President Woodrow Wilson opened the deep-water Port of Houston in , seven years after digging began. By , Houston had become Texas' most populous city and Harris County the most populous county. Census Bureau reported Houston's population as When World War II started, tonnage levels at the port decreased and shipping activities were suspended; however, the war did provide economic benefits for the city. Petrochemical refineries and manufacturing plants were constructed along the ship channel because of the demand for petroleum and synthetic rubber products by the defense industry during the war.
Navy during World War II. Due to the boom in defense jobs, thousands of new workers migrated to the city, both blacks and whites competing for the higher-paying jobs. President Roosevelt had established a policy of nondiscrimination for defense contractors, and blacks gained some opportunities, especially in shipbuilding, although not without resistance from whites and increasing social tensions that erupted into occasional violence. Economic gains of blacks who entered defense industries continued in the postwar years.
In , the M. Anderson Foundation formed the Texas Medical Center. After the war, Houston's economy reverted to being primarily port-driven. In , the city annexed several unincorporated areas, more than doubling its size. Houston proper began to spread across the region. In , the availability of air conditioning provided impetus for many companies to relocate to Houston, where wages were lower than those in the North; this resulted in an economic boom and produced a key shift in the city's economy toward the energy sector.
Johnson Space Center in This was the stimulus for the development of the city's aerospace industry. The Astrodome , nicknamed the " Eighth Wonder of the World ",  opened in as the world's first indoor domed sports stadium. During the late s, Houston had a population boom as people from the Rust Belt states moved to Texas in large numbers. With the increase in professional jobs, Houston has become a destination for many college-educated persons, including African Americans in a reverse Great Migration from northern areas.
In , Houstonians elected Lee P. Brown as the city's first African American mayor. The storm cost billions of dollars in damage and killed 20 people in Texas. In August , Houston became a shelter to more than , people from New Orleans, who evacuated from Hurricane Katrina. This was the largest urban evacuation in the history of the United States.
During its recent history, Houston has flooded several times from heavy rainfall, which has been becoming increasingly common. On January 31, , the Houston City Council agreed to forgive large water bills thousands of households faced in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey, as Houston Public Works found 6, homeowners' water utility bills had at least doubled.
Most of Houston is located on the gulf coastal plain , and its vegetation is classified as temperate grassland and forest. Much of the city was built on forested land, marshes, swamp, or prairie and are all still visible in surrounding areas. Houston has four major bayous passing through the city that accept water from the extensive drainage system. Buffalo Bayou runs through downtown and the Houston Ship Channel , and has three tributaries: The ship channel continues past Galveston and then into the Gulf of Mexico.
Houston is a flat marshy area where an extensive drainage system has been built. The adjoining prairie land drains into the city which is prone to flooding. The region's geology developed from river deposits formed from the erosion of the Rocky Mountains. These sediments consist of a series of sands and clays deposited on decaying organic marine matter, that over time, transformed into oil and natural gas.
Beneath the layers of sediment is a water-deposited layer of halite , a rock salt. The porous layers were compressed over time and forced upward. As it pushed upward, the salt dragged surrounding sediments into salt dome formations, often trapping oil and gas that seeped from the surrounding porous sands. The thick, rich, sometimes black, surface soil is suitable for rice farming in suburban outskirts where the city continues to grow.
No significant historically recorded earthquakes have occurred in Houston, but researchers do not discount the possibility of such quakes having occurred in the deeper past, nor occurring in the future. Land in some areas southeast of Houston is sinking because water has been pumped out of the ground for many years. It may be associated with slip along the faults; however, the slippage is slow and not considered an earthquake, where stationary faults must slip suddenly enough to create seismic waves. The city experiences hot, long, and humid summers, and mild winters.
While not located in Tornado Alley , like much of northern Texas, spring supercell thunderstorms sometimes bring tornadoes to the area. Prevailing winds are from the south and southeast during most of the year, which bring heat and moisture from the nearby Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay.
The city reaches or surpasses this temperature on an average of Houston has mild winters. Overall, Houston has seen measurable snowfall 38 times between and Houston generally receives ample rainfall, averaging about Many parts of the city have a high risk of localized flooding due to flat topography,  ubiquitous low- permeability clay-silt prairie soils,  and inadequate infrastructure.
Houston has excessive ozone levels and is routinely ranked among the most ozone-polluted cities in the United States. Houston was incorporated in and adopted a ward system of representation shortly afterward in In addition to Interstate , two additional loop highways encircle the city: Approximately , people live within the Interstate loop, while 1. Though Houston is the largest city in the United States without formal zoning regulations, it has developed similarly to other Sun Belt cities because the city's land use regulations and legal covenants have played a similar role.
Such restrictions have had mixed results. Though some have blamed the city's low density, urban sprawl , and lack of pedestrian-friendliness on these policies, the city's land use has also been credited with having significant affordable housing, sparing Houston the worst effects of the real estate crisis.
Voters rejected efforts to have separate residential and commercial land-use districts in , , and Houston has the fifth-tallest skyline in North America after New York City, Chicago , Toronto and Miami and 36th-tallest in the world as of [update]. In the s, Downtown Houston consisted of a collection of midrise office structures. Downtown was on the threshold of an energy industry—led boom in A succession of skyscrapers was built throughout the s—many by real estate developer Gerald D.
It is the tallest structure in Texas, 15th tallest building in the United States, and the 85th-tallest skyscraper in the world, based on highest architectural feature. Based on highest architectural feature, it is the 17th-tallest in the United States and the 95th-tallest in the world. Uptown became one of the most prominent instances of an edge city. At the time of construction, it was believed to be the world's tallest skyscraper outside a central business district.
The Uptown District is also home to buildings designed by noted architects I. In the late s and early s, a mini-boom of midrise and highrise residential tower construction occurred, with several over 30 stories tall. The Williams Tower is the tallest building in the US outside a central business district. The Rice University Kinder Institute for Urban Research, a think tank , has described Greater Houston as "one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse metropolitan areas in the country.
Houston's multiculturalism, fueled by large waves of immigrants, has been attributed to its relatively low cost of living , strong job market, proximity to Latin America , and role as a hub for refugee resettlement. Compared with its metropolitan area, the city of Houston's population has a higher proportion of minorities.
Individuals from some other race made up At the Census , 1,, people inhabited the city, and the population density was 3, The racial makeup of the city in was In addition, Hispanics made up Houston is recognized worldwide for its energy industry—particularly for oil and natural gas—as well as for biomedical research and aeronautics. Renewable energy sources—wind and solar—are also growing economic bases in the city.
Because of these strengths, Houston is designated as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network and global management consulting firm A. Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration. The top three destinations for exports were Mexico , Canada, and Brazil.
The Houston area is a leading center for building oilfield equipment. The University of Houston System 's annual impact on the Houston area's economy equates to that of a major corporation: System produces every year who enter the workforce in Houston and throughout the state of Texas. These degree-holders tend to stay in Houston. After five years, In , the Houston metropolitan area ranked first in Texas and third in the U. In , Houston received top ranking on Kiplinger's Personal Finance Best Cities of list, which ranks cities on their local economy, employment opportunities, reasonable living costs, and quality of life.
In , the city was ranked number one for paycheck worth by Forbes and in late May , Houston was identified as America's top city for employment creation. In , Houston was identified as the number one U. Bureau of Statistics after it was not only the first major city to regain all the jobs lost in the preceding economic downturn, but also after the crash, more than two jobs were added for every one lost. Economist and vice president of research at the Greater Houston Partnership Patrick Jankowski attributed Houston's success to the ability of the region's real estate and energy industries to learn from historical mistakes.
Furthermore, Jankowski stated that "more than foreign-owned companies relocated, expanded or started new businesses in Houston" between and , and this openness to external business boosted job creation during a period when domestic demand was problematically low. Located in the American South , Houston is a diverse city with a large and growing international community.
Many annual events celebrate the diverse cultures of Houston. The Houston Theater District , located in downtown, is home to nine major performing arts organizations and six performance halls. It is the second-largest concentration of theater seats in a downtown area in the United States. Bayou Bend is a acre 5. Bayou Bend is the former home of Houston philanthropist Ima Hogg. The museum houses the original Popemobile used by Pope John Paul II in the s along with numerous hearses, embalming displays, and information on famous funerals.
Venues across Houston regularly host local and touring rock, blues, country, dubstep, and Tejano musical acts. While Houston has never been widely known for its music scene,  Houston hip-hop has become a significant, independent music scene that is influential nationwide. The Theater District is a block area in the center of downtown Houston that is home to the Bayou Place entertainment complex, restaurants, movies, plazas, and parks. Bayou Place is a large multilevel building containing full-service restaurants, bars, live music, billiards, and Sundance Cinema.
The Bayou Music Center stages live concerts, stage plays, and stand-up comedy. The Space Center has many interactive exhibits including moon rocks , a shuttle simulator, and presentations about the history of NASA's manned space flight program. Houston's current Chinatown and the Mahatma Gandhi District are two major ethnic enclaves , reflecting Houston's multicultural makeup. Restaurants, bakeries, traditional-clothing boutiques, and specialty shops can be found in both areas.
Sam Houston Park contains restored and reconstructed homes which were originally built between and Of the 10 most populous U. Hines Waterwall Park —located in the Uptown District of the city—serves as a popular tourist attraction and for weddings and various celebrations. A study by Walk Score ranked Houston the 23rd most walkable of the 50 largest cities in the United States.
Houston has sports teams for every major professional league except the National Hockey League. It is the only MLB team to have won pennants in both modern leagues. They have won two NBA Championships: Aveva Stadium home of the SaberCats is located in south Houston. The city has hosted several major professional and college sporting events, including the annual Houston Open golf tournament.
The October event was held using a tweaked version of the — course.
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The city of Houston has a strong mayoral form of municipal government. Houston's mayor serves as the city's chief administrator, executive officer, and official representative, and is responsible for the general management of the city and for seeing that all laws and ordinances are enforced. The original city council line-up of 14 members nine district-based and five at-large positions was based on a U.
Justice Department mandate which took effect in The city controller is elected independently of the mayor and council. The controller's duties are to certify available funds prior to committing such funds and processing disbursements. The city's fiscal year begins on July 1 and ends on June As the result of a referendum in Houston, a mayor is elected for a four-year term, and can be elected to as many as two consecutive terms. As of [update] some councilmembers who served two terms and won a final term will have served eight years in office, whereas a freshman councilmember who won a position in can serve up to two additional terms under the previous term limit law — a select few will have at least 10 years of incumbency once their term expires.
Houston is considered to be a politically divided city whose balance of power often sways between Republicans and Democrats. Much of the city's wealthier areas vote Republican while the city's working class and minority areas vote Democratic. Houston had homicides in and homicides in Officials predicted there would be homicides in Instead, there was no increase in Houston's homicide rate between and Houston's murder rate ranked 46th of U. This trend toward lower rates of violent crime in Houston includes the murder rate, though it had seen a four-year uptick that lasted through Houston's violent crime rate is 8.
However, from to , violent crime is still down 12 percent in Houston.http://lichnostnyj-rost.kovalev.com.ua/assets/44.php
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Houston is a significant hub for trafficking of cocaine , cannabis , heroin, MDMA , and methamphetamine due to its size and proximity to major illegal drug exporting nations. In the early s, Houston, Pasadena and several coastal towns were the site of the Houston mass murders , which at the time were the deadliest case of serial killing in American history.
Seventeen school districts exist within the city of Houston. There are also many charter schools that are run separately from school districts. In addition, some public school districts also have their own charter schools. The Houston area encompasses more than private schools,    many of which are accredited by Texas Private School Accreditation Commission recognized agencies.
The Houston Area independent schools offer education from a variety of different religious as well as secular viewpoints. Four distinct state universities are located in Houston. Texas Southern University was the first state university in Houston, founded in Several private institutions of higher learning are located within the city. Rice University , the most selective university in Texas and one of the most selective in the United States,  is a private, secular institution with a high level of research activity.
To the north in Neartown , the University of St. Thomas , founded in , is Houston's only Catholic university. Thomas provides a liberal arts curriculum for roughly 3, students at its historic block campus along Montrose Boulevard. The school is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas and has a student population of approximately 3, Three community college districts have campuses in and around Houston.
Suburban northern and western parts of the metropolitan area are served by various campuses of the Lone Star College System , while the southeastern portion of Houston is served by San Jacinto College , and a northeastern portion is served by Lee College. Houston also hosts a number of graduate schools in law and healthcare.
The Texas Medical Center is home to a high density of health professions schools, including two medical schools: Additionally, both Texas Southern University and the University of Houston have pharmacy schools , and the University of Houston hosts a college of optometry. The University of Houston—Downtown , located in Downtown , is the second-largest institution of higher education in Houston. The University of Houston , located in the Third Ward, is a tier-one public research university and the third-largest institution of higher education in Texas.
Rice University , located near the Museum District and Texas Medical Center , is a private tier-one research university and the most selective institution of higher education in Texas. The University of St. Thomas , located in Neartown , is a private Catholic liberal arts college. Houston Baptist University , located in Sharpstown , is a private Baptist university. The Houston—The Woodlands—Sugar Land metropolitan area is served by one public television station and one public radio station. The stations broadcast from the Melcher Center for Public Broadcasting, located on the campus of the University of Houston.
Houston is served by the Houston Chronicle , its only major daily newspaper with wide distribution. The Hearst Corporation, which owns and operates the Houston Chronicle , bought the assets of the Houston Post —its long-time rival and main competition—when Houston Post ceased operations in The only other major publication to serve the city is the Houston Press —which was a free alternative weekly newspaper before the destruction caused by Hurricane Harvey resulted in the publication switching to an online-only format on November 2, Houston is the seat of the internationally renowned Texas Medical Center, which contains the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions.
They provide patient and preventive care, research, education, and local, national, and international community well-being. Employing more than 73, people, institutions at the medical center include 13 hospitals and two specialty institutions, two medical schools, four nursing schools, and schools of dentistry, public health, pharmacy, and virtually all health-related careers.
It is where one of the first—and still the largest—air emergency service, Life Flight , was created, and a very successful inter-institutional transplant program was developed. More heart surgeries are performed at the Texas Medical Center than anywhere else in the world. The Baylor College of Medicine has annually been considered within the top ten medical schools in the nation; likewise, the MD Anderson Cancer Center has consistently ranked as one of the top two U. Houston is considered an automobile-dependent city, with an estimated Despite the region's high rate of automobile usage, attitudes towards transportation among Houstonians indicate a growing preference for walkability.
The national average was 8. Greater Houston possesses a hub-and-spoke limited-access highway system, in which a number of freeways radiate outward from Downtown, with ring roads providing connections between these radial highways at intermediate distances from the city center. The city is crossed by three Interstate highways , Interstate 10 , Interstate 45 , and Interstate 69 commonly known as U. Route 59 , as well as a number of other United States routes and state highways.
Major freeways in Greater Houston are often referred to by either the cardinal direction or geographic location they travel towards. Highways that follow the cardinal convention include U.
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Three loop freeways provide north-south and east-west connectivity between Greater Houston's radial highways. The Sam Houston Tollway, which encompasses the mainlanes of Beltway 8 as opposed to the frontage roads , which are untolled , is the longest tollway in the system, covering the entirety of the Beltway with the exception of a free section between Interstate 45 and Interstate 69 near George Bush Intercontinental Airport. The region is serviced by four spoke tollways: Greater Houston's freeway system is monitored by Houston TranStar, a partnership of four government agencies which is responsible for providing transportation and emergency management services to the region.
Greater Houston's arterial road network is established at the municipal level, with the City of Houston exercising planning control over both its incorporated area and extraterritorial jurisdiction ETJ. Arterial roads are organized into four categories, in decreasing order of intensity: Ultimately, the system is designed to ferry traffic from neighborhood streets to major thoroughfares, which connect into the limited-access highway system.
METRO's local bus network services approximately , riders daily with a fleet of over 1, buses. In the early s, two additional lines—the Green Line , servicing the East End , and the Purple Line , servicing the Third Ward —opened, and the Red Line was extended northward to Northline , bringing the total length of the system to Two light rail lines outlined in a five-line system approved by voters in a referendum have yet to be constructed. The station saw 14, boardings and alightings in fiscal year Houston has the largest number of bike commuters in Texas with over miles of dedicated bikeways.
Houston's bicycle sharing system started service with nineteen stations in May Houston Bcycle also known as B-Cycle , a local non-profit, runs the subscription program, supplying bicycles and docking stations, while partnering with other companies to maintain the system. The Houston Airport System , a branch of the municipal government, oversees the operation of three major public airports in the city. Hobby Airport , offer commercial aviation service to a variety of domestic and international destinations and served 55 million passengers in Houston was the headquarters of Continental Airlines until its merger with United Airlines with headquarters in Chicago; regulatory approval for the merger was granted in October of that year.
Customs and Border Protection. Hobby Airport HOU , known as Houston International Airport until , operates primarily short- to medium-haul domestic and international flights to 60 destinations. In , Southwest Airlines launched service from a new international terminal at Hobby to several destinations in Mexico , Central America , and the Caribbean. These were the first international flights flown from Hobby since the opening of Bush Intercontinental in Hobby Airport has been recognized with two awards for being one of the top five performing airports in the world and for customer service by Airports Council International.
Houston's third municipal airport is Ellington Airport , used by the military, government including NASA and general aviation sectors. The Houston Office of Protocol and International Affairs is the city's liaison to Houston's sister cities and to the national governing organization, Sister Cities International. Through their official city-to-city relationships, these volunteer associations promote people-to-people diplomacy and encourage citizens to develop mutual trust and understanding through commercial, cultural, educational, and humanitarian exchanges.
List of companies in Houston. List of colleges and universities in Houston.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the largest city in the U. For other uses, see Houston disambiguation. City in Texas, United States. From top, left to right: Space City official more History of Houston and Timeline of Houston. Geographic areas of Houston and List of Houston neighborhoods. List of tallest buildings in Houston. The Niels Esperson Building stood as the tallest building in Houston from to List of hospitals in Texas.
Houston portal Texas portal. Retrieved September 2, Retrieved May 26, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 16, Census Bureau QuickFacts selected: Retrieved January 31, United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 25, Retrieved July 3, Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved June 1, Retrieved May 25, Retrieved April 12, Archived from the original PDF on July 11, Retrieved on March 21, A History 2nd ed.
University of Texas Press. Williams August 24, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved March 18, City Savvy Online ed. Archived from the original on December 18, Stele to Sayers, September 11—12, The Gusher Age, — Retrieved April 6, Archived from the original on October 5, Earliest Census to ". Reviews Schrijf een review. Kies je bindwijze Bekijk alle bindwijzen 9. Start direct met lezen Digitaal lezen is voordelig Dag en nacht klantenservice Veilig betalen. Julian Barnes England, England 8, Macdonell England, Their England 0, Phil Mcgowan One of Us 16, Bekijk de hele lijst.
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