients with wild mushroom poisoning.

Mycological analysis was made and the species of the poisoning-inducing mushroom was determined. Furthermore, the circumstances related to the mushroom gathering, transport, storage, preparation, and consumption have been analyzed. The analysis revealed that in The main reason for edible mushroom poisoning is associated with their incorrect processing after harvest.

The analysis of the circumstances of mushroom collection, transport, and storage shows that the largest percentage of poisoning was connected with long-term storage of mushroom dishes, collecting, and storing them in plastic bags, and long storage of mushrooms. Based on spore analysis of the gastric content, edible mushrooms were responsible for the great majority of mushroom poisoning cases admitted to the DCT. The toxicity of edible mushroom is associated with proceeding with them during collection, transport, and storage.

The medical history should be supplemented by questions concerning these circumstances. The identification of the mushroom by a mycologist is highly desirable. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms.

We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies.

Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers. Most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by species of the genus Amanita ; the amatoxins are responsible for acute liver failure and death in humans.

Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. Treatment with SIL, G. Moreover, triterpenoids and SIL significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in livers.

Treatment with ganoderic acid C2 significantly inhibited DNA fragmentation and decreased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R. Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes Berk Sing.

Schroet, Clavaria aurea F Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. The " Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited. A revisitation of the classical " mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene turpentine oil and trichloroisocyanuric acid "Trichlor" giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…. The final installment of a series of articles on the " Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.

Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii AL and Cantharellus floridulus CF mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest mining town , Macheke forest commercial farming , and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.

The transfer factors, mushrooms -soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. In patients developing liver failure, a liver transplant is often the only option to prevent death.

Liver transplants have become a well-established option in amatoxin poisoning. Several historical figures may have died from A. These were either accidental poisonings or assassination plots. Gordon Wasson recounted [96] the details of these deaths, noting the likelihood of Amanita poisoning. In the case of Clement VII, the illness that led to his death lasted five months, making the case inconsistent with amatoxin poisoning p. Natalia Naryshkina is said to have consumed a large quantity of pickled mushrooms prior to her death. It is unclear whether the mushrooms themselves were poisonous or if she succumbed to food poisoning.

This led to an illness from which he died 10 days later—symptomatology consistent with amatoxin poisoning. His death led to the War of the Austrian Succession. Noted Voltaire , "this dish of mushrooms changed the destiny of Europe. The case of Claudius ' poisoning is more complex. Claudius was known to have been very fond of eating Caesar's mushroom. Following his death, many sources have attributed it to his being fed a meal of death caps instead of Caesar's mushrooms. Ancient authors, such as Tacitus and Suetonius , are unanimous about poison having been added to the mushroom dish, rather than the dish having been prepared from poisonous mushrooms.

Wasson speculated the poison used to kill Claudius was derived from death caps, with a fatal dose of an unknown poison possibly a variety of nightshade being administered later during his illness. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Poisonous fungus in the family Amanitaceae, widely distributed across Europe. I have a part of one dried still by me. Letter dated August 18th in Vol 3.

The Works of Sir Thomas Browne ed. Botanicon Parisiense in Latin. Systema Mycologicum I in Latin. Haude und Spenerschen Buchhandlung S. Tentamen Dispositionis Methodicae Fungorum in Latin. Synopsis Methodica Fungorum in Latin. Poisonous plants and fungi in color.


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    Liver transplantation represents the optimal treatment for fulminant hepatic failure from Amanita phalloides poisoning". A year retrospective analysis and follow-up evaluation of patients". Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Amanita phalloides " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.

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