Guide The Laboratory Swine, Second Edition: Volume 13 (Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference)

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In Western society , the domestic guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a household pet , a type of pocket pet , since its introduction by European traders in the 16th century. Their docile nature; friendly, even affectionate, responsiveness to handling and feeding; and the relative ease of caring for them have made and continue to make guinea pigs a popular choice of pet. Organizations devoted to the competitive breeding of guinea pigs have been formed worldwide, and many specialized breeds with varying coat colors and textures are selected by breeders.

The domestic guinea pig plays an important role in folk culture for many indigenous Andean groups , especially as a food source, but also in folk medicine and in community religious ceremonies. A modern breeding program was started in the s in Peru that resulted in large breeds known as cuy mejorados improved cuy and prompted efforts to increase consumption of the animal outside South America.

Biological experimentation on domestic guinea pigs has been carried out since the 17th century. The animals were so frequently used as model organisms in the 19th and 20th centuries that the epithet guinea pig came into use to describe a human test subject. Since that time, they have been largely replaced by other rodents such as mice and rats. However, they are still used in research, primarily as models for human medical conditions such as juvenile diabetes , tuberculosis , scurvy like humans, they must get vitamin C , and pregnancy complications.

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The scientific name of the common species is Cavia porcellus , with porcellus being Latin for " little pig". Cavia is New Latin ; it is derived from cabiai , the animal's name in the language of the Galibi tribes once native to French Guiana. How the animals came to be called "pigs" is not clear.

They are built somewhat like pigs , with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, and rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence; some of the sounds they emit are very similar to those made by pigs, and they also spend a large amount of time eating. The animal's name alludes to pigs in many European languages.


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This derives from the Middle High German name merswin. This originally meant " dolphin " and was used because of the animals' grunting sounds which were thought to be similar. For example, sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an easily transportable source of fresh meat. This is not universal; for example, the common word in Spanish is conejillo de Indias little rabbit of the Indies. The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain. One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea , leading people to think they had originated there.

The guinea pig was first domesticated as early as BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America the present-day southern part of Colombia , Ecuador , Peru , and Bolivia , [16] some thousands of years after the domestication of the South American camelids. Spanish , Dutch , and English traders brought guinea pigs to Europe , where they quickly became popular as exotic pets among the upper classes and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth I.

The guinea pig was first described in the West in by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner. Some breeds are longfur breeds such as the Peruvian , the Silkie , and the Texel. In the s, a minority scientific opinion emerged proposing that caviomorphs , such as guinea pigs, chinchillas , and degus , are not rodents and should be reclassified as a separate order of mammals similar to lagomorphs. Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest problem-solving strategy is motion. They startle extremely easily, and either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger.

Like many rodents, guinea pigs sometimes participate in social grooming , and they regularly self-groom. They have well-developed senses of hearing, smell , and touch. Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species. Some species of cavy identified in the 20th century, such as C. They are social, living in the wild in small groups that consist of several females sows , a male boar , and the young which, in a break with the preceding porcine nomenclature, are called "pups" not "piglets".

They move together in groups herds eating grass or other vegetation, and do not store food.

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Domesticated guinea pigs thrive in groups of two or more; groups of sows, or groups of one or more sows and a neutered boar are common combinations, but boars can sometimes live together. Guinea pigs learn to recognize and bond with other individual pigs, and testing of boars shows their neuroendocrine stress response is significantly lowered in the presence of a bonded female when compared to the presence of unfamiliar females.

Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs dedicate entire rooms to their pets. Cages with solid or wire mesh floors are used, although wire mesh floors can cause injury and may be associated with an infection commonly known as bumblefoot ulcerative pododermatitis.

Bedding made from red cedar Eastern or Western and pine , both softwoods , were commonly used in the past, but these materials are now believed to contain harmful phenols aromatic hydrocarbons and oils. Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Housing guinea pigs with other rodents such as gerbils and hamsters may increase instances of respiratory and other infections, [64] and such rodents may act aggressively toward the guinea pig. Some published sources say that guinea pigs and rabbits complement each other well when sharing a cage.

The guinea pig's natural diet is grass ; their molars are particularly suited for grinding plant matter and grow continuously throughout their life. In geriatric boars or sows rarely in young ones , the muscles which allow the softer pellets to be expelled from the anus can become weak. This creates a condition known as "anal impaction", which prevents the animal from redigesting cecotropes even though harder pellets may pass through the impacted mass.

Guinea pigs benefit from a diet of fresh grass hay , such as timothy hay , in addition to food pellets which are often based on timothy hay. Alfalfa hay is also a popular food choice and most guinea pigs will eat large amounts of alfalfa when offered it, [21] [75] though some controversy exists over offering alfalfa to adult guinea pigs. Some pet owners and veterinary organizations have advised that, as a legume rather than a grass hay, alfalfa consumed in large amounts may lead to obesity , as well as bladder stones from the excess calcium in all animals except for pregnant and very young guinea pigs.

Like humans, but unlike most other mammals , guinea pigs cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must obtain this vital nutrient from food. If guinea pigs do not ingest enough vitamin C, they can suffer from potentially fatal scurvy. Poor diets for guinea pigs have been associated with muscular dystrophy , metastatic calcification , difficulties with pregnancy, vitamin deficiencies , and teeth problems.

A number of plants are poisonous to guinea pigs, including bracken , bryony , buttercup , charlock , deadly nightshade , foxglove , hellebore , hemlock , lily of the valley , mayweed , monkshood , privet , ragwort , rhubarb , speedwell , toadflax both Linaria vulgaris and Linaria dalmatica , and wild celery. A guinea pig may or may not eat poisonous material.

Males reach sexual maturity in 3—5 weeks, while females can be fertile as early as 4 weeks old, and can carry litters before they are adults. A sow can have as many as five litters in a year, but six is theoretically possible. Females can once again become pregnant 6—48 hours after giving birth, but it is not healthy for a female to be constantly pregnant. The gestation period lasts from 59 days 1. Litter size ranges from one to six, with three being the average; [90] the largest recorded litter size is Large litters result in higher incidences of stillbirth , but because the pups are delivered at an advanced stage of development, lack of access to the mother's milk has little effect on the mortality rate of newborns.

Cohabitating females assist in mothering duties if lactating; [95] guinea pigs practice alloparental care , in which a female may adopt the pup s of another. This might take place if the original parents die or are for some reason separated from them. This behavior is common and is seen in many other animal species such as the elephant. Toxemia of pregnancy hypertension is a common problem and kills many pregnant females. Signs of toxemia include: Females that do not give birth may develop an irreversible fusing of the pubic symphysis , a joint in the pelvis , due to calcification which may occur between 6 and 10 months of age.

The reason for potential calcification is a metabolic disease, like ochronosis. A healthy, normal female guinea pig's pubic symphysis does not calcify. Female genitals are distinguished by a Y-shaped configuration formed from a vulvar flap. While male genitals may look similar, with the penis and anus forming a similar shape, the penis will protrude if pressure is applied to the surrounding hair. Common ailments in domestic guinea pigs include respiratory tract infections , diarrhea , scurvy vitamin C deficiency, typically characterized by sluggishness , abscesses due to infection often in the neck, due to hay embedded in the throat, or from external scratches , and infections by lice , mites , or fungus.

A team approach to a surgical project often increases the likelihood of a successful outcome by providing input from persons with different expertise Brown and Schofield ; Brown et al. Surgical outcomes should be continually and thoroughly assessed to ensure that appropriate procedures are followed and timely corrective changes are instituted.

Modification of standard techniques may be required for instance, in aquatic or field surgery , but should not compromise the well-being of the animals. In the event of modification, close assessment of outcomes may have to incorporate criteria other than clinical morbidity and mortality. Such assessments rely on continuing communication among technical staff, investigators, veterinarians, and the IACUC. Researchers conducting surgical procedures must have appropriate training to ensure that good surgical technique is practiced—that is, asepsis, gentle tissue handling, minimal dissection of tissue, appropriate use of instruments, effective hemostasis, and correct use of suture materials and patterns Brown et al.

Training may have to be tailored to accommodate the wide range of educational backgrounds frequently encountered in research settings. Technical staff performing rodent surgery may have had little formal training in surgical techniques and asepsis and may require general surgical training as well as training for the specific techniques they are expected to perform Stevens and Dey The IACUC, together with the AV, is responsible for determining that personnel performing surgical procedures are appropriately qualified and trained in the procedures Anderson Presurgical planning should include input from all members of the surgical team e.

The surgical plan should identify personnel, their roles and training needs, and equipment and supplies required for the procedures planned Cunliffe-Beamer ; the location and nature of the facilities in which the procedures will be conducted; and perioperative animal health assessment and care Brown and Schofield A veterinarian should be involved in discussions of the selection of anesthetic agents and doses as well as the plan for perioperative analgesic use.

If a nonsterile part of an animal, such as the gastrointestinal tract, is to be surgically exposed or if a procedure is likely to cause immunosuppression, preoperative antibiotics may be appropriate Klement et al. Presurgical planning should specify the requirements for postsurgical monitoring, care, and recordkeeping, including the personnel who will perform these duties. The investigator and veterinarian share responsibility for ensuring that postsurgical care is appropriate. Unless an exception is specifically justified as an essential component of the research protocol and approved by the IACUC, aseptic surgery should be conducted in dedicated facilities or spaces.

Most bacteria are carried on airborne particles or fomites, so surgical facilities should be maintained and operated in a manner that ensures cleanliness and minimizes unnecessary. If it is necessary to use an operating room for other purposes, it is imperative that the room be returned to an appropriate level of hygiene before its use for major survival surgery. Generally, agricultural animals maintained for biomedical research should undergo surgery with techniques and in facilities compatible with the guidelines set forth in this section.

However, some minor and emergency procedures commonly performed in clinical veterinary practice and in commercial agricultural settings may take place under field conditions. Surgical procedures are categorized as major or minor and, in the laboratory setting, can be further divided into survival and nonsurvival. As a general guideline, major survival surgery e. Animals recovering from these minor procedures typically do not show significant signs of post-operative pain, have minimal complications, and return to normal function in a relatively short time.

When attempting to categorize a particular surgical procedure, the following should be considered: Laparoscopic surgeries and some procedures associated with neuroscience research e. For example, laparoscopic techniques with minimal associated trauma and sequelae e. Whether a laparoscopic procedure is deemed. Emergency situations sometimes require immediate surgical attention under less than ideal conditions. For example, if an animal maintained outdoors needs surgical attention, movement to a surgical facility might be impractical or pose an unacceptable risk to the animal.

Such situations often require more intensive aftercare and may pose a greater risk of postoperative complications. The appropriate course of action requires veterinary medical judgment. In nonsurvival surgery, an animal is euthanized before recovery from anesthesia. It may not be necessary to follow all the techniques outlined in this section if nonsurvival surgery is performed but, at a minimum, the surgical site should be clipped, the surgeon should wear gloves, and the instruments and surrounding area should be clean Slattum et al. For nonsurvival procedures of extended duration, attention to aseptic technique may be more important in order to ensure stability of the model and a successful outcome.

Aseptic technique is used to reduce microbial contamination to the lowest possible practical level Mangram et al. No procedure, piece of equipment, or germicide alone can achieve that objective Schonholtz The contribution and importance of each practice varies with the procedure. Regardless of the species, aseptic technique includes preparation of the patient, such as hair or feather removal and disinfection of the operative site Hofmann ; preparation of the surgeon, such as the provision of appropriate surgical attire, face masks, and sterile surgical gloves Chamberlain and Houang ; Pereira et al.

While the species of animal may influence the manner in which principles of aseptic technique are achieved Brown ; Cunliffe-Beamer ; Gentry and French , inadequate or improper technique may lead to subclinical infections that can cause adverse physiologic and behavioral responses Beamer ; Bradfield et al.

General principles of aseptic technique should be followed for all survival surgical procedures ACLAM Specific sterilization methods should be selected on the basis of the physical characteristics of the materials to be sterilized Callahan et al. Autoclaving and plasma and gas sterilization are effective methods most commonly used to sterilize instruments and materials.

Alternative methods, used primarily for rodent surgery, include liquid chemical sterilants and dry heat sterilization.

Liquid chemical sterilants should be used with appropriate contact times and instruments should be rinsed with sterile water or saline before use. Bead or dry heat sterilizers are an effective and convenient means of rapidly sterilizing the working surfaces of surgical instruments but care should be taken to ensure that the instrument surfaces have cooled sufficiently before touching animal tissues to minimize the risk of burns.

Alcohol is neither a sterilant nor a high-level disinfectant Rutala but may be acceptable for some procedures if prolonged contact times are used Huerkamp Careful monitoring and timely attention to problems increase the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome Kuhlman Monitoring includes routine evaluation of anesthetic depth and physiologic functions and conditions, such as body temperature, cardiac and respiratory rates and pattern Flegal et al. Use of balanced anesthesia, including the addition of an intraoperative analgesic agent, can help minimize physiologic fluctuations during surgery.

Maintenance of normal body temperature minimizes cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances caused by anesthetic agents Dardai and Heavner ; Flegal et al. Fluid replacement may be a necessary component of intraoperative therapy depending on the duration and nature of the procedure. For aquatic species including amphibians , care should be taken to keep the skin surfaces moist and minimize drying during surgical procedures.

An important component of postsurgical care is observation of the animal and intervention as necessary during recovery from anesthesia and surgery Haskins and Eisele The intensity of monitoring will vary with the species and the procedure and may be greater during the immediate anesthetic recovery period. During this period, animals should be in a clean, dry, and comfortable area where they can be observed frequently by.

Particular attention should be given to thermoregulation, cardiovascular and respiratory function, electrolyte and fluid balance, and management of postoperative pain or discomfort. Additional care may be warranted, including long-term administration of parenteral fluids, analgesics, and other drugs, as well as care of surgical incisions. Appropriate medical records should also be maintained. After recovery from anesthesia, monitoring is often less intense but should include attention to basic biologic functions of intake and elimination and to behavioral signs of postoperative pain, monitoring for postsurgical infections, monitoring of the surgical incision site for dehiscence, bandaging as appropriate, and timely removal of skin sutures, clips, or staples UFAW An integral component of veterinary medical care is prevention or alleviation of pain associated with procedural and surgical protocols.

Pain is a complex experience that typically results from stimuli that damage or have the potential to damage tissue; such stimuli prompt withdrawal and evasive action. The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom and extends beyond vertebrates Sherwin Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals. For these reasons, the proper use of anesthetics and analgesics in research animals is an ethical and scientific imperative. Fundamental to the relief of pain in animals is the ability to recognize its clinical signs in specific species Bateson ; Carstens and Moberg ; Hawkins ; Holton et al.

Species vary in their response to pain Baumans et al. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training see Appendix B state that in general, unless the contrary is known or established, it should be considered that procedures that cause pain in humans may also cause pain in other animals IRAC Certain species-specific behavioral manifestations are used as indicators of pain or distress—for example, vocalization dogs , depression. However, some species may mask signs of pain until they are quite severe NRC a.

It is therefore essential that personnel caring for and using animals be trained in species-specific and individual clinical, behavioral, physiologic, and biochemical indicators of well-being Dubner ; Karas ; Murrell and Johnson ; Rose ; Stoskopf ; Valverde and Gunkel Distress may be defined as an aversive state in which an animal fails to cope or adjust to various stressors with which it is presented.

Both the duration and intensity of the state are important considerations when trying to prioritize attention to and treatment of animal distress. For example, an injection requiring brief immobilization may produce acute stress lasting only seconds, while long-term individual housing of a social species in a metabolic cage may produce chronic distress. Implementation of clear, appropriate, and humane experimental endpoints for animals, combined with close observation during invasive periods of experimentation, will assist in minimizing distress experienced by animals used in research, teaching, testing, and production.

Recognition and Alleviation of Distress in Laboratory Animals NRC is a resource with important information about distress in experimental animals.

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The selection of appropriate analgesics and anesthetics should reflect professional veterinary judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements as well as the needs of the research protocol. The selection depends on many factors, such as the species, age, and strain or stock of the animal, the type and degree of pain, the likely effects of particular agents on specific organ systems, the nature and length of the surgical or pain-inducing procedure, and the safety of the agent, particularly if a physiologic deficit is induced by a surgical or other experimental procedure Kona-Boun et al.

Preemptive analgesia the administration of preoperative and intraoperative analgesia enhances intraoperative patient stability and optimizes postoperative care and well-being by reducing postoperative pain Coderre et al. Analgesia may be achieved through timely enteral or parenteral administration of analgesic agents as well as by blocking nociceptive signaling via local anesthetics e. Alleviation of chronic pain may be more challenging than postprocedural pain; commercially available opiate slow-release transdermal patches or implantable analgesic-containing osmotic minipumps may be useful for such relief.

Because of wide individual variation in response to analgesics, regardless of the initial plan for pain relief, animals should be closely monitored during and after painful procedures and should receive additional drugs, as needed, to ensure appropriate analgesic management Karas et al. Nonpharmacologic control of pain may be effective and should not be overlooked as an element of postprocedural or perioperative care for research animals NRC a; Spinelli Appropriate nursing support may include a quiet, darkened recovery or resting place, timely wound or bandage maintenance, increased ambient warmth and a soft resting surface, rehydration with oral or parenteral fluids, and a return to normal feeding through the use of highly palatable foods or treats.

Most anesthetics cause a dose-dependent depression of physiologic homeostasis and the changes can vary considerably with different agents. The level of consciousness, degree of antinociception lack of response to noxious stimuli , and status of the cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and thermoregulatory systems should all be used to assess the adequacy of the anesthetic regimen. Interpretation and appropriate response to the various parameters measured require training and experience with the anesthetic regimen and the species.

Loss of consciousness occurs at a light plane of anesthesia, before antinociception, and is sufficient for purposes of restraint or minor, less invasive procedures, but painful stimuli can induce a return to consciousness. Antinociception occurs at a surgical plane of anesthesia and must be ascertained before surgery. Individual animal responses vary widely and a single physiologic or nociceptive reflex response may not be adequate for assessing the surgical plane or level of analgesia Mason and Brown For anesthesia delivery, precision vaporizers and monitoring equipment e.

For injectable anesthestic protocols, specific reversal agents can minimize the incidence of some side effects related to prolonged recovery and recumbency. Guidelines for the selection and proper use of analgesic and anesthetic drugs should be developed and periodically reviewed and updated as standards and techniques are refined. Agents that provide anesthesia and analgesia must be used before their expiration dates and should be acquired, stored, their use recorded, and disposed of legally and safely. Some classes of drugs such as sedatives, anxiolytics, and neuromuscular blocking agents may not provide analgesia but may be useful when.

Neuromuscular blocking agents e. It is imperative that any proposed use of neuromuscular blocking drugs be carefully evaluated by the veterinarian and IACUC to ensure the well-being of the animal. Acute stress is believed to be a consequence of paralysis in a conscious state and it is known that humans, if conscious, can experience distress when paralyzed with these drugs NRC ; Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer If paralyzing agents are to be used, the appropriate amount of anesthetic should first be defined on the basis of results of a similar procedure using the anesthetic without a blocking agent NRC , , a.

Euthanasia is the act of humanely killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress. In evaluating the appropriateness of methods, some of the criteria that should be considered are ability to induce loss of consciousness and death with no or only momentary pain, distress, or anxiety; reliability; irreversibility; time required to induce unconsciousness; appropriateness for the species and age of the animal; compatibility with research objectives; and the safety of and emotional effect on personnel.

Euthanasia may be planned and necessary at the end of a protocol or as a means to relieve pain or distress that cannot be alleviated by analgesics, sedatives, or other treatments. Criteria for euthanasia include protocol-specific endpoints such as degree of a physical or behavioral deficit or tumor size that will enable a prompt decision by the veterinarian and the investigator to ensure that the endpoint is humane and, whenever possible, the scientific objective of the protocol is achieved see Chapter 2.

Euthanasia should be carried out in a manner that avoids animal distress. Automated systems for controlled and staged delivery of inhalantsmay offer advantages for species killed frequently or in large numbers, such as rodents McIntyre et al. Special consideration should be given to euthanasia of fetuses. Generally, chemical agents e. Although carbon dioxide CO 2 is a commonly used method for rodent euthanasia, there is ongoing controversy about its aversive characteristics as an inhalant euthanasia agent.

This is an area of active research Conlee et al. The acceptability of CO 2 as a euthanasia agent for small rodents should be evaluated as new data become available. Furthermore, because neonatal rodents are resistant to the hypoxia-inducing effects of CO 2 and require longer exposure times to the agent Artwohl et al.

It is essential that euthanasia be performed by personnel skilled in methods for the species in question and in a professional and compassionate manner. Special attention is required to ensure proficiency when a physical method of euthanasia is used. Death must be confirmed by personnel trained to recognize cessation of vital signs in the species being euthanized.

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A secondary method of euthanasia e. Euthanizing animals is psychologically difficult for some animal care, veterinary, and research personnel, particularly if they perform euthanasia repetitively or are emotionally attached to the animals being euthanized Arluke ; NRC ; Rollin ; Wolfle When delegating euthanasia responsibilities, supervisors should be sensitive to this issue.

Position Statement on Rodent Surgery. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the perioperative practice setting. Co-species housing in mice and rats: Effects on physiological and behavioural stress responsivity.

BOOK SERIES

Guidelines for training in surgical research with animals. J Invest Surg Role of the environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infection. Rev Infect Dis 13 Suppl Challenges in small animal noninvasive imaging. Experimental horizontal transmission of herpesvirus saimiri from squirrel monkeys to an owl monkey.

J Infect Dis Operating room air quality. Pain and distress in laboratory rodents and lagomorphs. Pathological changes associated with ovarian transplantation. Barrier materials, their influence on surgical wound infections. Textbook of Small Animal Surgery, 2nd ed. Guidelines for rodent survival surgery. Lurking in the shadows: Emerging rodent infectious diseases. Behavioral and physiological effects of inapparent wound infection in rats.

Lab Anim Sci Aseptic surgery for rodents. Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel.

Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference Series 15 Volume Set

Guidelines for animal surgery in research and teaching. Am J Vet Res Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: A comparison of four methods for sterilizing surgical instruments for rodent surgery. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci Considerations in the selection and conditioning of Old World monkeys for laboratory research: Animals from domestic sources.

Carstens E, Moberg GP. Recognizing pain and distress in laboratory animals. All instructor resources are now available on our Instructor Hub. The student resources previously accessed via GarlandScience. Books in The Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference Series serve as ready references for individuals involved in the husbandry and management of research animal facilities. Most titles provide a single source reference for a specific species, including information that a student, technician, or investigator would need for the humane care and employment of the indicated species in a research setting.

Halliday September 18, Key features Contains 28 updated tables designed as quick, easy-to-use references for New and Old World species Provides over photographs and illustrations, most now in color, depicting aspects of nonhuman primate biology, behavior, management practices, diseases, and technical procedures Gives Cholawat Pacharinsak, Jennifer C.

Smith April 10, Laboratory animals, including birds, play an important role in biomedical research. The humane care and management of these animals is an ongoing concern. A new addition to the acclaimed Laboratory Animal Pocket Reference series, The Laboratory Bird is the first publication dedicated to the care Claire Hankenson October 03, For critical care of laboratory rodents, there is a scarcity of sources for comprehensive, feasible, and response-oriented information on clinical interventions specific to spontaneous and induced models of disease.

With the more complex cases that need critical care management, many treatment Patrick Sharp, Jason S. Villano December 11, Rats have long been recognized as a valuable biomedical research model, notably in the investigation of aging, toxicology, addiction, and common human diseases such as diabetes and hypertension.

In many instances, individuals conducting such research studies are charged with important Suckow, Cory Brayton September 25, Mice have long been recognized as a valuable tool for investigating the genetic and physiological bases of human diseases such as diabetes, infectious disease, cancer, heart disease, and a wide array of neurological disorders.

With the advent of transgenic and other genetic engineering technologies