They are distinguished from other chrysopids by the basal segments of their antennae, which are dark brown to black Figure 8 a and Figure 8 b. Also, a dark brown stripe is present on each side of the face, and two black spots anteriorly on the sides of the body. Larvae are also predaceous and have a pair of lateral tubercles on the first abdominal segment. Chrysopa nigricornis overwinters as a pupa in a silken cocoon and adults are active in late spring. In the laboratory each female laid an average of eggs range: Basal segments of antennae of Chrysoperla carnea adult. Basal segments of antennae of Chrysopa nigricornis adult.
Adult Chysopa oculata are similar in size to C. The second antennal segment has a black ring. Both adults and nymphs are predaceous and feed primarily on the green apple aphid. Chrysopa oculata overwinters as a pupa in a silken cocoon in the soil and the adults are active in late spring. Adult hemerobjids Figure 9 are light to darkish-brown, and are smaller than adult chrysopids or green lacewings.
They overwinter as adults, or as mature larvae and prepupae within a loosely spun silken cocoon. Adults and larvae are predaceous and feed on aphids, mites, and other soft-bodied arthropods. Adults are active in apple orchards between late May and late August Figure 10 , with a population peak in early August when aphids are abundant. Eggs Figure 11 are non-stalked, creamy-white in colour with a distinct micropylar knob at the anterior end.
They are laid singly on fruit buds and leaves and in bark crevices. Each female lays several hundred eggs, which hatch after about 5 days. The larvae Figure 12 are creamy-brown with dark reddish-brown stripes and spots. They move their heads from side to side when and walking late stage larvae and do not have a foot pad pulvillus , which is found in chrysopid larvae.
There are three larval instars, and the larval period lasts between 11 and 22 days. At maturity, larvae spin loose silken cocoons Figure 13 in rolled leaves, on leaf and flower clusters, and in other protected places. The pupal period lasts between days. The predominant hemerobius species in apple orchards in southern Ontario is Hemerobius humilinus L.
Sympherobius amiculus Fitch was occasionally observed. Seasonal occurence of adult Hemerobius sp. Adult Carabidae or Ground Beetles are elongate, usually flattened beetles that vary greatly in size mm and colour. They are usually dark brown to black, but many species are yellowish or reddish-brown with blue, green, or copper metallic hues. They are ground dwellers and are found under stones and debris on the soil surface or in burrows in the soil.
Both larvae and adults are nocturnal and predaceous, but many species are phytophagous and feed on seeds, tender shoots, fruits, and pollen of various plants. Their prey consists of a wide range of soft-bodied arthropods including insects, earthworms, and snails. Eggs are laid in mud cells or cocoons a few cm below the soil surface or attached to the undersides of rocks. The incubation period lasts days and there are usually three larval instars. Pupation also occurs in the soil.
Some species reproduce in the spring and usually overwinter as adults, while others reproduce in the fall and may overwinter as eggs, larvae, or adults. Adults live for years and produce a defensive secretion from abdominal glands that may act as an aggregative pheromone. Fifty-nine species of ground beetles were recovered in apple orchards in southern Ontario, the most abundant being Amara aenea DeGeer, Harpalus affinis Shrank, and Pterostichus melanarius Ill Figure Seasonal occurrence of adult Carabidae in an unsprayed no insecticide apple orchard at Jordan Station, Ontario.
The adults are both predaceous and herbivorous, and often climb vegetation in search of food. The larvae are primarily carnivorous. In addition to A. This is a European species that is widely distributed in North America. Adults Figure 15 are good fliers and like dry, open areas with sandy soil. They are small and dark brown with protruding frontal angles on the prothorax. In apple orchards, adult A. Adults, like the larvae, are also carnivorous and feed on small soft-bodied insects. Amara aenea hibernates mostly in the adult stage. Adults are dark brown to black with a metallic lustre, usually greenish, but sometimes bluish and coppery.
Harpalus species are generally most abundant in dry, open areas and prefer sandy soils into which they burrow during the day. In addition to H. This is a European species that is now widely distributed in Canada. Harpalus affinis is dark brown, often with the dorsal surfaces of the prothorax and elytra having a metallic green or coppery lustre. Harpalus affinis hibernates as both larvae mainly third instar and adults under clumps of grass a few cm under the soil.
Adults Figure 16 are active early in May to mid-to-late September and are good fliers. They are sometimes found on the foliage of shrubs and small trees. They are also taken at light. After mating, pearly-white eggs 2 mm are laid individually in the soil. The incubation period is about days and larvae are active in the soil from August to about December. Pupae are first present in July and when adults emerge, they feed and seek overwintering quarters. Adults are both predaceous and phytophagous, and the larvae carnivorous. In the laboratory, adults feed on seeds of several weed species and on smaller animal prey such as pupae of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh, and first instar larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.
They are active and disperse by running rapidly over the soil surface. In addition to P. Its preferred habitat is uncultivated, open land with deep friable soil, over which it disperses by running rapidly on the surface. It has been reported to travel as many as m overnight.here
Site Selection for Productive Apple Orchards
Males are generally more active than females. Pterostichus melanarius is a fall breeder and overwinters primarily in the larval stage. Some pre-reproductive adults also overwinter, and become reproductively mature in early spring. Adults Figure 17 are first active in late May to early June and generally most abundant between mid-July and mid-August.
There is generally one activity peak per year, the adults becoming inactive in late September to early October. Eggs, which are pearly-white and mm x mm, are well developed in the ovaries in summer and are laid in the soil individually. The incubation period lasts about 14 days. Both adults and larvae are carnivorous and adults also fed on the seeds of several weed species in the laboratory.
Large prey, such as earthworms and other beetle and Lepidoptera larvae, are apparently preferred to smaller prey. Pterostichus melanarius adults feed extensively on mature larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Lycosidae or Wolf Spiders are large mm , mainly terrestrial spiders, that inhabit dark, moist habitats, e. They do not spin webs, but excavate shallow nests, or deep burrows, or cells, which are lined with silk. Species of lycosids are both diurnal and nocturnal, and hunt their prey, primarily insects, which is detected by sight and motion.
Both males and females live for years and mating probably occurs in the spring and late summer or early fall. Eggs are laid in the soil and protected by the female, which also protects the spiderlings when they emerge. The spiderlings excavate nests in the soil and pass through several instars before attaining maturity.
Apple farmers lure owls back to orchards in assault on mice
Lycosids are widely distributed in Canada and the U. Trochosa terricola is a large mm brownish or brownish-red spider, with lighter lateral and median, dorsal markings Figure Within the median markings are a pair of dark stripes, characteristic of the genus. Trochosa terricola does not burrow but lives under logs, stones, and debris on the soil surface, and is nocturnal in habit.
Mating occurs in spring and egg masses are first found in early July. There are eight and nine nymphal stages in the male and female, respectively. Trochosa terricolla tends to be sedentary and depends on sight, movements, and substrate vibrations to detect its prey, which consists of insects and other anthropods. It is active in apple orchards from mid-April to about mid-September, and in the spring probably feeds on exposed living pupae of the spotted tentiform leafminer, Phyllonorycter blancardella Fabr.
Anthocoridae, or Flower bugs, are distributed world-wide, and have been recorded from several habitats. Forty-one species are known to occur in Canada and Alaska, including four species of Orius and seven species of Anthocoris. Anthocorids are small mm , oval-shaped insects, usually dark brown to black, shiny, with light yellowish-brown hemilytra or wing covers. They are generally found on flowers of Compositae and many herbaceous plants, under bark scales, and on the foliage of deciduous trees.
Anthocorids overwinter as adults in sites located within hollow tree trunks, under leaves and trash on the soil surface, and under bark scales. Anthocorids are usually most abundant in fruit orchards late in the season Figure 19 and are found on both tree foliage and on plants in the understory cover. They are both predaceous and phytophagous, feeding on the immatures and eggs of Lepidoptera , and on aphids, mites, psyllids, thrips, scales, leafhoppers, and the pollen and nectar of several plant species. Several generations occur each year.
Seasonal occurrence of Anthocoridae in an unsprayed no insecticide apple orchard at Jordan Station, Ontario. In apple orchards in southern Ontario, the predominant species are Orius insidious Say , and O. Both adults and nymphs Figure 21 feed mainly on psyllids, as well as on aphids, other small insects, and phytophagous mites.
What Are These Spots on My Apple?
In fruit orchards in Ontario, adults are first active in late April to early May and most abundant in late July and early August. They occur most frequently on the under surfaces of leaves, searching along the mid-ribs for prey. Each female lays between and eggs, which hatch in approximately 7 days. First stage nymphs are yellow, with the head, tips of the antennae, and abdomen tinged with orange. Late-stage nymphs are yellowish-brown.
Nymphal development lasts about days. Small aphids tend to be a primary food source of the early nymphal instars. In fruit orchards, Orius insidiosus has been recovered from cover crops of sunflower and buckwheat, several weeds, and the foliage of apple and pear trees. Mating occurs soon after the adults become active and egg deposition oviposition commences within days. At that temperature, nymphal development lasts days. Orius tristicolor occurs at similar sites as O. The mirids form the largest family of the Hemiptera and 81 species are known to occur on fruit crops in Canada.
Fifty-seven species are predaceous and the prey of both nymphs and adults comprises mainly aphids and mites, and to a lesser extent, immature Lepidoptera. Some species are also phytophagous and imbibe plant sap by piercing succulent plant tissues. Mirids overwinter either as eggs, which are laid in young shoots and stems or in leaf veins, or as adults in concealed places. The incubation period is about days and nymphs are first active in late spring. There are 5 nymphal stages in a developmental period of days. Wing pads first appear in the third instar nymph.
Adults mate within days after emergence and females commence egg laying within days. Males die soon after mating and the females soon after ovipositing. Adults are most numerous in fruit orchards in southern Ontario from mid-July through August Figure There are one or more generations per year. In most years mirids are probably the most important group of insect predators in apple orchards in southern Ontario in mid to late summer.
Seasonal occurrence of species of Miridae in an unsprayed no insecticide apple orchard at Jordan Station, Ontario. Campylomma verbasci is an introduced European species that is widely distributed in eastern Canada, British Columbia, and in many northeastern states in the US. Adults are small 3 mm , greyish-brown insects with characteristic black spots on their legs Figure Campylomma verbasci overwinters as an egg, which is pale yellow and cylindrical and is laid in wood of the current years' growth of pome fruits and other rosaceous plants. First instar nymphs are pale yellow with reddish eyes and the third instar Figure 25 is pale greenish with characteristic black spots on the legs.
Nymphs are first active in early May, and are most abundant from late May through early June. Adults are predominant on apple foliage from about mid-June, and most emigrate from orchards in the summer to alternate hosts such as mullein, potato, sweetcorn and others. They feed and reproduce on these hosts during the summer, flying back into apple and pear orchards in late summer or early fall to lay overwintering eggs.
There are probably two or three generations per year. Campylomma verbasci third instar nymph. Adults and nymphs are predaceous and feed primarily on the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi Koch , and the green apple aphid, Aphis pomi DeGeer, and may suppress populations of these pests in the early stages of an infestation. A tree grown from an apple core thrown over the back fence usually bears fruit of only passable or inferior quality. But every once in a while, an apple with unusual and desirable characteristics arises.
That is what happened time and again in cider orchards of the 17th and 18th centuries, orchards which served, in effect, as vast trial plots for the improvement of imported Old World stocks. Thus emerged,for instance, the small Hewes' Crab, possibly a cross between an apple of European stock and the crab apple, native to Virginia. In pressing the juice-filled Hewes' Crab for cider, wrote Philadelphia farmer Henry Wynkoop in , "the liquor flows from the pumice as water from a sponge.
Many of these pippins, as the tree seedlings were called, thrived. By the mids, Jefferson could boast in a letter from Paris to the Rev. One of the first American texts on pomology was written by William Coxe and published in A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees described "one hundred kinds of the most estimable apples cultivated in our country"—many of them true natives. And in , Downing's revised edition of Fruits and Fruit Trees edited by brother Charles, and even today considered the magnum opus of American pomology described nearly 2, different apples, pears, peaches, plums and a host of lesser-known fruits—most of American origin.
That was the world in which John Chapman, better known as Johnny Appleseed, spread goodwill and goodseeds, trekking barefoot in a sackcloth shirt over Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana during the first half of the 19th century. The eccentric but resourceful Massachusetts native scouted routes along which pioneers would most likely settle.
He bought land along these routes, on which he planted seedlings, which he would willingly dig up to sell to arriving settlers. By the s, Chapman owned a string of nurseries that spread from western Pennsylvania, across Ohio and into Indiana. He died owning 1, acres of land in Chapman's story is about "how pioneers like him helped domesticate the frontier by seeding it with Old World plants," writes Michael Pollan in The Botany of Desire.
Perhaps a few of them even made it into W.
But the golden age of American pomology would come to an abrupt end in the early 20th century. Inexpensive railway shipping and refrigeration enabled orchards to transport apples year-round. Home orcharding declined as suburbs emerged. And when that quintessential mass-market apple, the patented, inoffensively sweet and long-lasting Red Delicious, took hold in the early s, many high-flavored heirlooms were effectively cut out of the commercial trade. Today's mass merchandisers tend to view apple varieties in terms of color, disease resistance, shelf life and their ability to be shipped long distances without bruising.
Grocery stores often stock only one red, one green and one yellow variety, which usually means a Red Delicious, a Granny Smith and a Golden Delicious. And as any consumer knows, those big, beautiful and perfect-looking apples can often taste like sweetened sawdust. Still, the apple remains big business in this country: The average American consumes some 16 pounds of fresh apples a year, making the apple second only to the banana as the nation's most popular fruit.
Creighton Lee Calhoun, Jr. A retired Army colonel with degrees in agronomy and bacteriology, Calhoun started collecting old apple varieties in the early s.
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In , he found an old North Carolina apple called Summer Orange, prized for making pies. Calhoun tracked another apple to a farm owned by E. They paid me 10 cents for every tree I sold, and this was one of the varieties the nursery had; they called it the Bivins. Calhoun took a cutting from the tree and grafted it onto one in his backyard orchard. One of his backyard trees would eventually host 36 different varieties, each new scion grafted to a different limb. In , Calhoun came across a catalog from an old North Carolina nursery, which indicated that the Bivins was actually a New Jersey apple called Bevan's Favorite.
It originated before and sold in the South as a high-quality summer-eating apple. But like so many others, it was neglected and eventually disappeared; if not for Calhoun, it might have been lost altogether. Eventually, he would rediscover almost lost varieties: So, beginning in , with the help of his wife, Edith, he poured his research into a book, Old Southern Apples, a veritable bible of old apple information.
Calhounis encouraged by the new interest that his book and the work of other antique apple sleuths have generated over the past several years. While reading Calhoun's long list of extinct varieties, I came across a reference to an apple called the Reasor Green, which I knew from one of my family lithographs: Nineteenth-century illustrators unabashedly recorded both beauty and blemish. But what really caught my eye was the source for Calhoun's description: I had never seen a copy of the catalog, so I eventually got myself over to the National Agricultural Library in Beltsville, Maryland, to check it out.
Wearing the required white gloves, I openedit gingerly and began reading my great-great-grandfather's "Prefatory" remarks. Alas, his optimism would prove misplaced. Of the apple, pear, cherry, peach and plum varieties he describes, only a handful—the Winesap and Rome Beauty apples, and the Bartlett and Kieffer pears—are still grown widely today. Yet of the 60 apple varieties he lists, I now grow half of them in my nursery.
It is for me a very direct connection to the past. But some antique apple varieties live on in a more indirect form.
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Another old apple by the name of Ralls Genet, for example, was a favorite of Jefferson's. As the story goes, the third president obtained cuttings of it from his friend, Edmund Charles Genet, French minister to the United States, and gave some to local nurseryman Caleb Ralls. The subsequent Ralls Genet variety soon became a popular apple in the OhioValley because of its late bloom—which allows it to weather late-season frosts.
It was crossed by Japanese breeders with the Red Delicious, and the resulting apple, released in , went on to become the now commercially popular Fuji, which recently overtook the Granny Smith as the third most popular apple in the United States behind the Red Delicious and the Golden Delicious. As Peter Hatch, director of gardens and grounds at Jefferson's Monticello, noted at a recent apple tasting, "We like to say that Thomas Jefferson was not only the author of the Declaration of Independence and the father of the University ofVirginia but perhaps the grandfather of the Fuji.
My own great-great-grandfather would no doubt be proud to know that I am growing the "Rawle's Janet" today—a variety that he, like many others of his time, misspelled. I suspect, however, that he would be even more pleased to know that I was able to propagate the Reasor Green in the spring of For it was my great-greatgrandfather, in , who introduced that very apple to the trade after he found it in a neighbor's orchard. He grafted itonto existing trees and began selling cuttings, called whips. But when I saw the word "extinct" next to what amounted to a family heirloom, I was motivated to get out of the nursery and see what I could turn up.
For me, that meant talking with family and any friends who might know where an old Reasor Green tree was still standing. And it didn't take long to get a hot lead. So I called Slemp, a beef and tobacco farmer, who said that he did have a Reasor Green and invited me to stop by for a visit the third weekof October when the apples would be ready to pick.
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Would the Reasor Green—the regional pronunciation is Razor Green—turn out to be a "spitter," an apple so bitter that it provokes a universal response? Spitters, according toTom Burford, make up a disappointing 90 percent of all heirloom apples. On the appointed October day, my four sons and I headed off in the family car, driving deep into the valleyridge province of southwest Virginia. By the time we pulled into Slemp's gravel driveway, the sun was already low in the hazy, autumn sky. Buckets of apples were spread haphazardly in his carport.
After a few minutes, the year-old Slemp pulled up in his Ford pickup.
We piled into it, headed east for a quartermile and turned onto a paved road that winds past scattered groves of tulip poplars and Virginia cedars. Finally, we pulled into a farm lane that had several apple trees planted beside it. Stopping at a heavy metal gate, we climbed out and inspected what Slemp calls an "old-timey Winesap," loaded with dull red apples. I picked one off the tree and took a bite, luxuriating in the snappy, vinous flavor.
Then we gathered a couple dozen more to eat later. We got back in the truck and followed the lane a little farther up the ridge. Usually, this time of year, it's loaded.