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Large demands are set to ensure the individual students cover all the important subject areas at both the college and during the work experience. In addition to the trade specifics, the student is also required to learn about: In Denmark, the state, the Danish Employers Federation and trade unions have cooperated to develop a set of regulations for health and safety on building sites. Trade Unions It is considered to be good custom to be a member of a trade union in Denmark. There is tradition for the trade union helping the tradesmen in fighting for better wages and working conditions, though they primarily fight for their own members.

A tradesman is not secured a permanent contract. Shortages Today, there are approximately foreign tradesmen employed in Denmark, primarily from Germany. There is a tendency in Denmark to pick tradesmen from a neighbouring country assuming that the trade mentalities are similar.

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So far, many foremen have been reluctant to employ Eastern Europeans for fear that the differences in understandings of the trade field are too great, which could result in problems on site when required to work in a team with Danish tradesmen. In general, there is a shortage of tradesmen within all specialisation areas.

It is typically smaller foremen that employ 2 — 6 people. There is no obligation for a certificate in order to be employed as a tradesman in Denmark, although it is a benefit to be able to present proof that an individual is competent within their field. There are certain areas within plumbing and electricians where approved certificates are required in order to perform specific duties. Occupations available There are many available jobs in Denmark, and so it gives no meaning to mention the various contractors seeking workers, but it is recommended to look at the numerous job search websites under the required trade.

It is both large and small contractors seeking tradesmen. Sources of information available The Danish State is currently developing a website www. The website will function as a portal for both Danish foremen and foreign tradesmen, including information about requirements, regulations, employment conditions etc in connections with gaining employment in Denmark. Pathways for Skills Project 17 Until the website is ready, the information is available on the following www.

Its role is to create and sustain the conditions in which its members can compete and prosper, and their interests. However, individuals and legal entities have the legal right to found educational institutions. In education was made compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 18 for all pupils entering education from Previously education was compulsory between the ages of 6 and By law, all higher education institutions must be accredited according to a uniform procedure.

Institutions which have not fulfilled the requirements stipulated by law will not be permitted to operate as universities. The medium of instruction is Hungarian except in certain nursery, primary and secondary schools for ethnic minorities. The academic year runs from the beginning of September to the end of June.

Politics Legislative power is held by a seat National Assembly, elected by a combination of proportional representation and single seat constituencies. The National Assembly is elected for four years and this body in turn elects the Council of Ministers on the advice of the President. The President is elected by the National Assembly to serve a maximum of two four year terms.

It has a strong private sector with a high degree of foreign ownership resulting in considerable foreign direct investment. The value of the building industry decreased in the in the first three quarters of by 2. One of the reasons for this negative trend is a decrease in domestic housing construction and a decline in road construction.

The contracted volume of the building industry was 7. In the first nine months the building industry made a profit of nearly million HUF est. The reason for that is the increase in oil petroleum prices, and the cost of the chemical sector and metal-working industry. The profitability of building industry is between Due to changes in the law in early there are new expectations regarding the prosperity of the building industry. The forecast shows a small boom in the public sector in the second half of the year, thanks to renovation in the panel-house sector and the extension of order-stock in the business sphere there is a growing demand in business sector.

At present it has approximately member organisations including the most prestigious Hungarian building employers, numerous small- and medium-sized enterprises. EVOSZ promotes communication and information exchange between member organisations as well as between Hungarian and international organisations. It also promotes the technical and professional development of the construction industry and prepares members for joining the European Union. Pathways for Skills Project 21 Poland Introduction Education Since school education has followed a 6 3 3 pattern primary, gymnasium then general lyceum, specialised lyceum, or secondary technical schools.

Compulsory education lasts from the age of 7 to 18 until the completion of gymnasium. Completion of three years of gymnasium leads to examinations, which will determine the route of further education. Both school and higher level education is centrally supervised by the Ministry of National Education and sport. Polish education acts define the basis for the functioning of universities by setting out the: The medium of instruction is Polish. However, there are also minority schools teaching in other languages including Slovak, Lithuanian, German, Ukrainian and Belorussian.

The school academic year runs from September to June. Politics Poland is a democracy with a president as head of state. The President is elected by popular vote to serve a maximum of two five-year terms, he or she appoints the Prime 22 Leonardo da Vinci Minister and Deputy Prime Minister from the largest party in the Sejam. The Parliament consists of two houses, the Senat and the Sejam with members elected by proportional representation to the Sejam and through a majority vote divided among the provinces to the Senat.

Poland remains close to its Eastern neighbours including Ukraine and Belarus and works to maintain good governance, economic stability, civil society and promote EU values.

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Its close proximity to Germany and relatively low wages have led to considerable foreign direct investment. Heavy industry remains the largest economic sector with chief exports including machinery and semi manufactured goods. The construction trade has been recovering from the recession period more slowly than other trades, but at present it is characterised by the highest growth indicators. After very high profitability in and , the capacity of companies to make a profit has been maintained. In , the sector of companies and their main parts have attained recordbreaking profitability indexes.

The unemployment rate has been in decline and at present, in some trades, the number of employees has become insufficient. Despite low inflation of around 1. The following table provides basic indexes illustrating the economic situation in Poland: Central Statistical Office, Statistical bulletins, Data on socioeconomic situation in the country Since — when construction increased by 7. After 10 months of this year, the increase in construction manufacturing is The level of renovation works has increased by It should be noted that since , the construction trade has been attaining increasingly good financial results and, on the average, it has generated profits.

During the three quarters of , the net turnover profitability rate was 2. In the period of 10 months of year , the following types of work generated growth of the construction sector: During a 10 month period in , These are mainly single-family apartments, and the growth is becoming less dynamic. Apartment prices are increasing quickly, and demand for apartments is generated by the more affluent clients; apartments are often treated as an investment by domestic and foreign investors.

For this group, apartments are constructed by development companies. About a third of all apartments are facilities constructed by developers for sale or rental; during the first 10 months of , their number had increased by 9. Economic situation of the construction trade According to research conducted by the Central Statistical Office, the general economic condition of the construction trade in November was good, although the results were somewhat worse than in the previous three months.

The number of companies indicating improvement of their condition has decreased. The most significant although decreasing problems encountered by companies are those associated with competition. The second most important barrier, which is becoming increasingly significant, is the employment costs.

The barrier of insufficient demand has decreased significantly, while the importance of barriers associated with insufficient number of qualified employees has grown dramatically. An unprecedented phenomenon has been observed in the construction trade; companies have problems with recruitment of employees. The number of orders is excessive among other things, thanks to the inflow of EU funds , and they cannot be completed. The most important reasons for lack of construction workers identified include: Increase in the quantity of construction works.

The increasing scale of orders and production levels is not accompanied by increased employment. During this period, the employment rate increased insignificantly; it almost remained stable Low wages in construction, when compared with other branches of economy Low mobility of the population; attachment to a permanent place of residence and family accompanied by lack of hous26 Leonardo da Vinci ing facilities in the area, where jobs can be found Emigration for economic reasons to the EU countries. Difficult conditions of work at construction sites, accompanied by low wages, have led to emigration to the EU countries after the accession of Poland to the EU.

In the West, the wages of non-qualified workers who find it most beneficial as they earn little in Poland are 4 times higher than in Poland Regression in occupational education is mentioned as yet another reason for lack of construction workers. Recession experienced in the construction trade for several years has led to a sense of lack of professional perspectives in this trade, discouraging the young people to get qualifications in construction trades.

Therefore, recruitment at construction vocational schools diminished dramatically and it was necessary to liquidate many of them. One of the important reasons for liquidation of these schools is the population decline, which leads to a lower level of recruitment of candidates for all trades. Analysis of the structure of the construction sector shows that the increase in its volume has been attained and can be attained in the coming years through infrastructural construction in the broad sense of the term, mainly through construction of highways and construction, renovation and modernisation of roads.

It is also important to increase the dynamics of growth of housing construction and non-housing construction, based on foreign investment. However, observation of the situation in the construction trade shows a possibility of threats, which may decrease the growth rate in this sector. These threats may be associated with maintenance of the unfavourable conditions for development of housing construction, the level of foreign investment in non-housing construction shopping centres, hotels, business and office buildings, warehouses and logistic centres being lower than expected, and inability to use fully the EU funds for the road infrastructure.

Use of the EU funds in the road construction sector may Pathways for Skills Project 27 be associated with a long preparatory period, amendment of the financing programmes, lack of stability of the legislation frequent changes of the law and changes in the financing rules. Opinions with regard to the scale and reality of these threats vary. Some believe that the present good condition will be maintained for many years.

Construction Schools Vocational schools and technical secondary schools of construction face a serious crisis, caused mainly by a new, roughly considered concept of education organisation, as well as liquidation of many state construction companies, which managed corporate vocational schools. School units consisting of general, technical secondary schools and vocational schools have been gradually liquidated.

It is easy to guess that the vocational schools were the first. People perceive that young people who choose vocational school had problems with learning in high school and are not good enough for any other type of schooling. In , in Poland, nine carpenters, sixteen roofers and forty-five concrete workers graduated from vocational schools.

However, the ministry removed this specialisation from education classification, 28 Leonardo da Vinci and from , there are no classes with this profile. There are no students interested in continuing their education in vocational schools and the existing ones do not have money and opportunities to provide modern and practical methods of education.

It is about actual offers of construction companies concerning, among others, financial support during studies that is a system of scholarships. Young people have to learn new technologies and gain knowledge about modern devices and machines presently used in this branch. This is the only way to address the prejudicial perspectives of the building profession. We should also return to vocational training organised directly by the employers and obtaining certificates by means of apprentice and master examinations in craft chambers. Also, the scope of shortened theoretical vocational training and the organisation doing the conducting should be clearly defined.

Unemployment benefits should be transformed into vocational scholarships and paid to the training participants after they meet specified requirements. A very significant problem for graduates of technical secondary schools is lack of possibility to obtain construction certificates. As a result of this limitation, engineers are employed as workers at building sites. If this situation does not change, the already low interPathways for Skills Project 29 est in building technical schools will decrease to zero. The situation in higher education is not good either, theoretical studies without obligatory training at building sites during the period of training, results in young engineers not being prepared for practical work.

In building companies, they have to start from the very beginning and often become discouraged and abandon the profession. Building companies face staff shortages and are interested in supporting vocational schools in practical training, but they need a guarantee that they employ the graduates they educate. Presently there is no appropriate regulation settling this case. Autonomous organisations in the building branch attempt to prevent the catastrophe of increasing staff shortage and undertake various actions, which unfortunately do not have a desired effect in reality.

A good example is the agreement signed by the Polish Association of Construction Employees and Regional Labour Offices in Warsaw and Opole concerning organisation of training for building professions and increasing qualifications of unemployed and school graduates. Unfortunately, there were not enough people interested.


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It became clear that labour offices were not able to organise a group of unemployed persons, who could be trained and sent to work in building companies. The section of Schools of Construction in the Polish Commercial Chamber of Construction, which associates over 60 schools of construction from Poland, attempts to engage the authorities responsible for vocational education in the construction branch.

Among others, it applies for support from the Ministry of Construction for the construction companies, which cooperate with schools. It also applies for assistance for more flexible adaptation to market needs and student education. Unfortunately, constant position changes in the key areas for construction do not assist in the exchange of assessments and suggestions.

At a recent press conference devoted to employment in the construction branch, former October Minister of Construction, 30 Leonardo da Vinci Andrzej Aumiller, admitted that establishing a system of scholarships and organisation of practical trainings for the students is essential for gaining new employees for the construction sector.

We will see if actual actions follow these declarations. Occupations available in the construction sector The Ministry of Education of Republic of Poland approved the training programme podstawy programowe ksztalcenia w zawodach for the following professions in the construction sector the Ministerial code of the profession is provided in brackets: The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport is responsible for overall governing of education and its power includes ensuring the basic unity of the education system, guaranteeing equality and formulating national educational plans.

The Autonomous Communities have the power to create, authorise and operate public and private sector educational institutions. The Spanish Constitution, , established education as a right, stating that basic education is compulsory and free of charge.

This act categorises schools into the various types - state, private, special private schools that are publicly funded and private fee-paying schools. This law led to a reform within the non-university education system. The academic year runs from October to July. Politics Spain has had a parliamentary monarchy since There are autonomous regions, which undertake much of the governing functions including responsibility for education. The Spanish parliament consists of a Senate and Congress elected every four years.

Many of these regions have their own national consciousness, demonstrated by the different languages.


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The regions are able to raise taxes, undertake administration and so on. The poorer regions are still funded centrally. The country joined the European Community, dismantled overreaching bureaucracy and state ownership. The northern part of Spain, closer to the rest of the European Union, is richer and its low wages compared to other Eurozone countries has attracted considerable foreign direct investment.

Spain has a wide range of important industries including agriculture, fishing, wine, automobiles, textiles and telecommunications. The productive activities are conventionally grouped by the type of work done: According to the official classification, the construction sector refers to a long list of ecoPathways for Skills Project 35 nomic activities of the CNAE- 93 National Economic Activity Code in section 45, which, in turn, includes five types of activities or sub-sectors: The organisation of a vocational classification for the sector is a difficult commitment to keep given the peculiarities of the sector that includes many professions that are not only specific, but also transverse and related to other sectors.

A system for training and promotion strongly associated with the experience acquired on the construction site implies a problem organising and delimiting the sector's professions and a problem recognising vocational training qualifications acquired with the experience. In this sense and given these difficulties, no agreement has yet been made about vocational classification in the construction sector. Due to this, until now, that stated on the subject in the revoked Labour Ordinance of Construction of applies, which states the following classification: Project and site monitoring which includes those professional activities aimed at making the studies prior to the project, planning and coordinating its development, planning and organising the execution of the work, and the quality control.

Pathways for Skills Project 37 Execution of works where the activities lead to materialisation of the work by means of different processes are grouped. Operations with machinery, which includes the activities related to operations for executing processes that involve the operating specific machinery, linked, to a greater or lesser extent, to the field of Transport and Maintenance of Vehicles. In addition, the construction sector shares general skills with other professional families such as: The construction market in Spain constitutes one of the most dynamic in Europe and is the fourth in the EU If we consider the weight of the investment in construction on the GDP, it lifts the construction sector in Spain to the second in Europe.

Spanish construction companies have more and more presence in all of the exterior markets, where they have entered strongly into the execution of contracts for concessions, in the field of road, hydraulic and services infrastructures, mainly in the Latin American and European markets. Your request to send this item has been completed. Citations are based on reference standards. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The specific requirements or preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should be applied.

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