Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Aug 24, See Article History. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: However, the sunflower is problematic because all available evidence is for its domestication in eastern North America, suggesting that the Mexican specimens may belong to another species. Low-density, highly mobile Preceramic populations….
Sunflower is another crop that was domesticated in the East.
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- Soviet sunflowers.
Small wild sunflower fruits are reported from the Koster site in an occupation dating to about bp. By bp at the Hayes site in Tennessee, larger domesticated sunflower fruits are reported. Asteraceae , the aster, daisy, or composite family of the flowering-plant order Asterales. With more than 1, genera and 23, species of herbs, shrubs, and trees distributed throughout the world, Asteraceae is one of the largest plant families. Asteraceae is important primarily for its many garden ornamentals, such as….
Seed , the characteristic reproductive body of both angiosperms flowering plants and gymnosperms e. Essentially, a seed consists of a miniature undeveloped plant the embryo , which, alone or in the company of stored food for its early development after germination, is surrounded by a protective coat the…. Jerusalem artichoke , Helianthus tuberosus , sunflower species Asteraceae family native to North America and noted for its edible tubers. Jerusalem artichoke is popular as a cooked vegetable in Europe and has long been cultivated in France as a stock feed.
In the United States it is rarely cultivated,…. More About Sunflower 2 references found in Britannica articles Assorted References origins of agriculture In origins of agriculture: Mesoamerica In origins of agriculture: Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article!multiphp-nginx.prometstaging.com/195.php
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Thank You for Your Contribution! There was a problem with your submission. Soviet sunflower seeds even got mixed up with the Cold War — high-quality seeds surreptitiously moved among Soviet and American plant breeders. Soviet sunflower breeders used naturally occurring variation within the annual sunflower to make commercial progress. But by the mid 20th century, North American breeders were taking a different approach, crossing wild and cultivated sunflower species to exploit the yield advantages associated with hybrid vigour.
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Today, most commercial sunflower farmers grow hybrid sunflower seed. Hybrid sunflower seed can be made by slowly, meticulously and expensively emasculating individual flowers to create females, which are then pollinated by hand. Alternatively, mutant sunflowers, incapable of producing fertile pollen, are used as female parents in hybrid crosses.
Insects are essential for producing the vast quantities of the hybrid sunflower seed planted each year, since pollen must be transferred from male-fertile to male-sterile plants.
Without insects, hybrid sunflower seed production would be uneconomic. But new seeds will have to be purchased for the next season. Sunflower breeding continues in earnest today. New demands are placed on breeders by the environments in which farmers want to grow sunflowers and by consumers in the ways they want to use the harvest. Height, for example, is something every child wants their sunflower to achieve. But to the farmer, tall sunflowers must be avoided.
Energy used to push up stems cannot be used to make seeds. And heavy rains and strong winds will knock over tall, top-heavy plants. The dramatic changes of form and use of sunflowers over the last century show what can be achieved by breeders if suitable genetic resources are available. If we continue to adapt sunflowers to our needs as climates change, we must ensure diverse genes are conserved for future generations — ensuring those sunflower fields remain on offer as the perfect place to take a picture. Being Well Together — Manchester, Manchester.
In conversation with Emma Butt — York, York. Available editions United Kingdom.
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Stephen Harris , University of Oxford. Wikimedia Commons The growth in their prevalence — and that of sunflower selfie snaps — is largely due to their ballooning use for oil. The Conversation is a non-profit. Help knowledge-based, ethical journalism today. Scanned from 'The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Egypt'. Is Serena Williams right? Events Evidence to Action: Expert Database Find experts with knowledge in: