9782035859167 - Phedre [ Petites Classiques Larousse ] (French Edition) by Jean Racine
Racine was quick to point out that his greatest critics — his rival dramatists — were among the biggest offenders in this respect. Racine's response was that the greatest tragedy does not necessarily consist in bloodshed and death. Racine restricts his vocabulary to words. The unities are strictly observed, for only the final stage of a prolonged crisis is described.
The number of characters, all of them royal, is kept down to the barest minimum. Action on stage is all but eliminated. The mangled Hippolyte is not brought back, as is the Hippolytus of Euripides. The one exception to this is that Atalide stabs herself before the audience in Bajazet ; but this is acceptable in a play conspicuous for its savagery and Oriental colour. Tragedy shows how men fall from prosperity to disaster.
The higher the position from which the hero falls, the greater, in a sense, is the tragedy. Greek tragedy, from which Racine borrowed so plentifully, tended to assume that humanity was under the control of gods indifferent to its sufferings and aspirations. A Jansenist by birth and education, Racine was deeply influenced by its sense of fatalism. Instead, destiny becomes at least, in the secular plays the uncontrollable frenzy of unrequited love. As already in the works of Euripides , the gods have become symbolic.
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In a second important respect, Racine is at variance with the Greek pattern of tragedy. His tragic characters are aware of, but can do nothing to overcome, the blemish which leads them on to a catastrophe. Hermione's situation is rather closer to that of Greek tragedy.
Her love for Pyrrhus is perfectly natural and is not in itself a flaw of character. But despite her extraordinary lucidity II 1; V 1 in analysing her violently fluctuating states of mind, she is blind to the fact that the King does not really love her III 3 , and this weakness on her part, which leads directly to the tragic peripeteia of III 7, is the hamartia from which the tragic outcome arises.
For Racine, love closely resembles a physiological disorder.
It is a fatal illness with alternating moods of calm and crisis, and with deceptive hopes of recovery or fulfilment Andromaque , ll. His main characters are monsters, and stand out in glaring contrast to the regularity of the plays' structure and versification. Her love is not founded upon esteem of the beloved and a concern for his happiness and welfare, but is essentially selfish.
Racine's most distinctive contribution to literature is his conception of the ambivalence of love: The passion of these lovers is totally destructive of their dignity as human beings, and usually kills them or deprives them of their reason. Orestes' duties as an ambassador are subordinate to his aspirations as a lover, and he finally murders the king to whom he has been sent.
The characteristic Racinian framework is that of the eternal triangle: Bajazet and Atalide are prevented from marrying by the jealousy of Roxane. Pyrrhus forces Andromaque to choose between marrying him and seeing her son killed. Mithridate discovers Pharnace's love for Monime by spreading a false rumour of his own death. Dying, he unites the two lovers. In his all-too-human blindness, he condemns to death his own son on a charge of which he is innocent.
Only Amurat does not actually appear on stage, and yet his presence is constantly felt. His intervention by means of the letter condemning Bajazet to death IV 3 precipitates the catastrophe. The queen shows greater variations from play to play than anyone else, and is always the most carefully delineated character. Roxane, the fiercest and bravest in Racine's gallery of queens, has no compunction in ordering Bajazet's death and indeed banishes him from her presence even before he has finished justifying himself.
The confidants' primary function is to make monologues unnecessary. Only very rarely do they further the action.
ISBN - Phedre [ Petites Classiques Larousse ] (French Edition) | afeditamyb.tk
They invariably reflect the character of their masters and mistresses. But Narcisse is more than a reflection: Burrhus, on the other hand, is the conventional "good angel" of the medieval morality play. He is a much less colourful character than his opposite number. Racine observes the dramatic unities more closely than the Greek tragedians had done. The philosopher Aristotle points out the ways in which tragedy differs from epic poetry:. Writing centuries after the great Attic tragedians and using their works as a basis for generalization, he does not insist that the action of a tragedy must be confined to a single revolution of the sun, or that it must take place in one locality.
He merely says that this limitation was often practised by writers of tragedy, but he well knew that there were many plays in which no such limitation existed. Nor was the unity of place a general feature of Attic tragedy. But the circumstances of the Greek theatre, which had no curtain and no distinctive scenery and in which the chorus almost always remained on stage throughout the play, were such that it was frequently desirable to confine the action to a single day and a single place. The only rule which Aristotle lays down concerning the dramatic action is  that, in common with all other forms of art, a tragedy must have an internal unity, so that every part of it is in an organic relationship to the whole and no part can be changed or left out without detracting from the economy of the play.
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No dramatic critic has ever dissented from this unity of action ; [ citation needed ] but the unities of time and place were in fact read into the Poetics by theoreticians of the New Learning Jean de La Taille and other writers Jean Vauquelin de la Fresnaye and Jean Mairet. The support which the unities received from Cardinal Richelieu eventually secured their complete triumph and Pierre Corneille , who had not conformed to them in his earlier plays, did so from the time of Le Cid onwards.
But even he found them a tiresome imposition. These discrepancies — and others besides, which Corneille admits to in his Examen of the play — are obvious even to the most inattentive spectator. Mithridate -- Iphigenie en Aulide -- Phedre. Former owner's name on series title page: In Very Good Condition: Printed at the Grabhorn Press for John Howell Trnaslated from the French of Racine by Agnes Tobin. One of copies. Farrar Straus Giroux Fine in a fine dustwrapper.
A new translation by Ted Hughes. Advance copy with publisher's material laid in. Editions Pierre Tisne VG Case slightly worn at extremities; Light foxing to case and wraps; Bottom right corners bent slightly upward. Off-white carboard clamshell case; Off-white illus. Text in French; Jean Racine's drama Phedre a play in five acts; Wonderful illustrations by French illustrator Jean Hugo; Number of numbered copies of this edition.
Farrar Straus and Giroux Translated by Ted Hughes. Princeton University Press Translated into English srhyming verse with introductions and notes by Lacy Lockert. Mottled green cloth backed in gilt-stamped green morocco a. Boards rubbed; small splatter of white paint on upper board; some light scuffing at spine tips along joints and edges of boards; corners lightly bumped.
A nice reading copy. Contemporary full tree calf covers with gilt-rolled borders marbled endpapers gilt spines with red and green leather labels. Very pretty set in contemporary binding. Lovely little collection of works by the son of the great tragedian. Memoires sur la vie de Jean Racine; Vol. Chez Deterville de l'Imprimerie de Didot jeune Portrait by Santerre engraved by Gaucher plus 12 engraved plates after drawings by Lebarbier.
Full red straight-grained contemporary french morocco gilt-lettered spines marbled endpapers a. Some minor rubbing to extremities else fine internally fresh copy. Ex Libris with book plates to front end pages call number to foot of spine and pocket to rear paste down. Wear to spine ends and and edges. The Book House - St. Editions de la Table Ronde Few illustrations by Jacques Villon Brassai and others. Les Editions de la Table Ronde Number of copies printed. Thick 12mos magnificently bound by Trautz-Bauzonnet in full crimson morocco with ornately gilt spines and elaborate leather doublures; marbled endpapers; all edges gilt.
Pages evenly toned but still a fine clean copy in a deluxe binding. Racine avec les notes de tous les commentateurs. Librairie de Firmin Didot Bound in contemporary red half morocco over marbled boards. Binding shelf worn and scuffed at extremities. Upper joint starting on volume II; joints a bit tender.
Red and black texted decorative boarded title; pencil marked. Ink signature on cover of Esther Topkis. Try adding this search to your want list.
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