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25.2: Introduction to Hydrocarbons

The naming of organic compounds is facilitated through the use of formal systems of nomenclature. Nomenclature in organic chemistry is of two types: Common names originate in many different ways but share the feature that there is no necessary connection between name and structure. The name that corresponds to a specific structure must simply be memorized, much like learning the name of a person. Systematic names, on the other hand, are keyed directly to molecular structure according to a generally agreed upon set of rules.

The most widely used standards for organic nomenclature evolved from suggestions made by a group of chemists assembled for that purpose in Geneva in and have been revised on a regular basis by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry IUPAC. Compounds in other families are viewed as derived from alkanes by appending functional groups to, or otherwise modifying, the carbon skeleton.

Beginning with five-carbon chains, the names of unbranched alkanes consist of a Latin or Greek stem corresponding to the number of carbons in the chain followed by the suffix -ane. A group of compounds such as the unbranched alkanes that differ from one another by successive introduction of CH 2 groups constitute a homologous series.


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Alkanes with branched chains are named on the basis of the name of the longest chain of carbon atoms in the molecule, called the parent. The alkane shown has seven carbons in its longest chain and is therefore named as a derivative of heptane, the unbranched alkane that contains seven carbon atoms. The position of the CH 3 methyl substituent on the seven-carbon chain is specified by a number 3- , called a locant , obtained by successively numbering the carbons in the parent chain starting at the end nearer the branch.

The compound is therefore called 3-methylheptane. When there are two or more identical substituents, replicating prefixes di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. Replicating prefixes are ignored when alphabetizing. In alkanes, numbering begins at the end nearest the substituent that appears first on the chain so that the carbon to which it is attached has as low a number as possible. Methyl and ethyl are examples of alkyl groups. An alkyl group is derived from an alkane by deleting one of its hydrogens, thereby leaving a potential point of attachment. Methyl is the only alkyl group derivable from methane and ethyl the only one from ethane.

Hydrocarbons of Chemistry by Navneet Jethwani (NJ) Sir (afeditamyb.tk)

There are two C 3 H 7 and four C 4 H 9 alkyl groups. The IUPAC rules for naming alkanes and alkyl groups cover even very complex structures and are regularly updated. They are unambiguous in the sense that, although a single compound may have more than one correct IUPAC name, there is no possibility that two different compounds will have the same name. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

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Read More on This Topic. Page 1 of 8. Next page Three-dimensional structures. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Petroleum crude oils are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, chemical compounds composed only of carbon C and hydrogen H.

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The —ene suffix indicates a double bond, whereas the —ane suffix indicates a single bond. Collectively, hydrocarbons with a double bond between two carbons are called alkenes and hydrocarbons with single bonds between all the carbons are called alkanes. After they are done, have them check their model with a partner. Refer students to the prefix chart of hydrocarbons found at Organic Chemistry: Ask students to name their compound based on the chart.

Students should determine that their models represent propane. Ask students to take their propane and make it into propene. Next, ask students to make a triple bond between two of the carbons and alter their models accordingly.

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Tell students that this is neither propane nor propene; rather, it is propyne. The —yne suffix indicates a triple bond between two carbon atoms of a hydrocarbon. Go through the prefix chart with students, ensuring that students can say each name correctly as an alkane, alkene, and alkyne. Ask students why organic chemists say that there are almost an infinite number of different hydrocarbons.

Students should indicate that carbons can be linked together continuously, making long chains. They also can contain double and triple bonds in various locations. As the hydrocarbon grows in size, the number of double and triple bond possibilities grows. To emphasize this, ask students to make an octyne compound that also contains one double bond. Students should realize that the compound can have more than one double or triple bond in different locations.

Have students work in teams to investigate the use of one alkane historically and today. A good starting point for students to begin their research is Summary of the Properties and Uses of Hydrocarbons. The presence of hydrocarbons on other planets is a telling sign for the possibility of life. Chemistry of Petroleum 1: Esheet What Are Hydrocarbons? Did you find this resource helpful? Other Lessons in This Series 1. Chemistry of Petroleum 2: Chemistry of Petroleum 3: Distillation of Hydrocarbons 4.


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Chemistry of Petroleum 4: Table of contents Reviews Preface to the Second Edition. Preface to the First Edition. Hydrocarbons and Their Classes. Hydrocarbon Sources and Separation.

hydrocarbon | Definition, Types, & Facts | afeditamyb.tk

Petroleum Refining and Upgrading. Finite, Nonrenewable Hydrocarbon Resources. Chemical Nature of Hydrocarbon Conversion Reactions. Hydrocarbon from Petroleum and Natural Gas. Dehydrogenation with Olefin Production. Upgrading of Natural-Gas Liquids. Synthesis from C 1 Sources. Nature's C 1 Chemistry.