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Nie htsdesto trotz ist diese Arbeit kostspielig. Wir bitten Sie um Einhaltung folgender Richtlinien: Bitte entfernen Sie das Wasserzeichen nicht. Ob ein Buch noch dem Urheberrecht unterliegt, ist von Land zu Land verschieden. Eine Urheberrechtsverletzung kann schwerwiegende Folgen haben. The favorable reception accorded to the latter has encouraged the author to continue in this volume the general plan of its predecessor.

The Beading Matter in most of the Lessons of this volume is longer than in the first book. This was made possible without burdening the student with too large a number of new words in each Lesson, first by an extensive use of the vocabulary of the First Year in the present volume, and second by devoting much attention to a svstematic treatment of the derivation and formation of words. As regards the second, it enables the student to acquire a knowledge of the relationship existing between words belonging to the same family, i. This method of selecting the vocabulary was employed to enable the student to read a book at sight, after he had mastered the essentials of grammar.

While in both volumes the explanatory Notes are in English, the present book differs from the Fird Year in that the Oral and Written Exercises are in German. This arrangement and the greater length of the Read- ing Matter afford the student greater opportunities of using the German language. It will further be noted that the present volume does not contain Additional Exercises such as those to be found in the First Year, Such exercises seemed in the author's opinion superfluous, because without them this volume Covers more ground than some schools can go over in the second year of German study.

This preface would be incomplete if it failed to acknowledge the many kind Communications relating to the First Year which have been received since its publication, as well as the numerous valuable sug- gestions made by friends and experienced teachers in all parts of the country in regard to the plan and Contents of the present volume. The author takes this opportunity of expressing to all his correspondents his sincere gratitude for their kindness and the hope that they will feel entirely at liberty to recommend any changes which the use of the book in the class-room may suggest to them.

New York, August, Die Trennung, Position of Infinitive and Participle; the separable prefix in dependent sentences; direct questions and their order of words 14 3. Pure conjunctions; adverbial conjunc- tions and their influence upon the order of words; de- clension of proper names; formation of nouns and ad- jectives from names of countries 18 4. Gender and derivation of nouns; nouns of twofold gender 28 5. Derivation of ad- jectives 37 6. Passive Indicative and Subjunc- tive of transitives, causatives, and intransitives used impersonally ; Omission of roorben 56 8. Pes Kaifers neue Kleiber.

Subordinating conjunctions; use of Subjunctive 63 9.

Cobias Witt Derivation of verbs; obsolete polite address; 'dizn used in a disparaging meaning; use of fommen with verbs of motion 73 Subject and predicate; their forms; their agreement and disagreement in number 87 Use of Indicative Mood; the Potential Subjunctive; its use 93 The Optative; its use; bod? Modifying adjuncts of the noun; posi- tion of the attributive adjective; attributive participles; their meaning; appositive use of adjectives and parti- ciples; pronouns with and without preposition, definite and indefinite numerals, nouns in the Genitive and nouns with preposition, the infinitive with 3U and ad- verbs with preposition, used as modifiers of nouns Der IDanbcrer unb bie Quelle.

Transitive verbs govern- ing the Dative; their passive; intransitive and imper- sonal verbs governing the Dative; transitive, intransitive and reflexive verbs govering the Genitive The object a noun and a pronoun with preposition, an Infinitive with and with- out 3U ; verbs having an object and an Infinitive; ad- jectives governing a Genitive, Dative, Accusative; transi- tive verbs having a Dative and an Accusative; position of these cases; reflexive verbs having a Dative and an Accusative; transitive verbs taking an Accusative and a Genitive; transitive verbs taking two Accusatives Adverbial expressions of place — a noun with preposition; a noun in the Accusative, an adverb, an adverb with a preposition, a dependent sentence Adverbial expressions of time— an adverb, an adverb with preposition, a noun with preposition, a noun in the Genitive, a noun in the Accusative, a dependent sentence Adverbial expressions of cause — an adverb, a noun with a preposition, a dependent Bentence Die Boten bcs Cobcs.

The subject clause; the predicate clause The conditional clause; the condition contrary and that not contrary to fact; use of the different forma of the Conditional Mood; Position of the conditional clause The Infinitive used as a noun. The Present and Past participles; their declension, comparison, meaning and use; participial clause Use of the auxiliaries traben and fein Use of the Article Supplementary Beading Matter: The auxiliaries of tense The Gonversational Exercises 5pred?

The Student should read again the text of the reading lesson, to which the questions refer. The questions should then be asked by the teacher or by some student and answered in com- plete German sentences. The students who answer the questions should do so without using the book. Words in Square brackets [ ] are to be omitted in translation; those in round brackets indicate the rendering required. The same process is Seen in the foUowing pairs of words: The stndent should therefore cultivate the habit of separating Compound words into their component parts.

The most nnfamiliar Compound word loses its strangeness by this process of Separation. For this reason in the lessons no English equivalents are given for Compound words the component parts of which have previoualy been translated. In case a component part has not previously oecurred its meaning is given in the vocabulary of the lesson. So, in the subsequent lessons, whenever a word in the vocabulary is foUowed by other words with a direction to compare them cf.

Where the abbreviation cf. All these sentences begin with the subject, fol- lowed immediately by the predieate verb jinb and tft respectively. This arrangement of words is called the Normal order. In these sentences the copula fiub, tft is omitted, because it may be supplied from the preceding sen- tence. The subjects of these sentences follow the pre- dieate verb fang, ift. This arrangement of words is called the Inverted order.

Every Principal sentence is constructed either according to the Normal or the Inverted order. This arrangement of words is called the Trans- posed Order. The Transposed order is used only in dependent sentences. The use of the normal order with ba0 is not proper in prose, but is here excused on the ground of poetic license. Der IDinter, fein Imperf. Die Eltern, fein Imperf. The complaint bie Klage, pl. The tale is improbable untt?

The reason bie Pernunft of children is weak. IDomtt toar ein Bauer unsufrieben? JPen alfo meint ber Didjter mit bem Bauersmann? Sottlieb K I o p ft o cf. The predicate adjective crnft is placed at the end because the verb is in a simple tense Present and Imperfect. But if the verb is in a Compound tense, as bu bift or toarft ja fo ernft getporben, or 6u tpirft ja fo ernft merbcn, the Par- ticiple or the Infinitive must be placed at the end.

This is a direct question. The verb directly precedes its subject. This direct question is introduced by an interrogative which is not the sub- ject. The foUowing sentences are similar in construc- tion: Was gtebt uns ZHut? A Direct Question introduced by an interro- gative is constructed according to the Inverted order, except when the interrogative is the subject. This direct question has the form of a principal declarative sentence, i, e. The words alfo and bodj are frequently used in such questions, thus: CS is used demonstratively ; it refers to ernfter.

Der reife 2tpfel ift gut. Der ZlTenfdj tft bas einstge only IDefen pl. Der IDanbcrer geljt fort [roann? Danf, banfbar, banfen [tx er? Was fagt bie 3nfdjrift? Klage bie promn3, pl. All the other pure conjunctions introduce the sen- tence. When used to introduce a sentence they, like adverbs, cause the verb of a sentence to be inverted, i. In like manner the normal order is used if the sentence begins with bodf without unb ; thus: Proper names, i, e, names of countries generally neuter , places, persons, etc.

The following will show the formation of nouns of nationality, etc. But some forms in er are also used as adjectives; thus: Ein Unbefannter ber, bie, bas Unbefannte, pl. It in rainiug, tberefore I shall stay at home. I sent for a wagon, because I had so many things that I could not carry them myself. He can neither read nor write. Make haste, for [the] time is short. The father not only gave his son a book, but he also showed him its pictures. As niy friend could not come, [so] he wrote me a nice letter. Still I hope for happi- ness. Be good, eise you can not become happy. The teacher as well as the pupil must be diligent.

IDarum rerflagte er it? Es U urbe Xiadif. The following nouns are Masculine: Engel, Sterfen, Sruber, etc. But there are exceptions; they are given in Sdflaf, fdjlafen; Schmers, fdjmersen tj, pain ; Duft, buften; etc. The following nouns are Feminine: Feminine and masculine nouns ending in e belong to the weak declension. The following nouns are Neuter: Adjectives and participles when used as nouns are masculine, feminine, or neuter, according to the gender of the noun in place of which they are used.

After this lesson nouns of this class will not be men- tioned in the Tocabulary of the lesBons if the adjective or yerb from which they are derived has previously ooourred. Compound nouns have the gender of their last component pari Exceptions. These mies for the determination of the gender of nonns do not cover the ground completely; the stndent must con- tinue to learn the article as if it were a part of the noon. Feminine and Neuter Nouns ending in el, en, er.

Cernen Sie bie Kegeln 14, 1, a-e; 2, a-e; 8, a-g; 4 und 5, unb mad? Bas Cidjt fommt byxvd. The hat is ornamented with a red ribbon. All listened attentively as soon as fobalb the choir began to sing. XDann famen fte auf ben Berg? Derivative Adjectives are formed by the use of oertain suffixes. No attempt is here made to give a complete list of tliem or their meaning; a- good dictio- nary is indispensable. By the use of the suffix bat adjectives are formed From the adjective offen: From nouns derived from verbs: The suffiix bar expresses the idea of containing or bearing in itself, producing, or causing.

By the use of the suffix Ctt with the noun Solb and other namea of materials, adjectives are formed. Analogously to cm in filbern and fupfern, the foUowing names of materials take ern: Such derivatives denote possession of the quality expressed by the noun. The Suffixes fct and ig together form the suffix fclig which is added to nouns: A few adjectives with the suffix tfCtft have also an- other form ending in ig; e. Abstract nouns are formed from adjectives in ig and feiig by adding feit see 14, 2, c: Whenever an abstract noun is formed from an adjective having the suffix f?

Eljre ift eine gute Eigenfdjaft, aber feine tEugenb. Sei finblidj, aber nidjt finbifdj cf. In the eastern cf. Many games bas Spiel, pl. These sentences seem quite Siemlidj simple to zealous cf. To be sure allerbings they seem difficult cf. To help others [is to do what] is praise- worthy cf. Every written exercise should be written legibly cf. ITTann action is demanded of men.

Some workmen receive their wages monthly cf. Every good book is instructive cf. Every government bie Obrigfeit, pl. Sorge guard in adjt nefjmen the welfare of the country, but not every one does it. Was rerfpradj er, ftols auf feine IXladfi, bem Diogenes? IDer ift reidjer, berjenige, tpeldjer alles Ijat, toas er braudjt, ober berjenige, tpeldjer nidjts brandet? IDer erfannte biefe IDatjrljeit? XDas fagte er besljalb 5U feinen Begleitern? Derfelbe wav von Silber unb innen pergolbet. IDir modjten' nidjt lange. The auxiliary of mode muffen, must, have to, is used to express a real, logical, or moral necessity: Da er nidjt fommt, fo muf er franf fein.

ZlTogen, may, like to, is used to express Liking, wish, or choice: A rare use of the word is equivalent to dare: VOxz burfteft bu bas tl? Sollen, shall, is to, is said to, is used to express Duty or Obligation imposed by the Speaker, by an- other, or by law: Der Knabe foB lernen. Sollen is sometimes used to state a report or assertion not originating with, nor necessarily assented to by the Speaker: IDolIen, will, is about to, is used to express "Will or intention on the part of the subject or an- other: Saffen, to make do, cause to he done, allow, etc.

Das Kinb Ijatte ntd? The Imperfect Subjunctive of the modal auxiliaries is frequently used instead of the First Conditional. In regard to the use of the longer and shorter forms of the Conditional, this is to be noted: That both the First and the Second Con- ditional may be in the dependent and independent sen- tence; That the Conditional may be used in declarative as well as in interrogative sentences; That either the dependent sentence as in 33, 11 or the principal sentence as in 23, 9 may come first; That the First Conditional and the Imperfect Sub- junctive are used together, likewise the Second Condi- tional and the Pluperfect Subjunctive; That the Conditional with either the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive is used to express a supposition and, generally, a conclusion contrary to fact.

Konjugieren Sie jebes biefer fieben Perben mit einem anbzxtn PerK 6. If we could only help all [the] poor! The boy would do the work, if he were well. The girl would have done the work well if she had not fallen ill franf roerbcn. The master said to his servant: The child wanted to ask his father for utn something. I could not have come to you, even if I had wished. Act so that the good [people] can speak only good of you. Then you can let the bad [people] speak as much evil of you as they wish.

IDer erfdjien if m? VOas foUte ber Cngel iljm fein? IDas foUte er xifm seigen? IDas Ijatte fein 5einb iljm gefcbenft? IDas tljat 6er Engel, als fte fortgingen? IDas fagte er, als fein Begleiter iljn ta6elte? IDas tljat 6er Engel 6em armen IDirte? Sunfl oerfpotten, Ij, to ridicide; cf. The foUowing is the Present Passive: I may he annoyed, etc.

The following is the Imperfect Passive: The foUowing is the Perfect Passive: The following is the Pluperfect Passive: The following is the Future Passive: The foUowing is the Future Perfect Passive: Therefore it may be said that transitive verbs are such as have a passive voice. Es tDurbe Ijeute f[etf ig gelernt. Wherever we go there is sing- ing and dancing. The door was opened, and I was asked to enter.

A poor man was found dead in his bed. A fool is laughed at. The time is shortened by activity. Work was promised to the laborer. The pfoods of the merchant were sold. Many picturcs were shown to the child by his mother. IDcr bat um ein 2tImofcn? IDas ift ein 2IlmO' fen? IDas aber tljat er mit bem Steine? IDas badjte er, als er bapon ging? Sollte Ol bumm fein? Die anbern ipurbcn ftill. Sdlc, haU bie Schleppe, pl.

The following aare the most important sub- ordinating conjunctions: But toann is used to introduce an indireet or direct question regarding time: After the subordinating conjunctions bamit, als ob, iDie, wann, and roenn in conditional sentences the Subjunctive is frequently used. The Subjunctive is used in indirect discourse. Kinber pfiffen oft nidjt, He asked me whether I had become a merchant. I told him I had been in busi- ness [for] a year. Since he has known this he never speaks to me. When I noticed it, I pitied him.

Wbile I went to school, he seemed to be my friend, 6. I don't know when I shall answer this letter. Ab long as there are good books, no one needs to feel lonesome. The peasant awakes as soon as the sun rises. The more good others do you, the more good you ought to do others. If I should work longer, I could finish this lesson. Whenever I do my duty I am satisfied with myself. I have learned why the physician Visits this house.

I save my pocket-money in order that I may be able to go to the theater. I shall wait for auf you until you come home. Children bid fagen their parents good night before they go to bed. As inbem you trusted this man, it is certain that you did not know him. The boy went out, although the physician had forbidden t erbietcn,. The poor [man] refused to accept the money, because he had not earned it. Our father has returned from the country as well as n? IDcr tarn eines Cages in bie Stabt, in u? IDas fagte bas Kinb?

IDas ilfai bie IHutter? IDie es bie Harren madjen? Der ging immer umljer unb murmelte ror ftdj I? XDenn man bie 2tugen rul? IDas benft Er baoon? Umjldnbe, cir- cumstance ber Pers, pl. No attempt is here made to give the great variety of meanings effected by the use of these prefixes in connection with nouns, verbs, etc.

By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From nouns: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of supplying that which is named by the noun. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of bringing about the condition described by the adjective. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea that the action expressed by the original verb is directed towards an object. By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From notins: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of Separation or removal of the thing named by the noun, from the object of the verb.

Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of re- moval of the condition described by the adjective. Some derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of the Separation or removal of a thing through the action expressed by the original verb, or of the direc- tion of the action towards an object; others the idea of the origin or cause of an action or condition.

Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of bringing about or effecting the condition expressed by the adjective. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of action arising from inner causes, or of the successful Operation of a certain activity expressed by the original verb, or of the transition into the state expressed by the origi- nal verb. Some derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of repetition of the action, and others that of transition into another solid state.

By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From verbs only: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of failure, of wrong, etc. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of change effected by supplying a thing with the quality expressed by the adjective. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of Separation, or of mistake, or of spoiling or marring, or of prevention. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of dis- memberment, or destruction. In the polite address of former times the personal and possessive pronouns of the 3rd person singular were used in addressing a single individual, and the plural of the 2nd person in addressing severaL 84 NINTE LESSON The merchant sold bis goods.

His customers paid their bills. Did you receive a letter to-day? This horse belongs to me. The fire destroyed several houses. The servant was well recommended by his master. I bid you farewell. Use, but do not misuse, the strength of your muscles. In all your actions consider the end. Unb toeldje mit ber sioeiten? Barte, heard barauf, used here instead of tpor- auf elfenbeinern, made of ivory; ad- jective made by stiffix em trom. The Bubject of a eentence is a notm, or a Word used for a noun, i.

See , 1 2. Imperfecta er lebte 6artn. Future Perfect, er n? The predicate can be an asserting verb, an adjective with a copula, or a noun with a copula. This agreement between subject and predicate in respect to number is also to be ob- served: Where the pronouns of the first and second person, or first and third are so used, the form of the verb is the first person plural; where pronouns of the second and third are so used, the form of the verb is second jDerson plural. Where the subjects are several nouns in the singular number which together form a unit: Iiett bem 2tr5t bie tEl?

Where the subject is CS, bies, bas, was, or voeU djes and the predicate noun in the plural number, the verb is plural: VDas vcivb in 6cr Sd7ule gelehrt? IDas tljut 5er Celjrer? IDie ift bas Blut? IDie ift bic IHaus? IDie ftnb bic Strafen? IDie ftnb bic ICinbcr? IDas ift bic Bibel? IDas ift Heu IJorf? IDas finb bic Sofe unb bas Peildjen? Pclse ber Pcls, pl. Die Knofpen bie Knofpe, pl. Beanttporten Sie bie fragen: The fortune is blind. You and I are happy. The life is short.

He and I are good friends. You and I came too late. The bear and the monkey are animals. Gold and silver are metals. In every year there are four seasons. The winter is the fourth season. The physician eures the patient. The fish is caught by the fisherman. The grass is cut by the farmer. The birds build their nests in the spring. IDer tt urbe Barbaroffa genannt? IDo ift bas Sd? Wann wadft er auf? IDie fonnt' es anbers fein? The Indicative used in these principal and dependent declarative sentences presents the action as actually occurring.

This Subjunctive is called the Potential Subjunctive. The Imperfct Subjonctive may also be used to ex- press possibility: He would like to visit me to-morrow. The ship could sali faster. He may be here earlier than he is expecied. Could he allow bis friend to ask for aid in vain vergebens?

Can it be possible that you are ungrateful unbanfbar? Only a few years ago you man would have considered it impossible to speak to distaut places and to be heard there. I consider it impos- sible that parents could forget their children. Sagte ber Pater bem Sol? Was fagte er 5uerft? Blatt ber Braten, pl. Krug bie fege, pl. When the Subjunctive expresses a wish, re- quest, permission, or concession, it is called Optative.

If the wish, etc. But when the wish, etc. Dodj is frequently used after the Optative Imper- fect and Pluperfect merely to emphasize the wish. Diminutives formed with the Suffixes 'dfin and 4etn are also used as terms of endearment and good- natured ridicule. Der Knabe ift gefunb. He who has something to say, [let him] speak. May this country be ever great and free. May tyranny bie Cyrannei never rule here. If tlie rieh man only gave will- ingly to the poor mani 9.

Was perfpradj berfelbe bem Bauern? Wav all bas toirflid? ZDas lernte er aus biefem Craume?

valide SUDDITH evoked STEENHUIS cobblestone Sei in - The World

The exact words of the Speaker are quoted here; tliis is called Direct Discourse. Obserye that the Indicative is used. Here the words of another are not quoted, but reported; this is called Indireet Discourse. Observe that the Subjunctive is used. The Subjunctive thus used is called Indireet Subjunctive. It is used principally after verbs having the meaning of to say, think, believe, ank, ho] e, fear, and the like: Here the words of another are reported, hence the indirect Subjunctive would have been used, but for the reason that a fact is stated which is admitted or con- firmed by the writer; therefore he uses the Indicative.

When the Imperative is ehanged to indirect dis- course, an auxiliary of mood in the Subjunctive re- places it. When the direct discourse which contains a Sub- junctive is changed into the indirect, the Subjunctive is retained, with such change of pronoun and endings of verb as may be necessary. The separable prefix Stands at the end of the sentence.

The sailor answered, his father, grandfather, and great- grandfather ber Urgrof Dater, pl. Why should I be afraid to go to sea? These words qualify nouns. The ordinary position of the attributive adjective is before its noun. But often, especially in poetic style, it follows its noun: The Present participle has the meaning of the Present tense of the active voice: The Past participle may also be used attributively: The Past participle used attributively has the meaning of a relative clause containing the Perfect tense of the passive voice.

The participles like adjectives may also be used ap- positively: The attribute is a possessive adjective. In like manner pronouns with prepositions may be used as attributes: The attributes 5tDet and t tele are numerals, deti- nite and indefinite, respectively. The attributive Genitive in these examples, as is fre- quently the case in poetry, precedes its nouns.

In prose the Genitive would follow its noun: Observe that a noun preceded by an attributive Genitive is used without the article. The attributive Genitive and the qualified noun may often be replaced by a Compound noun of which the attributive Genitive is the first component part, and the qualified noun the last: The neun is used in whatever case the preposition governs.

Prepositions are also used with undeclinable words as attributes: The words getDefen, fei, and ift are omitted. The Present tense is used instead of the Future; but the words einft and bann give to the Present the meaning of the Future. Die Stunbe bes tEobes. Der IDinb aus bem Horben. Das Brot mit Butter. Das Schiff mit Segeln. Das Sdfiff Don Dampf ber Dampf, pl. Der Dichter ber lieber. Das Effen su ZlTittag. Hunger is the best cook. Evil seed bie Saat, pl. The learned man is honored. The glowing sun promises rain.

People from the same country are called fellow- countrymen. The fourth of July is a holiday. The top of the mountain use comp, noun reaches [up] into the clouds. Friends in fortune disappear in misfortune. The good name of the father is the children's best inheritance.

XDarum iraren fte in Kuflanb geu efen? IDoran oill er fterben? IDo ipill er begraben oerben? Such an attribute is called an Appositive. Whatever the case of the qualified noun, the apposi- tive takes the same case: Ein tugenbljafter ZUenfdj benft nidjt bes Steigeren bas Sidjere; cf. Nouns in apposition as well as other words used appositively see 55, 1 are separated from the rest of sentence by commas. A clause qualifying a noun is called an adjective or attributive clause. Adjective clauses are dependent sentences, i.

An adjective clause modifying a noun of the principal sentence immediately follows its noun. The above adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. Observe that in this case Bule III does not apply. An adjective clause modifying a noun of a dependent sentence does not immediately foUow the noun, but follows the dependent sentence. Be- sides ha and tDO, other adverbs are used to introduce adjective clauses: Relative conjunctions are Compounds of adverbs and prepositions. The following are Compounds of the adverbs ba and tDo: The principal qualifying word is the participle erfreut.

This participial adjective clause can — like the foregoing simple adjective clause 6 — be cast into the form of a participial attribute: In fact the use of this form is of fre- quent occurrence in German and is to be rendered in English by an adjective clause: Die JPerfe bas IDerf, pl. Ein Spiegel ift bas ZCngefidjt pl. A man to whom little children and dogs go willingly must be a good man. Ke- membrance bie Erinnerung, pl. Awful furdjtbar and lonely is the old age in which the love of children does not shine. A good word, well Said, is well received.

Alms bie IDoIjItljat, pl. Obey your best friends, your parents and your teachers. IDen traf 6er Kalif? IDann traf er 6en alten ZHann? Was tljat ber 2tlte? Was fragte iifn ber Kalif? IDas gab ber Kalif bem 2tlten? IDas trar in bem Beutel? IDeldje Celjre gab er bem Kalifen? In prose this sentence would read: A direct object is always in the Accusative.

Verbs requiring a direct object are called Transitive verbs. All transitive verbs have a passive voice. A list of a number of transitive verbs is given in The direct object is also used: For a list of such verbs see The direot object may either be a noun or a pronoun in the Accusative. As this dependent sentence is equivalent to a noun or Substantive fein Sturm 5crftort bas Dom Sd? Such a clause may be introduced: Observe that a demonstrative pronoun in the prin- cipal sentence is frequently used to indicate the case which the object would take, if instead of being a de- pendent sentence it were a noun.

Only the principal English meanings of these words are given; there are of course many shadings of meaning. Der 2tccufatto anttoortet auf Me fraget IDen? Was fdjreibt ber Pater? Das Kinb, verlieren use Perf. Adjectives and participles when used as nouns are masculine, feminine, or neuter, according to the gender of the noun in place of which they are used.

After this lesson nouns of tliis class will not be men- tioned in the vocabulary of the lessons if the adjective or verb from which they are derived has previously occurred. Compound nouns have the gender of their last component pari Exceptions. These mies for the determination of the gender 6f nouns do not cover the ground completely; the Student must con- tinue to learn the article as if it were a part of the noon.

Exceptions to 14, 1, c. Feminine and Neuter Nonns ending in el, en, er. ZlTaft ift auf bem Sdjiffe. The hat is ornamented with a red ribbon. The lazy one use adjective noun puts fterfen, Ijj his hands into his pockets. All listened attentively as soon as fobalb the choir began to sing. The poplar and the pine tree are not uncommon ungeu? A swindler ber Betruger, pl. By the use of the suffix hdV adjectives are formed From the adjective offen: The suffiix bor expresses the idea of containing or bearing in itself, producing, or causing.

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Silber and Kupfer copper take only the n filbern, fupfern - Analogously to ern in filbern and fupfern, the foUowing names of materials take ern: By the use of the suffix Ijdf t adjectives are formed From nouns expressing quality: Such derivatives denote possession of the quality expressed by the noun. By the use of the suffix adjectives are formed From nouns: Abstract nouns are formed from adjectives in ig and feiig by adding feit see 14, 2, c: By tbe use of the suffix ifclj adjectives are formed from names Of persons: Seele, feelifdj, psychical; Heib, envy, netbifdj, enviouH, etc.

By the use of the suffix Ici adjectives are formed which are not declined: By the use of the suffix lidf adjectives are formed From nouns: Such derivative adjectives express a les- ser degree of the quality. Jtrbeit ift, ift oft brotlos cf. J em Jtrbeitfamen cf. Eljre ift eine gute Eigenfdjaft, aber feine Cugenb. Sei finblidj, aber nidjt finbifd? Berg Strafen muf man langfam cf. In the eastem cf.

Many games 6as Spiel, pl. To be Bure allerbings they seem difficult cf. To help others [is to do whatj is praise- worthy cf. Every written exercise should be written legibly cf. Some workmen receive their wages monthly cf. Every good book is instructive cf. Sorge guard in adjt neljmen the welfare of the country, but not every one does it. Wo lag J iogenes eines Cages? JPer erfannte biefe IDat? Riegen innen, inside bas. A rare use of tbe word is equivalent to dare: JDie burfteft 6u 6as ttjun? Sollen, shdl, is to, is said to, is used to express Duty or Obligation imposed by tbe Speaker, by an- other, or by law: Der Knabe foU lernen.

IDoUen, will, is about to, is used to express "Will or intention on tbe part of tbe subject or an- otber: A Claim or assertion made by anotber, but unindorsed or doubted by tbe Speaker: Der 2tr5t lief bcn Kranfen liegen. Der Knabe Ijat I? Ifai geljen geburft gefonnt, gemuft, etc. The Imperfect Subjunctive of the modal auxiliaries is frequently used instead of the First Conditional.

In regard to the use of the longer and shorter forms of the Conditional, this is to be noted: Konjugieren Sie je6e5 6tefer fieben Perben mit einem an6eren Perb. JPer nidjt toill, was er fann, muf oft toollen, was er nidjt fann. The boy would do the work, if he were well. The mastor said to his servant: No one should wish to appear fdjctncn richer than he is.

The child wanted to ask his father for unt something. I could not have come to you, even if I had wished. Act so that the good [people] can speak only good of you. Then you can let the bad [people] speak as much evil of you -as they wish. He who wishes to make friends ftdj befreunben, tj; cf. He who always main- tains that he is right Sedjt Ijaben trollen , may talk plaubern, Ij and use fine phrases bie Lebensart, pl. VOas follte 6er Engel tljm fein? VOas foUte er tt? IDie nannte bcv VOxvt ben Cag? VOas fagte er, als fein Begleiter it? VOas Ijatte er bem erften, britten unb rierten IDirte getrau?

IDas tljat ber Engel bem 5u? Perftanb ber IDanberer bie Cljaten bes Engels? The following is the Present Passive: The following is the Imperfect Passive: Tlie following is the Perfect Passive: The following is the Pluperfect Passive: The following is the Future Passive: The following is the Future Perfect Passive: Therefore it may be said that transitive verbs are such as have a passive voice.

Der Spott bes Dolfes mirb itfit nod? Er n irb burd? Die fdjrpere Saft serrif beinahe almost bas ftarfe Seil pl. Wherever we go there is sing- ing and dancing. The door was opened, and I was asked to enter. A poor man was found dead in his bed. A fool is laughed at. The time is shortened by activity. Work was promised to the laborer. The goods of the merchant were sold. IDcr bat um ein 2tImofen? VOas tft ein 2tlm0' fen? IDas ift ein Vcrvoxidf? VOcn bat bor Dcrtpifdj um ein 2tImofen? IDurbe ber 2 ern? IPie tDoUte er fid? Hun ging ber alte, gute ZTlinifter in ben Saal Ijinein, u? Sollte tdj bumm fein?

Sdle, hott bie Sd? The following are the most important sub- ordinating conjunctions: Since, expressing time, is to be rendered by fcitbem, fett: After the subordinating conjunctions bamtt, als ob, lote, ipann, and trenn in conditional sentences the Subjunctive is frequently used. The Subjunctive is used in indirect discourse. Es rourbe ber ilTutter bang,. De Soto fanb Ijier fein Solb, Kinber tpiffen oft nidjt, He asked me whether I had become a merchant. I told him I had been in busi- ness [for] a year. Since he has known this he never speaks to me.

When I noticed it, I pitied him. While I went to school, he seemed to be my friend. I don't know when I shall answer this letter. As long as there are good books, no one needs to feel lonesome. The peasant awakes as soon as the sun rises. The more good others do you, the more good you ought to do others. If I should work longer, I could finish this lesson. Whenever I do my duty I am satisfied with myself.

I have learned why the physician visits this house. I save my pocket-money in order that I may be able to go to the theater. I shall wait for auf you until you come home. Children bid fagen their parents good night before they go to bed. I am not afraid as ba I have done no wrong. As inbem you trusted this man, it is certain that you did not know him. The air cools off fiel? The boy went out, although the physician had forbidden perbietcn, fj; cf.

The poor [man] refused to accept the money, because he had not earned it. Our father has returned from the country as well as rote he was when he left the city. XDann trug er bie unftd tbaren Kleiber 5um erften ZlTale? IDas fagte bas Kinb? IDas tljat bie ZlTutter? Ober gar mit fiel? There are seven inseparable prefixes with which a great number of derivative verbs are formed, viz.: No attempt is here made to give the great variety of meanings effected by the use of these prefixes in connection with nouns, verbs, etc.

By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From nouns: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of bringing about the condition described by the adjective.


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Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea that the action expressed by the original verb is directed tovrards an object. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of Separation or removal of the thing named by the noun, from the object of the verb. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of re- moval of the condition described by the adjective. Some derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of the Separation or removal of a thing through the action expressed by the original verb, or of the direc- tion of the action towards an object; others the idea of the origin or cause of an action or condition.

Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of bringing about or effecting the condition expressed by the adjective. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of action arising from inner causes, or of the successful Operation of a certain activity expressed by the original verb, or of the transition into the state expressed by the origi- nal verb.

By the use of this prefix verbs are forme d From nouns: The infinitive of these is not used, but only the participial form. Some derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of repetition of the action, and others that of transition into another solid state.


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By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From verbs only: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of failure, of wrong, etc. VCV" somevvrhat like the English far,forth, away, from , By the use of this prefix verbs are formed From nouns: Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of Separation, or of mistake, or of spoiling or niarring, or of prevention. Derivative verbs of this class contain the idea of dis- memberment, or destruction. The original verbs of verlieren, gebaren, Qzwin- nen, and of a few others are not in use. In the polite address of former times the personal and possessive pronouns of the 3rd person singulav were used in addressing a single individual, and the plural of the 2nd person in addressing severaL 84 NINTE LESSON Sind banfen leben laffen eljren Ieud?

Hiemanb foUte etipas 5U tfjun. H er eine IDoIjIttjat. His customers paid their bills. Did you receive a letter to-day? This horse belongs to me. The fire destroyed several houses. The servant was well recommended by his master. I bid you farewell. Use, but do not misuse, the strength of your muscles. In all your actions cousider the end. Unb was riet er tl? Unb ipeldje mit 6er sroeiten? The Bubject of a sentence is a noun, or a Word used for a noun, i, e.

Imperfect, er lebte barin. The predicate can be an asserting verb, an adjective with a copula, or a noun with a copula. This agreement between subject and predicate in respect to number is also to be ob- served: Wliere the pronouns of the tirst and second person, or first and third are so used, the form of the verb is the tirst person plural; where pronouns of the second and third are so used, the form of the verb is second person pluraL Exeptions.

Where the subjects are several nouns in the singular number which together form a unit: Iieft bem 2tr5t bie Ct? Where the subject is CS, bks, bas, was, or voch djes and the predicate noun in the plural number, the verb is plural: BeantiDorten Sie bte folgenben fragen; 3f? Was ivxvb in bcr Sct? Was tt ut ber menfdj? Was gcfdjicljt mit bcn Cotcn?

IDic ift bas Blut? IDic ift bic IHaus? IPic ftnb bic Stratlcn? IPie fmb bie Kinbcr? IDas ift bic Bibel? IPas ift Herr IJorf?

Was ift bcr Sommer? IPas ftnb bie ilpfel? Pelse ber Pel5, pl. Die Knofpen bie Knofpc, pl. IDas tf ut es? Der Ringer, bilben I? The fortune is blind. You and I are liappy. The life is short. He and I are good friends. You and I came too late. The bear and the monkey are animals. Gold and silver are metals. In every year there are four seasons. The winter is the fourth season. The physician eures the patient. The fish is caught by the fisherman. The grass is cut by the farmer.

The birds build their nests in the spring. Pon toann bis wann voat er Kaifer von Dcutfdjianb? XPas glaubte bas Polf von il? Wann wadfi er auf? IDie fonnf es anbers fein? Denn niemanb bricht bodj gern ein Bein. The Indicative used in these principal and dependent declarative sentences presents the action as actually occurring. This Subjunctive is called the Potential Subjunctive.

The Imperfct Subjunctive may also be used to ex- press possibility: Observe that the Indicative tdj bente, etc. He would like to visit me to-morrow. The ship could sail faster. He may be here earlier than he is expected. Could he allow his friend to ask for aid in vain pergebens? Can it be possible that you are ungrateful unbanfbar? Only a few years ago you man would have considered it impossible to speak to distaut places and to be heard there.

I consider it impos- sible that parents could forget their children. ID05U Ifaik er im Setzen 5eit? Was trollte ber Knabe nun tl? Was fagte er suerft? U te grof , fagte er bann, fei ber Sfunb getoefen? IDic ift bodj ber 2trme fo elenb baran! Blatt bcr Braten, pl. When the Subjunctive expresses a wish, re- quest, permission, or concession, it is called Optative. If the wish, etc.

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But when the wish, etc. Dodj is frequently used after the Optative Imper- fect and Pluperfect merelj to emphasize the wish. Der Knabe ift gefunb. Hiemanb mag Ungeredjtigfeit bulben. He who has something to say, [let him] speak. May Washing- ton's name never be forgotten. May this country be ever great and free. May tyranny bie tEyrannei never rule bere. If the rieh man only gave will- ingly to the poor man! VOav bie 2trbett bes Bauern leidet ober fdjroer?

IDas lernte er aus biefem tEraume? The exact words of the Speaker axe quoted here; this is called Direet Discourse. Observe that the Indicative is used. Here the words of another are not quoted, but reported; this is called Indirect Discourse. Observe that the Subjunctive is used. The Subjunctive thus used is called Indirect Subjunctive. Compare roeil er bte Jtrbeit gut gcmadjt ifat 3. Here the words of another are reported, henee the indirect Subjunetive would have been used, but for the reason that a fact is stated which is admitted or con- firmed by the writer; tberefore he uses the Indicative.

When the Imperative is changed to indirect dis- course, an auxiliary of mood in the Subjunetive re- plaees it. When the direct discourse which contains a Sub- junetive is changed iuto the indirect, the Subjunetive is retained, with such change of pronoun and endings of verb as may be necessary. The separable prefix Stands at the end of the sentence.

Why should I be afraid to go to sea? IDen moUte er bamit vergiften? IDoIjin flog er ba- mit? These words qualify nouns. A Word which qualilies a noun is called a modifying adjunct of the noun, or attribute. The ordinary position of the attributive adjeetive is before its noun. But often, especially in poetic style, it follows its noun: The Present participle has the meaning of the Present tense of the active voice: The Past participle may also be used attributi vely: The Past participle used attributively has the meaning of a relative clause containing the Perfect tense of the passive voice.

The participles like adjectives may also be used ap- positively: The attribute is a possessive adjective. In like manner pronouns with prepositions may be used as attributes: The attributive Genitive in these examples, as is fre- quently the case in poetry, precedes its nouns. In prose the Genitive would foUow its noun: Observe that a noun preceded by an attributive Genitive is used without the article.

The attributive Genitive and the qualified noun may often be replaced by a Compound noun of which the attributive Genitive is the first component part, and the qualified noun the last: The noun is used in whatever case the preposition governs. Prepositions are also used with undeclinable words as attributes: The Present tense is used instead of the Future; but the words etnft and 6ann give to the Present the meaning of the Future.

Ien Sie 6en 3nt? Die Stunbe bes Cobes. Das Brot mit Butter. Hunger is the best cooL 2. Evil seed bie Saat, pl. The learned man is honored. The glowing sun promises rain. People from the same country are called fellow- countrymen. The fourth of July is a holiday, 7. The top of the mountain use comp, noun reaches [upj into the cloiids. Friends in fortune disappear in misfortiine. The good name of the father is the children's best inheritance. IDoran will er fterben? IDo tpill er begraben rDer5en? VDas wirb er 5ann tljun? Such an attribute is called an Appositive. Whatever the case of the qualified noun, the apposi- tive takes the same case: Ein tugenbljafter ZHenfdj benft nid?

A clause qualifying a noun is called an adjective or attributive clause. Adjective clauses are dependent sentences,?. An adjective clause modifying a noun of the principal sentence immediately follows its noun. The above adjective clauses are introduced by relative pronouns. Observe that in this case Rule III does not apply. An adjective clause modifying a noun of a dependent sentence does not immediately follow the noun, but follows the dependent sentence.

Be- sides ba and tDO, other adverbs are used to introduce adjective clauses: Relative conjunctions are Compounds of adverbs and prepositions. The foUowing are Compounds of the adverbs ba and wo: The principal qualifying word is the participle erfreut. This participial adjective clause can — like the fore going simple adjective clause 6 — be cast into the form of a participial attribute: In fact the use of this form is of fre- quent occurrence in German aud is to be rendered in English by an adjective clause: Die IDerfe bas XDerf, pl.

Ein Spiegel ift bas Jtngeftdjt pl. Der befte itrjt, 6en uns bie Hatur, ipeld? Seele nietet evwadft 5. A man to whom little children and dogs go willingly must be a good man. Re- membranee bie Erinnerung, pl. Awful furchtbar and lonely is tbe old age in wbieb tbe love of ebildren does not sbine. A good word, well Said, is well received. TJnity bie Einigfeit , a strong bond, bolds togetber [tbe] people and country. Obey your best friends, your parents and your teacbers. Wen traf ber Kalif? IDann traf er ben alten ZHann? Was fragte iljn ber Kalif?

XDas gab ber Kalif bem 2tlten? IDas irar in bent Beutel? XDeldje Celjre gab er bem Kalifen? Sein Jammer ift tjavt; Von Piegenben flammen 3ft l? In prose tliis sentence would read: The last noun Blafebalg is the thing or object directly affected by the action bldljt; therefore it is called the Direct Object. A direct object is always in the Accusative. Verbs requiring a direct object are called Transitive verbs.

All transitive verbs have a passive voice. A list of a number of transitive verbs is given in The direct object is also used: For a list of such verbs see The direct object may either be a noun or a pronoun in the Aecusative. Such a clause may be introduced: Observe that a demonstrative pronoun in the prin- cipal sentence is frequently used to indicate the case which the object would take, if instead of being a de- pendent sentence it were a noun.

By con- stant exercises of this character the student will acquire the language- instinct bas Sprad? Only the principal Euglish meanings of these words are given; there are of course many shadings of nieaning. Reflexives and Verbs used reflexively wiih the Accusative of the Reflexwe Fronoun.

Der Pater fdjrcibt einen or ben Brief. Der Bauer, gebrauchen, ber PPug. Das Kinb, verlieren use Perf. Es Iangu eilt, ihr. Die Kinber, abhalten foUen, ftch- Die Ktnber, fidj freuen use Fut. IDas fann man in einer Stunbe verlieren? Ulan foU lljun unb laffen. JPas fudjen bie Jtugen? IDas foUft bu nidjt benfen? Was foUft bu nidjt ttjun?

ID03U Ijat jeber Kraft? Der anbere fann nidjt basfelbe an uns tabeln. Every body can teil in simple words that which he knows. We need not to fear that we shall be unhappy because of too much lauter happiness. We always forget that we have time enough to sleep in the grave. We call those our masters from whom we can ever learn.

The heart requires some one whom it loves. Fortune does not desert him who does not desert himself. You man can [do] what you will, if you will what you can [do]. Who buys what he does not need will soon have to seil what he does need. IDomit rergletdjt 6er 2 idjter 6en feeltfdjen Sdjmers? Was fdjmtebet 6er Schmers? Das nennt man 6en Stabreim o6er 6ie Jlllitteratton. This verb has the Dative of the pronoun, the impersonal es being understood: Verbs forming their passive like fdjabcn also require a Dative when used in the aetive: A number of intransitive verbs may be used with a Dative, though they do not necessarily require it: For a list of intransitive verbs of this class see When the Dative precedes the verb, the impersonal pronoun may be omitted: For a list of impersonals and verbs used impersonally re- quiring a Dative see Some transitive verbs may either have an object in the Accusative, or take a Genitive: For a list of transitive verbs of this class see Some intransitive verbs admit a Genitive: For a list of intransitive verbs admitting a Genitive see For a list of reflexives and verbs used reflexively, ad- mitting the Genitive, see Tarn in vxint, destitute es.

Reflexives and Verbs used Reflexively admitting a Genitive. See 70, 6 Auxiliary Ijaben fid? Dcrftctern, io assure oneself qf ftd? JPir follen 6te 2trmen Reifen. Der Kranfe ift bie Kranfljeit erlegen. Das Blut flieg id 5u Kopfe. JPir tjarren bie Dinge , bie ba fommen follen. You have always enjoyed a good health. Banish all unnecessary care.

We will always remember you. Why do you ridicule the weak? The report lacked all foundation. The children obey their teachers. The time passed quickly for the children. No one escapes his fate. This book does not belong to you. You lack seriousness 6er ernfte Sinn. XDoljtn tarn ein IDanberer? Was empfanb ber JPanberer? Was tljat er, als er an bie Quelle tarn? Wk xvav bas XDaffer? IDar es gut ober fdjledjt? IDarum fdjabete es iljm? IDie nannte er es? Die Kul eftdtte, ipeldje 6er 2Ttenfd?

Both InfinitiveB are direct objects of the verbs Iel rt and pergijgt re- spectively. The Infinitive without 5U is used with auxiliaries or verbs used as auxiliaries: Verbs admitting an Infinitive which is in effect a second object beside their object are: The adjective tDert and the participle beffiffen have the Genitives feines Colones and retner Spradje respec- tively, which are in effect objects. For a list of adjectives ad- mitting a Genitive, see 81; a Dative, 82; an Accusative, Observe that the Dative of the person precedes the Accusative of the thing when both are nouns: When one is a pronoun and the other a noun, the pronoun precedes tlie neun: Some reflexive verbs beside an object in the Accusative also take the Dative of the reflexive pro- noun: For a list of such reflexives and verbs used reflexively see The transitive verb entlaftcn takes the Accusative and Genitive.

For verbs of this class see The transitive verb fdjtmpft governs two Accusa- tives. Das Kinb ift ein ZHonat alt. Du mageft bu, riele Sedyte an. Der Celjrer leljrt u ir lefen. The guide is acquainted with the way. The behavior of the son was not pleasing to his father. This man is five and a half feet high. The business yields a good return to the merchant. You must acquire much knowledge. In a free country no one can deprive an innocent man of his liberty.

The parents named their son Charles. The teacher taught his pupils [to] sing. The rieh [man] gave the beggar alms. The son wrote his parents a long letter every week. H arum benfen bie Eltern 5uerft an iljre Kinber? H enn ein ZTTenfd? It consists of a noun with a preposition. In tbis case tbe phrase answers the inquiry H o? The adverbial Accusative of place is used with verbs of motion, and expresses direction, locality, etc.

It an- swers the inquiry Wo? Qiow farf and the like. Empor, bort, Ijinab, Ijerbct are adverbs of place. Other adverbs of place are: Many of the adverbs of place given in 5 above are used as separable prefixes of verbs: When separated from the verb their place is the end of the sentence. The fool hitches fpannen, l?

Every one should sweep feieren, l? The fool carries bis beart on bis tongue. In small heads great tbings often originate. The good use neut. Forward, not backward, goes the World. The ligbtning is apt gern to strike in high towers. From pure wells flows pure water. Where there is much light, tliere are also shadows piel Sd? You will see many faults, where you look without love. Where friendship is much spoken about, there seek not your friend. Wo lag 6er Reifen? Was fallen Jtmynt unb Vfxltav aufer ber Branbung? Wk rrurbe f ilfar 5u Sinne, als er bas tptlbe iHeer falj?

Was empfanb er, als er ben Kampf ber fluten fal?? They answer the inquiry H ann? The following is a list of the more frequent aclverbs of time: These and the foregoing adverbial phrases of time describe the time of the action more definitely than the following form. An adverb with s, the sign of the Genitive, is derived from this noun, i, e. The action expressed by the predicate of the latter occurs prior to the action expressed by the predicate of the principal sentence. But where a duration of time rather than a point of time is expressed, the dependent clause is in- troduced by tDdI?

The adverb may, however, introduce the sentence, causing inversion: Good trees bear [fruit] early [in tlie season]. The brave [man] dies but nur once, tlie coward dies many times before he dies. Many i eople work all day and a part of the night. Many friends desert yoii when fortune deserts you.

Day dawns es tpirb tEag when the night is Over. Day dawned when the night was over. As long as love unites hearts on this earth, the virtue will not die. When you know your weakness, only then will you be strong. As often as you act contrary to the law, so often you injure yourself aud others. Wann gletcfjt bas ITTccr bcm menfd lid cn tjcr- 5en?

Wu xvav bas lUccr am IHorgen? XDer foUte iljm bie Ztutioort geben?