Urkunden und bekennen hiermit: Da die Verfassungs-Urkunde Unseres Reiches vom Mai in der Fassung des Gesetzes vom 4. Bereinigte Sammlung des Bayerischen Landesrechtes.
Synonyms and antonyms of Pavia in the German dictionary of synonyms
For the full text, see also the Verhandlungen des Bayerischen Landtags. Der Fonds hat die Rechtsstellung einer Stiftung des offentlichen Rechts. Several of his descendants played an important role under the Carolingians as margraves in the North and East, and as dukes of Carinthia, Swabia and Bavaria, Dalmatia and Merania. Luitpold's great-grandson Arnulf, duke of Bavaria, was the first to call himself counf of Scheyern, a title his line bore for more than two hundred years, even after Scheyern became a monastery in ; about that time the name "von Wittelsbach" appears for the first time.
Otto, count of Wittelsbach, was the first to hold the palatinate of Bavaria Pfazlgraf in Bayern , the second dignity after the duke Leopold of Babenberg, from His son Otto the Great d.
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The duchy of Bavaria never left the Wittelsbach family after that date. The duchy he received was not was it had once been: At Otto's death in his minor son Ludwig succeeded him under the regency of his uncles. In he inherited the lands of the burgraves of Regensburg; in , his first cousin Otto, palatine of Bavaria, was placed under the ban of the Empire for murdering the Emperor Philip of Swabia, the palatinate passed to count Rapoto of Ortenburg, and the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach was razed to the ground in atonement.
Philip's rival and successor Otto IV confirmed the heredity of the duchy of Bavaria which his father Henry the Lion had lost! Under the next emperor, Ludwig received the investiture in of the Palatinate of the Rhine, although he did not come into possession until after the marriage of his son Otto with Agnes, daughter of the previous Palatine and niece of Otto IV.http://www.camarillostemcell.com/wp-content/buncombe/644.php
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The Palatinate remained in the Wittelsbach family after that date. Ludwig's son and successor Otto II inherited in from the counts of Valai, another line of the counts of Scheyern and the only other agnates of the Wittelsbach. During his reign he also incorporated the domains of the counts of Bogen and the counts of Wassenburg into the duchy. Ludwig took the Palatinate by the Rhine, Upper Bavaria and the territories around the old burgraviate of Regensburg in the Nordgau, while the younger son Heinrich took Lower Bavaria with the capital in Landshut.
In the partition document, both brothers called themselves "Nos Ludovicus et Henricus, Dei gratia comites palatini Rheni, duces Bavariae" thus indicating that the dignities were shared equally by the brothers. In spite of the partition, disputes continued, in particular over the inheritance of their nephew Konradin of Hohenstaufen, who had made Ludwig his heir.
Another bone of contention was the electoral vote, and whether the duke of Bavaria should have one as the Palatine did. Ultimately, the line in Lower Bavaria became extinct in , after Heinrich's sons Otto and Stephan ruled jointly, and after them Stephan's sons Heinrich and Otto. Ludwig II left in two sons, Rudolf and Ludwig, who were the founders of the two main Wittelsbach lines. The elder son Rudolf initially ruled for his brother but was forced to share power from and a partition took place in A commission of ministerials divided the lands around Munich, in Swabia and in Austria in two equal parts with capitals in Munich and Ingolstadt, and the brothers drew lots Regensburg and the Palatinate were left undivided.
Rudolf received Munich and Ludwig received Ingolstadt. Disputes continued, and a new arrangement mediated by the Emperor led in to common rule again, with the electorate to Rudolf, and after his death to his brother.
Only after the death of both brothers would the lands pass to their sons, with the eldest one inheriting the electorate; should they refuse to rule jointly, the lands were to be divided equally, with whoever kept the electorate compensating the others. Rudolf died in and on Aug. The treaty of Pavia established the division between the Palatinate and Bavaria that was to last until the extinction of Ludwig's posterity in Rudolf received the Palatinate and most of the Nordgau which came to be called Upper Palatinate or Oberpfalz , while Ludwig kept Bavaria.
The electorate was to alternate between the two lines, beginning with the elder line of Rudolf the Golden Bull of fixed the electoral vote in the Palatine branch permanently. The two parts were to be ruled independently of each other, but remained joint patrimony of the Wittelsbach, could not be alienated, and each branch remained heir to the other in case of extinction in male line.
Bavaria to Follow Miroslav Marek's table. Emperor Ludwig IV signed on Jul 1, a treaty with his sons, requiring them never to alienate their lands, and to avoid partition if possible, or at least for 20 years after his death: He died in , leaving six sons, the eldest three ruling for the others, but the usual tensions soon surfaced and a partition was carried out on Sep 13, All the emperor's lands were included, with the march of Brandenburg which he had conferred on his son Ludwig, as well as the provinces of Holland, Zeeland, Frisia and Hennegau which his second wife brought to their children.
Two shares were made: Upper Bavaria and Brandenburg went to Ludwig of Brandenburg d. Lands were lost one after the other: Brandenburg was lost by Otto in , Tyrol whose heiress Ludwig of Brandenburg married in at the death of Ludwig's son Meinhard. The Dutch lands passed after the extinction of Albrecht's male line in to the dukes of Burgundy; the territory of Straubing, which that line also held, was the subject of a dispute until it was divided equally between surviving agnates in by the Emperor. Meanwhile, in Lower Bavaria was also divided but later reunited in Stephan's issue, the only surviving male line of Emperor Ludwig IV.
Partition from to Stephan left three sons, who ruled jointly Lower Bavaria until Nov 24, , when they partitioned their lands and drew lots. This partition led to the three lines: Stephan II received Ingolstadt extinct Friedrich received Landshut extinct and his line captured almost all the Ingolstadt inheritance; Johann received Munich. Landshut after Landshut-Ingolstadt was ruled by a succession of only sons and thus avoided partition. The last of the line, Georg the Rich, wrote at Friedrichsburg in Worms a testament on Sep 19, , whereby he named his only surviving child Elisabeth as his universal heir; she married Ruprecht, son of the Palatine Elector Philip.
Their issue were to succeed, but in default of issue all lands were to pass to Philip. The representations of his advisers including chancellor Kolberger , and of his cousins in Munich, even of the Emperor Maximilian, who refused to approve the will, were of no use. Georg died on Dec. A major assembly was called on Feb. Lamparter pleading for the agnates, arguing the pacts of and and Bavarian custom, and Leonhard von Eglofstein for the Elector Palatine, arguing Roman law and freedom to testate, and the natural equality of sons and daughters.
The Emperor found on Apr 23 for the Bavarian agnates, but Philip refused to accept the decision, went to war, and was put under the ban of the Empire. During the war both Ruprecht and Elisabeth died on Aug 20 and Sep 15, , leaving minor sons. Peace negotiations led to a Reichstag in Cologne, ending with a decision on July 30, The young sons of Ruprecht and Elisabeth received Neuburg and lands on the left bank of the Danube up to an annual income of 24, Gulden, the rest went to the dukes of Bavaria Albrecht and Wolfgang.
Further difficulties in implementing the decision led to a treaty in Freysing on Feb 25, and a final settlement in One of the sons, Otto Friedrich, would later inherit the Electorate. Reunification and the introduction of primogeniture Johann, who founded the Munich line, was followed by his two sons who ruled jointly, and after the rapid extinction of one son's line the other ruled alone.
Albrecht III had 5 sons and wanted to avoid partition, but did not introduce primogeniture and instead required his two eldest sons to rule jointly. This proved to be the source of unending quarrels, and it is only when the five sons were reduced to two, Albrecht IV the Wise and the unmarried Wolfgang, that it was possible to introduce primogeniture. On June 24, the two dukes brought together the Bavarian estates as well as those of lands they had inherited and proposed a primogeniture sanction, whose definitive text of July 8, is below.
Wolfgang renounced all his claims to any share of the Bavarian inheritance in exchange for lifetime enjoyment of certain districts and a specified money rent. The two dukes set for themselves and their issue the rule that the duchy should remain indivisible and be inherited by a single duke, by male primogeniture; all other agnates would bear the title of counts and be entitled to an annual pension, and would be the subjects of the duke.
The estates of Bavaria-Landshut ratified a few days later.
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After Albrecht IV's death, however, he was succeeded by his eldest son Wilhelm IV but the latter's brother Ludwig asked for a partition, and a treaty of decided that the duchy remained whole but its government was divided: In a secret article Ludwig promised not to marry, and he died unmarried in Likewise indivisibility and primogeniture were restated in Albrecht V's will of Apr 11, confirmed by the Emperor on July 10, Albrecht V left three sons, the middle one became archbishop of Cologne, the youngest Ferdinand married a commoner, Maria Pettenbeck.
On this occasion he signed an agreement with his eldest brother Wilhelm V where he recognized primogeniture and accepted a reduced annual pension for the issue of his unequal marriage, but that issue was guaranteed succession to Bavaria in case of extinction of Wilhelm's line and in the absence of any issue of another marriage of Ferdinand.
The issue of that marriage, the counts of Wartenberg, died out in , before Wilhelm's line did in Wilhelm V abdicated in and devoted himself to a religious life. Under Maximilian I, Bavaria reached new heights of power. As a result of the Elector Palatine's acceptance of the Bohemian throne in defiance of the Emperor, the electoral vote of the Palatinate was transferred to Bavaria This transfer, as well as the acquisition of the Upper Palatinate, was confirmed at the peace of Westphalia in ; only after extinction of the Bavarian line would the vote and Upper Palatinate be returned to the Rudolfine line of the Wittelsbach an 8th electoral vote was created for the Palatinate.
Otherwise, Maximilian I reiterated primogeniture in his will of Feb 1, and codicil of June 5, Bavaria found itself involved in several wars. One arrangement devised for Carlos's succession had Joseph Clemens inheriting a share of Spanish possessions, but his death in put an end to this plan. The elector was placed under the ban in and his lands confiscated, but returned at the peace of Rastatt in Carl Albrecht's claim was based partly on his wife, daughter of Karl VI's elder brother Joseph, who had priority as Regredienterb and according to the terms of the Austrian pact of ; partly on his descent from a daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I who had renounced her rights until extinction of the male line of Austria.
At the Emperor's death Bavaria and the Palatinate immediately began exercising the imperial vicariate jointly, and Carl Albrecht simultaneously made his claims and became candidate for the Imperial throne. The ensuing war of Austrian Succession was not favorable to him, however, and he lost his lands in and died in His son Maximilian Joseph succeeded him, two months shy of his 18th birthday and courtesy of an emancipation by his father as Emperor and became imperial Vicar. A few months later on April 22 he signed a treaty with Austria: In the Elector of Bavaria's only male relative died, and he was now the last of the Bavarian line.
To ensure the smooth inheritance of all his lands by his kinsman the Elector Palatine a series of treaties were concluded on Sep. Maximilian Joseph died in Palatinate to Follow Miroslav Marek's table.
By the treaty of Pavia of , the children of Rudolf received what came to be known as the Palatinate, consisting of three distinct elements: The surviving sons of Rudolf ruled jointly, with Rudolf holding the electorate first, then after his death Ruprecht, and only after his death Ruprecht II. Even he could not introduce primogeniture, but in his will he appointed seven of his most trusted advisers to manage the partition among his sons after his death in This portion was to remain attached to the electoral dignity foreve and went to his eldest son Ludwig.
Ludwig, the Electoral line, extinct Johann, in the Upper Palatinate, ext. But Ludwig IV died early, in , leaving a young son Philipp, and Friedrich usurped the electoral dignity and government of the Palatinate, with the assent of an assembly of notables called to that effect in To mitigate his usurpation, he adopted his nephew and promised never to marry. Ludwig V died childless and, by the lineal primogeniture set forth in the privilege of , the electorate should have passed to Otto Heinrich, representative of his father Ruprecht; but Philipp's testament had specified otherwise, as had a treaty of endorsed by the two sons of Ruprecht and approved by the Emperor in Consequently Frierdich the Wise succeeded; he introduced the Reformation in his lands in ; after his death without issue Otto Heinrich succeeded and was the last of the old electoral line.
But Johann II had three sons see Miroslav Marek's table , and when the family embraced Protestantism the ecclesiastical route for taking care of younger sons was lost. When the eldest Friedrich inherited the Electorate from the senior line in , he left Simmern to his brother Georg d. Friedrich had one younger son Johann Casimir, to whom he gave Lautern line extinct Ludwig VI had only one son Friedrich IV who in turn had two sons, the younger received Lautern and Simmern and his line ended The older son Friedrich V started the Thrity Years War by accepting the crown offered by the Bohemian estates in , and lost his territories and his electorate.
His son Karl Ludwig was restored to most of his father's territories except for the Upper Palatinate, and the electorate, given to Bavaria; an eight electorate was created for him at the peace of Westphalia The peace also introduced indivisibility and primogeniture for all the lands in his line, not just the electoral lands, and as his brothers did not protest this dates as the introduction of primogeniture in the Rudolfine line. In , when the Lautern line became extinct, the Simmern electoral line was reduced to Karl Ludwig, his aged and unmarried brother Prince Rupert, and his son Karl.
After Kaspar's dath Alexander introduced primogeniture, but this did not take hold as a house law since his two sons partitioned the inheritance, the younger one Ruprecht taking Veldenz Ruprecht's son partitioned in three: Alexander's older son Ludwig had only one son Wolfgang who became a Protestant and received from the Elector Otto Heinrich the principality of Neuburg inherited from the Bavarian line after the Landshut succession dispute of The partition was approved by the Emperor in The lines were thus Philipp Ludwig in Neuburg: Wolfgang Wilhelm received Neuburg, August received Sulzbach which had returned to the Neuburg branch , and Johann Friedrich who died childless received Hilpolstein.
As son of the eldest living sister of the last duke, he claimed a better right than the daughter of the eldest-born sister, who was married to the elector of Brandenburg. The agreement of , confirmed in , divided the inheritance: Wolfgang Wilhelm, who converted to catholicism, was succeeded by his only son Philipp Wilhelm who inherited the Electorate from the Simmern line in The Veldenz line claimed the inheritance as being one degree closer to the last Elector, arguing that the right of representation in the Golden Bull of applied only to place sons before brothers, but for more distant relatives degree came first.
This claim did not have much support, as the principle of lineal representation was firmly entrenched. Louis XIV, however, had an army, and he used it ruthlessly to enforce his claims. In aprile l'azienda sanitaria di Pavia bandisce un concorso per un ruolo amministrativo nel settore veterinario. Gli ammessi alla graduatoria sono 64, e svolgono Pavia , arrestato l'ad della storica cantina per bancarotta e riciclaggio.
I finanzieri del comando provinciale della guardia di finanza di Pavia hanno arrestato Abele Lanzanova, amministratore delegato della Cantina La Versa S. Franco Combi e dalla dottoressa Il Pavia passa di mano per la cifra simbolica di un euro. Gomorra arriva a Pavia , sgominata banda che esaltava le proprie I carabinieri di Pavia hanno sgominato una banda di italiani dedita a traffico d'armi, estorsioni e rapine. Ispirandosi ai personaggi criminali di una fiction Pavia , abusi su una paziente di tredici anni: Quanto stridono, riascoltate oggi, le parole di Antonio Maria Ricci, dirigente della clinica pediatrica del San Matteo di Pavia , arrestato con l'accusa di aver Pavia , uccide la compagna e spara alla figlia 12enne della donna L'ultimo femminicidio va in scena a Dorno, in provincia di Pavia , a casa di Emanuela Preceruti, 44 anni, uccisa con almeno sei proiettili mentre, abbracciata alla German words that begin with p.
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