At that time, the surrealist group was reaching a turning 9 point. The first Surrealist Manifesto was already nine years old. Scandals, excesses, and free-for-alls were no longer in style. In- curable despair, fury, and sanctioned sabotage were all in the distant past. People had stopped talking about the memorable sessions of "automatic writing, hypnotic sleep, and the telling of dreams," destined to nourish — or so Breton hoped— all fu- ture poetry.
Within a few years, that source, held to be miracu- lous, inexhaustible, "within everyone's reach," had dried up. Although Breton was still successfully extracting images from it for his poetry, most surrealist poets had turned away from these exercises in verbal delirium. As for the inherent contra- diction within the movement, which had been tearing it apart for ten years, the breaking point had been reached. Divided be- tween revolution and revelation, Breton was forever fighting on two fronts, caught between political action and artistic cre- ation. Social commitment, which he considered "dishonor- able," nonetheless held an attraction for him.
And although he denounced the "vanity" of all artistic or literary activity, it was to no avail; unbeknownst to him, he was still laying the founda- tions for a new school of art. The unending conflict between these two poles constituted the whole lively history of surreal- ism. Only Breton's powerful personality could maintain the precarious balance — compromised and shattered at every mo- ment — by excluding from the movement, by turns, both "agita- tors" impatient to launch the social revolution and artists or poets eager to "arrive," to make a name for themselves, sign contracts, make money.
During the first decade of surrealism, Breton's excommunications of deviationists on the Right and Left, and the various waves of exclusion, gradually thinned the ranks. The creme de la creme of artists and poets, once praised to the skies, were eliminated or escaped on their own from Breton's yoke. Burdened with new responsibilities, Breton and Paul Eluard had to try to consolidate the foundations of the movement.
That was going to require a few concessions. Although they were able to sustain the surrealist spirit in 20 Minotaure, they had to give up the combativeness that had once characterized their reviews. And that sumptuous publication, printed in a limited edition of three thousand copies — the other issues were limited to fifteen hundred — inaccessible to proletarian pocketbooks, could be addressed only to the de- spised bourgeoisie, to a milieu of titled and monied arbiters of taste, the first patrons and collectors of surrealist works.
Was accepting that collaboration — that collusion — with "capitalism" not betraying one's principles, selling out? These questions were debated at length before Skira and Teriade's offer was ac- cepted. But, faced with the eternal alternative of surrealism: With Minotaure, there was no longer a "radical break with the world" but rather the great entrance of surrealist art and poetry into the world and even into the world of high society. One morning, a man of about forty, tall and proud in his bearing, dressed in a well-cut suit, entered the office of Mino- taure.
His clear, limpid, wide-open, azure blue eyes expressed a slightly feminine tenderness and sweetness, under a high fore- head and within the pink carnation of a long, curiously asym- metrical face. Ease, litheness, and an undefinable fragility ema- nated from his whole being. Yet there was a hint of resignation in his smiling face. His soft-spoken and slightly husky voice — so direct, so captivating — pronounced his name: The hand he held out to me was trem- bling.
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A short time later, I learned from his own mouth that, despite an appearance of health, he had been ill and had es- caped death only by a tenacious will to survive. At age seven- teen, he had suffered a pneumothorax and, since then, he lived preoccupied with his health, almost a convalescent. In this same Minotaure office, I met Breton for the first time. Although he was no longer wearing a monocle or dark glasses, as he did during the heroic age of the movement, 1 did recognize him.
With his regular features, straight nose, light- colored eyes, and artist's mane, which fell back off his forehead and onto his neck in curls, he looked like an Oscar Wilde trans- formed hormonally into someone more energetic, more male. To me, Eluard suggested Apollo, but Breton looked like Jupiter in per- son. Only later, when our relationship became friendly, was I able to notice that this man of such great serenity was not insen- sitive to humor.
I recall an afternoon spent at his home on 42, rue Fontaine, in the extraordinary ambiance of his lair, filled with fetishes from Africa, masks from Oceania, rare or strange objects, surrealist paintings and sculptures; there, for hours on end, he read me stories by Alphonse Allais, who had re- cently been enthroned among the patron saints of surrealism. Each of these little melodramas, so comical, so nasty, some- times incredibly cruel, has remained with me.
Breton acted out all the roles, imitated the voices of characters, gave an inflection to each phrase, to each word. I still see the com- plicitous winks, his face radiating contentment to be intro- ducing me to the arcana of black humor. He was truly in his element. But although he masterfully manipulated irony, sarcasm, acerbic jokes, vengeful weapons directed against oth- ers, I do not think that real humor — sparkling, pleasant, all- encompassing, depriving the world of its gravity and fatality — would be within his reach.
He took his doctrine, his works, his every action, too seriously to allow for humor, which, like char- ity, begins at home. In every circumstance of his life, Breton could not help taking himself seriously. According to the modus vivendi worked out with the direc- tors of Minotaure, the surrealists were not the sole masters on board. Although free to insert texts, subject matter, and im- ages as they liked, they had no right to veto what did not suit them. I recall a text by Maurice Raynal, "God-Table-Pitcher, " devoted to several sculptors, which led to bitter arguments.
They hated the cubists and fauves. Certain writings were also the subject of disputes. Pierre Reverdy did not meet with any opposition. I already knew him, since I had met him at Le Grand Ecart, the fashionable nightclub where he held court every evening. Even though he was not in the surrealists' good graces, he had brought a manuscript to the review — "Pigeondre" — and wanted me to illustrate it with a photograph of his hand clasping a woman's hand.
It contained in germ, or already in full flower, everything that burst forth in art, poetry, or literature twenty or thirty years later. Despite collaboration with other currents, it was the spicy flavor of surrealism that permeated the magazine, whose more classical aspects, far from ruining it, in fact set it off. Until then, I had had only individual contacts with a num- ber of surrealist poets and painters, most of whom were no longer part of the group. Suddenly, I was thrust into their move- ment. I loved the fever of discovery beyond the beaten path of art and science, the curiosity about prospecting new lodes, the mental electricity with which the little Minotaure office was al- ways charged; there Breton stimulated minds.
I agreed with the surrealists that poetry has no permanent address, it does not necessarily inhabit the poem, one can run into it in the street, on the wall, anywhere at all. And I had shared part of the jour- ney with the brain trust of the irrational mind. In person or in his letters, in his neat, minuscule handwriting in green ink on blue paper, Breton often asked me to come see him on rue Fontaine or at the Cafe Cyrano on place Blanche, where surre- alists got together on a regular basis.
Despite my great regard for him, our relationship, though amicable, remained distant. Too many things about that movement put me off. They were in some sense the plastic replicas of the Studio paintings of ig27 — 28, bodies reduced to mere schemata. Here, Picasso pushed abstraction to its far limits, as if he wanted to cut himself off from any attachment to reality. They could have been taken for the works of some "constructivist, " were it not for the fact that the presence of the human body could be felt in each one of them.
Tripods might still suggest legs, a disk the belly, a ball the head. For lack of time, I was able to photo- graph only four or five of these small metal constructions, but there were others covered with dust on a shelf next to bottles of linseed oil, turpentine, and hydrochloric acid.
In Olga's apartment, on a mantel next to Kneeling Woman, a small bronze from the blue period, stood a strange piece of wrought iron, tall and skeletal, a sort of fan wearing a fur hat and topped with a small clown; a long, pointed iron foot, the sort cobblers were still using, formed its base. Picasso had dec- orated this "Christmas tree" with all kinds of souvenirs: Next to a pot, the tormented roots of a philodendron were peeking up; its stalk, with all its leaves amputated, bore at its summit a ram's horn and a red feather duster.
But most of Picasso's sculptures were in Boisgeloup, and he proposed to take us there in his car. As I was leaving, he recommended I bring a large number of photo- graphic plates with me. I was already familiar with some of his bronzes from the "blue period" and with his cubist woodcuts.
But sculpture was lurking like a virtuality deep within his paintings themselves, betraying his nostalgia for art in the round. For Picasso, a pe- riod of painting on a flat surface with a bright and varied pal- ette was regularly followed by a sculptural period with little color, almost monochrome, as if his canvases had been painted from some fictive sculpture. Drawing from Ingres and Ce- zanne, cubism — a reaction to impressionism's tendency to dis- solve volumes and the solidity of bodies into colored blotches, vibrations — was born under the aegis of an acute plasticity.
It was the handiwork of a man naturally drawn to the plenitude of forms. Cubism created the sensation of a rotating sculpture that offers its different aspects simultaneously. Yet curi- ously, despite his innate penchant, after the Glass of Absinthe in , Picasso almost completely abandoned sculpture for fif- teen years. We were among the first to see his new works. The next day around noon, under a dark December sky, I, along with Teriade, Olga, and Paulo, Picasso's eleven-year-old son, climbed into the monumental Hispano-Suiza, which was still brand new, all its brass work still gleaming.
The chauffeur, wearing white gloves, closed the door as gawkers looked on. That big black car — roomy, comfortable, elegant — with mirrors and flower vases inside, did not go unnoticed. We left Paris and headed toward Beauvais. Picasso had bought the property, he confided, because he was a bit tired of bringing the bulky harvest of his summer back to Paris every year from Dinard, Cannes, or Juan-les-Pins, was tired of rewrapping and unwrapping canvases, paints, paint- brushes, sketchbooks, all the gear of his traveling studio.
In Boisgeloup, he could leave his things there. Just before reaching Gisors, the Hispano-Suiza veered to the left and onto a small communal road.
Full text of "Brassai Conversations With Picasso"
A signpost indi- cated: Picasso gave us the owner's tour at a dead run. It was an odd castle: Picasso himself lived with Olga and Paulo in two small rooms in the attic. We also dashed through the small ramshackle chapel, entirely cov- ered with ivy. Picasso explained it was from the thirteenth cen- tury and that mass was still sometimes celebrated there.
But we were in a hurry. I imagine that, when he visited the property for the first time, it was less the little castle that appealed to him than these vast empty outbuildings to be filled. He could finally satisfy a desire that had long been suppressed: He opened the door of one of these large stalls, and we were able to see the dazzling whiteness of an entire people of sculp- tures. I was surprised by the roundness of all these forms.
It was because a new woman had entered Picasso's life: Her youth, gaiety, laughter, and playful nature had seduced him. He liked her blonde hair, her luminous complexion, her sculptured body. After that day, all his paintings began to undulate. Like the contrast between the flat surface and the modeled, in Picasso straight, angular lines often interfere with curved lines, softness replaces hard- ness, tenderness takes the place of violence.
At no other time in his life did his paintings become so rippling, full of sinuous curves, serpentine arms, whorls of hair. Most of the statues I had in front of me bore the imprint of this new look, begin- ning with the large bust of Marie -Therese leaning forward, her head almost classical, with the straight line of the forehead run- ning straight into the nose, without a break.
That line came to invade his entire body of work. In the Sculptor's Studio series Pi- casso was engraving for Vollard — he had shown me a few prints l6 on rue La Boetie, a silent intimate moment between the artist and his model, full of sensuality and carnal pleasure — monu- mental, almost spherical heads also appeared in the back- ground.
So they were not invented! I was very surprised to find them here in flesh and blood, or rather, in the round, full of curves, the nose increasingly prominent, eyes shaped like balls, resembling some barbarian goddess. I attacked the sculptures and worked all afternoon without a break.
In addition to the large heads, there were a thousand other things, in particular, a magnificent rooster, its head cocked toward the bristling plume of its tail; and a cow with di- lated nostrils and twisted horns. Soon I came to my last frame. At the time, I was still using photographic plates. They were in- serted into the frame and were very heavy; I had enough for twenty-four photos. If I wanted to take more, I had to unload and reload them on site, in a black sack made of an opaque fab- ric which, equipped with two long handles, resembled a vam- pire.
I had to carry out that operation to continue. Hardly had I finished when night fell. You could not see a thing in the barn. Picasso lit a large oil lamp. Oddly enough, there was no electricity in the outbuildings. When dusk overtook him, he confided, he often had to work by that flickering light source. He was used to it. When he was young, he had often drawn by the light of a candle inserted into the neck of a bottle. The oil lamp, set on the dirt floor, projected fantastic shadows around these white statues.
To finish off, I took a photo of the "group" in that light. We were not done. In the dark night falling on Boisgeloup, Picasso insisted on taking us to the grounds where, on the edge of the wood, two of his wrought iron statues were erected. The larger one was called The Stag.
They had been produced the pre- vious year. Intrigued as always by every branch of arts and crafts unknown to him, impatient to try out their capabilities and his own with his two hands, Picasso had watched with curiosity as his friend Julio Gonzalez, a skilled wrought iron worker, struck and twisted the incandescent metal, and had asked him to initiate him in the arcana of iron and fire.
In the end, the apprentice surpassed his master. From that brief collabora- 17 tion, Gonzalez also emerged the richer: We were about to leave Boisgeloup. Someone turned on the headlights of the Hispano-Suiza. And it was by that oblique light that I took one last photo: As he was leaving us late in the night after that exhausting day, Picasso said: What could we see? Why don't we go to Medrano? It's been an eternity since I've gone. And we could take Paulo. Picasso got a ringside seat. I knew how much the circus, the world of acrobats and equestriennes, had always attracted him.
I thought of all the Pierrots, the Har- lequins, the acrobats, the masked clowns that this big top and ring had inspired in him. The evening was like all the others: Picasso was thrilled, utterly happy to sink back into the circus atmosphere, to breathe in the warm odor of the stables, of wet straw, the acrid smell of the animals. He laughed good-heartedly at the clowns, enjoyed their tomfoolery much more than his son, who was not cheered by anything, and his wife, who was distracted and taciturn.
During the intermission, we visited the stables. And Pi- casso told us about the circus. Whenever he had a little money, he confided, he had dinner with his friends and brought them here. Medrano was a short walk from his studio. The theater bored them stiff. They almost never went. I some- times spent several evenings a week there. That's where 1 saw 18 Grock for the first time. He was debuting with Antonet. I especially liked the clowns.
Sometimes we went back- stage, and stayed all evening to chat with them at the bar. And did you know that it was at Medrano that clowns began to give up their traditional costumes and to dress in burlesque out- fits? They could invent costumes, charac- ters, indulge their fantasies. I asked him if his first art dealer was really a Medrano clown. Clovis Sa- got was more like an antique dealer who also sold canvases.
But he was a real clown before appointing himself "art dealer" and renting a shop on rue Laffitte, near Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. His brother was an art publisher, which may explain his new choice of profession. Clovis Sagot, now there was a very, very hard man, almost a usurer. But sometimes when I was broke, I tucked a few canvases under my arm and I sold them to him.
That, by the way, is how Gertrude Stein's brother happened to see one of my paintings at his place. One day in that shop, I unearthed the large Douanier Rousseau you saw at my place. In the second part of the program that evening, there was a group of equilibrists: A few days later, when I visited Picasso, he pointed out a stack of canvases facing the wall and told me: I had caught Picasso red-handed in the act of inspira- tion. I was especially surprised because, that same evening at Medrano — or the next day when I returned — I myself had pho- tographed these same acrobats without suspecting Picasso would be taken by them.
The slow evolution of these athletic bodies under the multicolored spotlights, their fragile and au- dacious architecture, which collapsed almost as soon as it was 19 erected in space, impressed him so deeply that he painted a whole series of them. The acrobats, very recognizable in the first canvases, gradually disappeared as the composition be- came more condensed, more spare.
It was the first time I was able to see how, in his pursuit of a more profound resem- blance, Picasso purified his subject matter down to its essential and identifying traits. The last canvas in the series was almost abstract. A daring transposition had occurred.
Yet it still cap- tured the very particular atmosphere of the circus, with the lu- minous oval of the ring, the shining stars on the big top can- opy, the audience in semidarkness. The group of acrobats was reduced to an ideogram vibrating in the beam of the spot- lights. Mme Picasso took me aside: Now that he knows you well and is used to seeing you work, he might be willing to pose without breaking down. The same day, I also did a portrait of Pi- casso. Back then, when I photographed someone, 1 took only a single shot. I thought — rightly or wrongly — that by concentrat- ing on a single portrait I could better capture the subject than if I took several dozen shots, as is the usual practice today.
We were in one of the back rooms, where, set on the floor next to the fireplace, frameless, the monumental figure of Yadwigha held court. Rousseau had painted her wearing a dark dress and standing in the recess of a window, behind a heavy curtain, with the view of fortifications serving as a backdrop. That was about , and with this painting, unearthed in the antique shop, Picasso discovered Le Douanier Rousseau. Yadwigha, the lovely Polish instructor, was something of the naive painter's muse, the only woman devoted enough to pose nude for him. He painted her as Eve in Paradise, standing in profile, taking the apple the serpent and tempter held out to her.
He painted her lying dreamily on a red sofa, transported to the magic spells and terrors of the virgin forest, amid gigantic leaves, bright greenery, dark liana, and long reeds, surrounded by 20 These pages," Piles of paintings, mysterious bundles with a few. Picasso explained it was from the thirteenth century and that mass was still sometimes celebrated there.
This was The Dream, one of the strangest works by Le Douanier Rousseau, who was also a poet when he chose to be: Yadwigha dans un beau reve, S'etant endormie doucement, Entendait les sons d'une musette D'un charmeur bien-pensant, Pendant que la lune reflete Sur des fleurs des arbres verdoyants, Les fauves serpents pretent l'oreille Aux airs gais de l'instrument.
Yadwigha in a beautiful dream, Having fallen into a gentle sleep, Heard the sounds of a musette, From a right-minded charmer, As the moon reflects Verdant trees on flowers, The wild serpents lend an ear To the gay tunes of the instrument. I wanted Yadwigha, who also presided over the banquet offered in honor of Le Douanier Rousseau at the Bateau- Lavoir, to be present in this portrait. Picasso wore a gray suit with a rather rumpled double- breasted jacket with misshapen pockets and stained lapels over a blue pullover sweater, plus a cardigan. The collar of his shirt was curled, unfolding like a petal.
But I could not bother with these details of clothing because I was so fascinated by the eyes trained on me. They appear enormous only because they have the odd ability to open wide, revealing the white sclera — some- times even above the iris — where light can reflect and sparkle. It is the wide eyelids that render his gaze fixed, mad, hallucina- tory. That is also why, with the pupils widely dilated, the iris, 3' normally a dark brown, seems so black. It is the eye of a visu- ally oriented man, and designed for perpetual astonishment.
Schopenhauer was struck by a similar shape to Goethe's eye. I have done many other portraits of Picasso since then, but this first, single portrait of is still my favorite. In it, Pi- casso emerges as a monolith with all the concentrated and con- densed force of his manhood. And everything centers on the blazing eyes, the stare that pierces you, subjugates you, devours you. Since Picasso had given me carte blanche, I photographed his recent paintings as he had assembled them for the "presen- tation"; his fireplace with vases repainted by his hand — the first trace of the attraction ceramic held for him; the tall towers of empty cigarette boxes, which he stacked on a daily basis one on top of another, never having the heart to throw them away; and a paper hat equipped with a long visor — he wore it to protect his eyes at night — set on a chair in the middle of the room.
I also took a photo of the view he saw from his studio: The controversy caused by Les demoiselles d'Avignon is well known: Pi- casso always claimed that the birth of cubism owed nothing to African fetishes, that he himself had seen African sculptures only after he had completed the canvas. It is purely coinciden- tal that what has wrongly been called his "Negro" period corres- ponded to the time when he discovered African statues and masks. The canvas he had painted during the night was still there, propped up against the wall.
With no concern for his comfort, he was work- ing on it away from his easel, his body doubled over, some- times sitting on the floor. He had set his canvas any which way, any place at all. The discomfort did not bother him; you might even say it stimulated him. One day, Picasso showed me a se- ries of drawings I was to photograph for Minotaure. He had just executed them in Boisgeloup. I like the picture and I tried to give an interpretation of it. But I'd hardly begun to draw it when it turned into something completely different.
Clearly, I knew this altarpiece full of pathos. But now, nothing identifiable was left from the distressing scene at Calvary except a few elements, a few allusions to the cross, to the dying body convulsed in agony, to the protagonists of the drama. Picasso had completely transfigured them. The mouth of Mary Magdalene had become a kind of gaping crater; the clasped fingers of her joined hands, a sea star. Sometimes the drawing was reduced to the almost abstract lines of force of the composition, sometimes it seemed that Picasso had taken plea- sure in reconstituting the panel with crustacean pincers and claws.
Few traces of religious emotion remained. Rather, there was a kind of humor — for example, the safety pin holding the drapery of the loincloth, a new Crucifixion attribute. He was no longer bowing to an influence, as he had earlier done when he was infatuated with Lautrec, Cezanne, El Greco, or Ingres. Now it is the old masters inspiring him that become Pi- cassos. With the Crucifixion, he inaugurated a kind of pictorial criticism with a brush, similar to an exhaustive literary criti- cism that seeks to extract the essence of a work.
In each case, one gets under the skin of a creator, penetrates the hard kernel of his personality, sheds light on what makes him unique, on the mystery of his idiom. The excesses of Picasso's lovingly ir- reverent pastiches, his verve, his humor, and his cruelty are the magnifying glass that reveals the "style under the brush.
All the objects and materials, however humble, left in his home are so many delayed-action bombs: Picasso found my little plate, touched it, sniffed it, fingered it, was intrigued, seduced by it. I do not know whether he was familiar with Corot's etch- ings on glass plates coated with gelatin; in any case, he did not resist for long the desire to attack that surface, smooth and even as the ice of a frozen lake. When I returned to his apart- ment the next day, or the day after, he impishly showed me the little forgotten plate, holding it between his thumb and index finger so that I could see its transparency.
And, in fact, it was no longer virgin. With a sharp point, his infinitely patient fingers had transformed it into a minus- cule "Picasso" measuring six by nine centimeters. I remember it well. It showed a woman's profile, similar to those in his paintings and sculptures of that period, inspired by Marie- Therese Walter.
It was a miniature variant of his major piece of work, painted in March of that same year, , and repro- duced in color in Minotaure. I offered to take the plate and make a "first state" from it. I have to work on it some more, " he said. I never saw it reproduced. Is it somewhere at the bottom of a crate? In any case, the idea of making original etch- ings on photographic plates, and the experiment itself, date from an era before the series of photogravures made in in collaboration with Dora Maar. The text accompanying my photos of Picasso's sculptures in Minotaure was by Andre Breton.
He had met the painter some time before the publication of the first Surrealist Manifesto. What set him apart from the category of so-called cubist painters, in whom we had little interest, was the lyricism that, very early on, led him to take great lib- erties with the close observation of reality that he and his comrades of the time had imposed upon themselves. Surrealists con- sidered this painting the forerunner of surrealist painting, already in keeping with the aesthetic championed by Breton: Even his Anatomy, variations on the female body, executed, it was said, with tiny woodwork- 35 ing instruments — perhaps the work of his closest to surreal- ism — could be said to have just as legitimate a predecessor in Arcimboldo and many French engravings, where figures of trade guilds were composed entirely of their respective tools.
No doubt his mind, freed from all the constraints of surreal- ism, along with his audacity and the admiration the group had for him, stimulated Picasso to "compare everything that exists with everything that may exist," as some of the things he said at the time attest: But even when he seems miles from reality, when he seems to be taking the greatest lib- erties with appearances, even when the work takes on the look of the fantastic or the surreal, there is a solid realism at its foundation.
In the interstices of the painting, the model is mysteriously present. It is a mistake to see Picasso as a surreal- ist painter. Breton believed that was the case and sometimes even admitted it.
He limited his "membership" to the year In , he wrote: I cling to resemblance, to a deeper resemblance, more real than the real, attaining the surreal. That is how I un- derstood surrealism, but the word was used in a completely different way. It is a dazzling text, but it has a glar- ingly surrealist bias, which leads Breton to say that Picasso the 36 painter has no "prejudice" about color, that Picasso the sculp- tor has no "prejudice" about materials, that he seeks "the per- ishable and ephemeral" from them.
Among a large number of paintings and objects Picasso showed me the other day, each more striking than the last in its freshness, intelligence, and life, there was a small, un- finished canvas, in the same format as the butterfly, with only a broad impasto occupying the center. Making sure it was dry, he explained that the subject of this canvas was to be a piece of excrement, something that would become clear once he had added the flies. He was only sorry that he had had to add paint to supplement what was lacking in the real dried excrement; and, to be precise, in those inimitable pieces he sometimes noticed out in the country, at the time of year when children bit into cherries without taking the trouble to throw away the pits.
It was altogether natural that Breton's attention was held by that unfinished piece of excrement more than by any other of Picasso's works, since Breton required of painting only pre- texts for "intellectual speculation. Only the idea of this extrapictorial painting had elicited a fit of lyrical exaltation in him, despite his "slight repugnance": Everything be- came cheerier; not only did I no longer recall having laid eyes on something disagreeable, but I was also somewhere else, where the sun was shining and life was good, among wild- flowers and dew: I moved freely deep into the woods.
One day, also in , I met a strange couple at Picasso's home: His blue- striped detachable collar and the knot in his red string tie betrayed his inclination to stand out in a crowd. The woman, of indeterminate age, with a boyish build, was thin, tiny, and very dark. Her chestnut brown eyes with their piercing gaze made her face oddly attractive. Picasso did the introductions: They had met two years earlier during a trip by a few surrealist friends to Cadaques.
Elena Dimi- trovni Diakonova, a capable but taciturn and secretive woman, nicknamed the "surrealist Muse," had been Paul Eluard's wife since I9 I 7- She already exerted an occult but significant influ- ence on the group and had greatly contributed to the success of Max Ernst. Eluard and Gala had come from Switzerland, where they had been to see an ailing Rene Crevel; when they too arrived in Cadaques, it was love at first sight.
Her mys- terious Slavic charm, her superior intelligence, her straight back did the trick. When the surrealists — Bunuel, Eluard, and the Magrittes — returned to Paris, Gala remained with Dali in the whitewashed house, "a sugar cube caught in honey," where he had spent his childhood. It was the beginning of a fierce attachment, an unparalleled idolatry. Dali had found "the Beatrice of his life. Picasso had seen Dali s work six years earlier at an avant-garde gallery in Barcelona; Dali was twenty- two at the time. Picasso had found them promising — one of the canvases, The Girl's Back, had particularly struck him — and had spoken about him to Paul Rosenberg and Pierre Loeb, who immedi- ately took a trip to Catalonia to meet the young painter.
This prospecting led nowhere. He stayed only a week. He visited Versailles, the Musee Grevin, and Picasso, whom he pre- ferred — as he said to flatter him — to the Louvre. He expressed his intense veneration and admiration, surpassed only by his boundless jealousy and hatred.
He found it intolerable that an artist other than himself could be "the greatest Spanish painter. He showed a great inter- est in his works and in him personally. When Dali settled in Paris shortly thereafter, Picasso continued to help him, to serve as his patron, introducing him to Gertrude Stein and other friends. Dali's anatomical organs, his pitch- forks supporting erotic, phallic forms, his embryos, bats, crutches, limp watches and flexible telephones, his lobsters, ants, and grasshoppers covering deserted beaches from Cape Creus to the jagged rocks, had paved his way into high society.
The "Dali phenomenon" was the heavenly body whose advent Breton had long wished for, whose trajectory he had calcu- lated, whose brilliant apparition he had awaited. Chirico was admired of course, but he remained a supporter who preceded and was external to the movement, and who expressed nothing but contempt and hostility toward it. Picasso resisted the surre- alists' ardent desire to appropriate him; Andre Masson, Miro, 39 and even Max Ernst were already better known for their picto- rial qualities than for their strict "surrealism"; as for Yves Tan- guy, though his desolate beaches on dead planets cast a ghostly spell, they did not dazzle with the "convulsive beauty" Eluard and Breton dreamed of.
Dali met and surpassed their expecta- tions: Not only did he offer the surrealists, deprived of their best elements by purges, the viru- lent imagery of an oneiric trompe l'oeil, which seemed to have been stolen by force from the dream and captured instanta- neously with the scrupulous objectivity of the photographic lens; he also disclosed the key to his method, namely, paranoid criticism.
In , shortly after they first met, Gala discovered Dali's gift for writing and began to decipher the secretive, almost illegible scrawls he had buried away in drawers. Dali wrote only French, but a French with no spelling, no punctua- tion, a French that was almost entirely phonetic. She imposed order on the chaos of his notes, producing the text of TJie Visible Woman. In it, Dali defines his method as "spontaneous knowl- edge, irrational knowledge based on the critical and systematic objectification of delusional associations and interpretations. This was never- theless a break with Breton's pure automatism, the intangible foundation of orthodox surrealism.
Dali replaced the sur- prises, the disordered spontaneity flowing from the collective, anonymous, and impersonal source of the irrational with the "systematization" of disorder, thus restoring the rights, per- sonal vision, complexes, and obsessions to the creative artist. Dali said repeatedly that he distrusted "spontaneity," in which he found "the conventional and stereotypical taste of the un- varying restaurant crawfish. Dali has endlessly ruminated on the word ever since. In The Visible Woman, he says, "Paranoia uses the external world to put forward the obsessive idea, with the troubling peculiarity of making the reality of that idea valid for others.
The reality of the external world serves as an illustration and a proof, and is placed in the service of the reality of our own minds. The paranoid delusion, with its exacerbated egocentrism, represents only an extreme, pathological case of the creative vi- sion and mind.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Want to Read saving…. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. The Last Songs of Autumn: Tragic fate pursues Isidore Ducasse from his childhood, when, at the age of two, he witnesses the suicide of Celestine, his mother, on Christmas Eve When he is thirteen, due to epidemics and wars in Uruguay, the boy is put on a ship by his father, Francois Ducasse, to be educated in the south of France.
There he suffers horrific anguish and resists the approaches of Tragic fate pursues Isidore Ducasse from his childhood, when, at the age of two, he witnesses the suicide of Celestine, his mother, on Christmas Eve There he suffers horrific anguish and resists the approaches of paedophiles within the scholastic prisons of Tarbes and Pau. At the age of eighteen, holding a baccalaureate and with some of his unfinished Songs in hand he takes on the pseudonym "Count of Lautreamont" and enters the literary world of Paris and Brussels.
Rejected by publishers, the young writer, a precursor of surrealism, abandons his studies and takes on a life of luxury at his father's expense. Colette, clear like the Princess Bibesco, lively like Mme. Barbusse, "spirituel" like A. France, pathetic like Maupassant, "evocateur" like A. Daudet, and great like G.
Among the imitations of these French pat- terns is a rather original Italian book by G. Hoepli, , written "affinche il lettore conosca tutte le barriere da superare" p. French, Spanish and Portuguese From a theoretical point of view, the bell seems to toll for the arts d f ecrire in consideration of the sharp distinction made be- tween mannerism and style. The Croce-Vosslerian concept of style, according to which the art of writing can be "true" only if it is the necessary and unique expression of psychological con- 18 Arts of Writing ditions in a writer, would practically exclude the imitation of authors as a lame counterfeit, an external trick in which the very core and heart are lacking.
More than ever before, the psychological-aesthetical method has made clear that le style est de I'homme meme. That was understood in the Spanish world. But we must hasten to make clear that there is not only an artistic, but also an affective concept of style and its selective use. Not only do the literary artefacts have a style, but also the common languages and the non-artistic individual speeches. This concept of style is the object of Charles Bally's stylistique as opposed to literary stylistics.
Eggimann, , and — — Traite de stylistique francaise, 2 vols. Winter, ; 2nd edition, ; 3d ed. He has the merit of having preceded Vossler and Spitzer in modern stylistics. He follows an idea of Gustav Grober, who distin- guished already between objective and subjective language, and the distinction between langue and parole as made by De Saus- sure.
Bally's formula, which revolutionized traditional stylistics and made it a worthy branch of linguistics, not of literature, is this: Bally, the Swiss, has reached full acknowledgment in France where modern treatises follow him closely: Masson, , 2nd edition is a survey of the peculiarities of any form of an enonce as to sounds, spelling, form, syntax, vocabulary, sen- tence, word order and rhythm. The contribution of Marouzeau, a classical scholar, is the replacement of the older concept of Stylistics 19 stylistics as "une sorte de code du bon francais" by a modern study of "Pattitude que prend l'usage, ecrivant ou parlant, vis-a- vis du materiel que la langue lui fournit," his doubtful aim being to "faire la psychologie de l'auteur de Penonce.
De Gigord, , 8th edition , less pre- tentious, stresses that in an age where the good writers are read very little — even in France, literary par excellence — interest must be stimulated by a systematic introduction into their means of expression. All this seems to suggest that in France the de- cision for the linguistic Bally-type of stylistics versus the literary Vossler-type has been made. The leader Charles Bruneau does not leave any doubt about it.
Bally' s type of stylistique, as considering preferably words, syno- nyms, phraseology, metaphor and construction, was able to be re- fined by its application to literature: Presses Universitaires, , actually includes artistic problems, e. An excellent, and also more practical modern literary stylistics, evidently dominated by the Bally-Marouzeau-Cressot trends, is Henri J. Godin shows how modern authors handle in the most individual manner, syntax and lexi- con, phraseology and figures of speech, how differently they represent the same topic, and to what extent stylistic problems can be clarified by the comparison of an original text with its translation.
The Last Songs of Autumn: The Shadowy Story of the Mysterious Count of Lautréamont
Eggimann, , but expands to the literary-artistic sector of affective-imaginative language. Mod- ern stylistic adepts lack technical terms to discuss their prob- lems and to circumscribe their findings. Hueber, , was wise in presenting a sound basic ter- minology for any kind of stylistic studies, revamping the tradi- tional tropes and figures with Latin and French examples.
His reasonable concern is that without a minimum of terms agreed upon, the interpretatio moderna, however artistic or stylistic he says "stilsprachlich" with contemptuous quotation marks it may be, becomes an aesthetical game without any orientation of philological seriousness. Seara Nova, , uses Bally selectively and combines his method with those of Amado Alonso and Spitzer. Points of interest in this book are word-fantasy, plurality of means of expression, evoca- tive efforts, intellectual and affective values of the adjective, and stylistic effects of the concordance of the participle.
For this latter case he discusses the variants of a famous strophe of the Lusiadas describing the march of Leonor de Sepulveda through the African desert: Despois de ter pisado pisada longamente dos delicados pes a area ardente. He makes his decision in favor of the feminine form, because only the feminine form anticipating area ardente suggests the vision of the immense desert, exactly what the author wants to emphasize.
Rumanian and Italian It is amazing that the modern concept of the problem of style had been pointed out in masterly fashion as early as in a little Rumanian treatise, existing in the New York Public Li- brary, but practically unknown: Incercare de psihologie Uterara Iasi: Institutul de linguistica romana, , handled the same problem with modern equipment.
He, too, like Lapa, combines the approach of Bally with that of Spitzer by adding to the emotional the fanciful elements in the speech of his country. Actually, without saying so, he follows the prin- ciple of the syntactician, Eugen Lerch, as he looks stylistically Appraisal of Details 21 at phenomena like accent, sound, phonetic symbolism, rhythm, the parts of the sentence, morphology, syntax, word formation and vocabulary, topoi, repetition, ellipses and proverbs.
His material comes from direct observation as well as from popular authors like Caragiale and Creanga. If we include in the list of modern stylistics the Italian elementary sketch by B. Le Monnier, , which has been made a still better textbook under the title — — Elementi di stilistica e di versificazione italiana lb. The classical philologists do not think differently today about the problem of style. The Style of Sophocles Cambridge: Press, , says pp. We can isolate and analyze most of the elements of which a style is composed. The choice and use of words, the sound of them separately and in combination, the order of words, the structure of clause and sentence, the use of figures of speech and thought; all these can be analyzed.
But the final secret lies not in them but in the way they are used and blended and related to the thought. In other words, style studies must be linked to structure studies. Appraisal of Details of the Art of Writing What still remains interesting is the discussion by clever critics of certain stylistic propensities of great writers in little things, which in minor writers would be faults.
NRF, , followed by — — Quatre etudes de style au microscope Paris: The conclusions which Criticus draws from his method of checking on the cor- rectness or incorrectness of minutiae, while wholly neglecting the organism of the works from which the examples are taken, would revaluate the authors on an almost absurd scale. Criticus has collected a third series, called — — Le style au microscope Paris: These propos do not make the absurd attempt to correct but to discover in the authors, even unknown ones, what is for them and not for others une reussite stylistique.
Messageries du livre, , he notes the author's typical words, such as amour, desir, tendresse, ferveur, passion, extase, vo- lupte, ivresse, fremissement, or underlines his habit of putting long adverbs before adjectives, such as "obstinement doulou- reux," "morbidement doux," or even between verbs and their objects: Bendz has done a similar study on the language of Valery — — Paid Valery et Vart de la prose Goteborg: Cumpert, , where he picks out sentences with comments such as "Se suivent en trille gracieuse la plupart des voyelles de la langue" p.
Bendz expanded recently his style studies, which in Sweden had appeared in as Nutida fransk prosakonst, under the title: Notes sur Gide, Lacretelle etc. Les Presses de la Cite, Style proper, however, is the concern of the essay on Mauriac only, pp. Etudes de style faites a Radio-Lausanne Bienne: Chandelier, char- acterizes briefly the typical expressions of twenty-six authors from Villon to Verlaine.
Gallimard, , talks about the material a good writer "should" use, stressing the suggestive character of certain words and the importance of metaphors and analogies. Then he proceeds to the types of great symphonic composition represented by Mallarme and Proust. An Englishman and a Frenchman together have selected ninety representative passages and prefaced them with pertinent remarks on style and the problem of translation in order to open the eyes of the stylistically blind: Such a demon- stration made by capable critics can be very illuminating since exaggerations are like a magnifying glass for looking at genuine style.
This principle was brought home in two books: Ivoire, , and L. Certain faits divers are here retold in the manner of different authors. NRF, did not despise this highly intelligent and artistic play. By overcharging the striking features of a particular style one can learn, besides the fun which these pastiches carry with them, exactly what is mannerism as opposed to real style of spontaneous expression.
Grasset, , latest edition Other pastiches open the mind of the public at large to literary criticism, e. The content is overstressed as compared to form in Anonymous — — Faux en ecriture, aux depens de Jean Paulhan, Alain, Apollinaire, etc. Here in thirty-five parodied authors the erotical element is somewhat exploited. It seems a good sign for the stylistic importance of the lit- erary parody, that "Les Pasticheurs" are treated as "auxiliaires de la critique" in Henri CLOUARD — — Histoire de la litterature francaise du symbolism e a nos jours, II, de a Paris: Michel, , pp.
A similar work of Gandon's is Cent ans de jargon ou de Vecriture artiste au style canille P.: The Italian parallel consciously based on scholarly, modern analytical principles p. So- ciedad General Espanola de Libreria, Vol. In his introduction Chabas makes a good distinction between estilo and estilizacion, una voz de falsete vol. Excluding as "voz de falsete," e. Ricardo Leon, he finds on the other hand unique personal style features in Gabriel Mir6, the landscape-painter with Valencian semantics; Antonio Machado, the poet of a style "desnudo, japones, de ensueno, clasico" ; Juan Ramon Jimenez, poet of "vibraciones que dan eternidad a su palabra"; Manuel Machado, stylist of "nuevos oleos liricos que copian los originales" ; and other traits appearing in Valle Inclan, Azorin, Baroja, Unamuno, Ortega y Gasset, Perez de Ayala, Ramon Gomez de la Serna, Benavente, Marquina, Arniches, Gregorio Martinez Sierra.
Gallimard, , which is rather an analysis of philosophical thought in certain writers. Different Drafts The transition from any appraisal of literary art to the truly philological and scientific approach is reached as soon as the comparative method is used. If comparative results are not fundamentally philological, they are at least an objective means of appraising the stylistic usage of words and locutions.
Abbe Vincent compares the style of the Introduction a la vie devote in its final edition of with the first one of , and shows how the devout humanist was changing his almost flamboyant style into a preclassical style through a more rigid concept of the logical-mental elements, by introducing a new rhythm into a prose with "finales habilement bouclees et bien tombantes," and finally, by a more intense poetization of the original images through a transformation of certain similes into condensed meta- phors.
The author points out that the stylistic consciousness of the seventeenth century was already present in St. Francis de Sales in the sense of the poignant phrase of Mme. Thus Vincent, on the basis of a stylistic comparison alone, bestows on St. Francis de Sales the honor of having per- fected the classic numerus before Guez de Balzac. Facultes catholiques, , discovers by comparison the aim of Mon- taigne's style, "Pexpressivite des mots choisis.
Caen, , conversely has attained aesthetic-psychological re- sults from the comparison of V. Hugo's variants, which he has supplemented in a complementary thesis — — Essai sur la psychologie des Contemplations Paris: Glotz infers from the relation between the final form and the first and second, on the basis of cancelations and correc- tions, certain principles about the process of creation in V.
This intelligence is reflected by the antithetical and symmetrical sense of order stronger than Hugo's lyrical nebulosity. It may be that Glotz is going a little too far in formulating such far-reaching conclusions about the poet's evolution as to designate emphatically the year to be the turning point from Romanticism to Realism.
Using the variants of V. Franz has given other instances of the same type of investigation, e. Cahiers libres, , limits himself to comparing some passages of the great novelist's work as they appeared for the first time in NRF with the definitive version that Proust gave them in book form.
He also adds some introductory observations with the suggestion that if the reader himself collaborates when examining this study, the variants will undoubtedly help him "remonter a la source mysterieuse du genie" p. A similar approach to Marcel Proust can be found in D. This type of study can be done with intricate refinement. Si Ton voit, ici et la, l'ecrivain brillanter son style, semer des ad- jectifs, ajouter quelques touches pittoresques, on constate surtout qu'il a cherche une clarte, une precision toujours plus grandes.
Later variants do not necessarily constitute a development toward better art, as is assumed by G. A particular piquancy is inherent in the style corrections of a style theoretician, as shown by H. The descriptions of nature, as well as of the armies, the elephants, and the chieftains, offer the same precise conclusions as to Flau- bert's growing perfection in picturesqueness, rhythm, and melo- diousness all combined, but seem slightly detrimental to the original clarity.
A study of variants from different viewpoints precedes the edition of the first cast of V. Hugo's novel Les Miserables: Premiere version des Miserables Paris: Bovary," MH, , is a marvelous inventory of original vir- tuoso passages of description sacrificed to a more mature taste. Flauberts Tentation de Saint An- toine. Coffern Press, , discusses variants as the changes which result "from the effort of the intellect to filter off all that was emotional and super- fluous" p. A fine study of emendations in the Spanish field is Edward M. This study was continued on a broader basis in Romera-Navarro's — — Estudio del autografo de 'El Heroe' de Gracian.
Ortografia, correcciones y estilo Ma- drid: This book represents pains- taking investigations. The motives for the cor- rection are never figures of speech as such, but only the care for appropriateness, precision, clarity, vigor, variety, liveliness, con- cision, equilibrium, elegance. Thus all types of expression, par- ticularly the Gongoristic hyperbaton, were eligible for stylistic improvement. In the Italian area there is a very fine study of variants con- cerning the Macaronic Latin: In general Petrarca Sources 29 goes from a rhetorical to a lyrical concept, or a compromise be- tween both, before he marks his respective, corrected passage with Hoc placet.
Ma che fanno i colori dinanzi al cieco 2. Ma non pur mo' cominci ad esser cieco 3. Ma canto al sordo e color mostro al cieco 4. Ma canto al sordo e faccio lume al cieco. Sansoni, , , shows by the comparison of two drafts of a Petrarchan sonnet Nel tempo lasso de la notte, quando and Tutto V dl piango; e poi la notte quando how, out of two Dante reminiscences, can grow an entirely original poem which nobody would suspect to be "literature" and not life. Sources The stylistic investigation of poetical sources has undergone a deep transformation.
While studies of the older type proceeded in this field without any aesthetic inspiration, and made a plagi- arist out of every later poet, the modern method of investigation makes use of the minute examination of sources only in order to evaluate the originality of a later poet despite his sources and to affirm the continuous enrichment of the stylistic treasures of speech. The virtuoso language of a rhetorical and lyrical author like Chateaubriand proved to be a fertile subject for source studies by Blaise BRIOD — — Uhomerisme de Chateau- briand Paris: Champion, , C.
Les sources des Trophees Paris: Presses franchises, , dedi- cated to each poem a study on its probable sources, in view of the literary patrimony present in the poet's consciousness. Henry et Vart de Maupassant, Diss. Ross is convinced that O. Henry learned from Maupassant a whole series of narrative devices: In view of the different forms of literary portraits and the questions of priority and imitation in seven- teenth century France, J.
It would be a methodologically sound basis not to consider as style studies any vague source suggestions. The source must show unique striking features as a formal principle which pro- duces statable, formal variations in its imitation. TORREY —— "Rousseau's Use of the Sunrise Theme," RR, XXXII , , has attempted to explain descriptive details of this topic by showing that Rousseau did not stylize directly observed nature, but that he used literary patterns, namely his predecessors, Diderot and Albrecht von Haller, Thus, sometimes it is the manner of treatment of the same subject which makes us understand the stylistic influence of one author on another.
Different scholars have been interested in Ariosto's influence on the French poet Philippe Desportes; they are: Droz, , A. Cameron finds fault with Desportes' over-clarifica- tion p. Presses Sources 31 Modernes, , in which he found that the misunderstood beau of Ariosto was turned into a sentimental joli in France. A great deal of stylistic material can be found in a similar work by Chandler B. The profound investigation of the stylistic relation of an author to his principal sources can offer most tangible results which are far from being hasty realizations.
This has been clearly shown by N. Besangon Bari, , where by means of com- parison of twenty-one Contes by La Fontaine with twenty-one Novelle by Boccaccio, perspectives are attained on the individual style as well as on that of race, epoch and country. Source and imitation must not belong to different literatures however. The investigation of the sources may also include more subtle suggestions going beyond the philological comparison of texts.
Helmut HATZFELD —— "Don Quijote und Madame Bo- vary," IPh, III , ; , has made clear that the French author imitated the Spaniard in his fusion of the char- acters with the cultural background, the combination of empathy and criticism, the symphonic presentation, the creation of an atmosphere by exterior details, and the raising of description to vision by an impressionistic technique in composition and style, A similar study was the concern of Albert PAUPHILET — — "Ronsard a la maniere du Roman de la Rose," MH, , where a single theme Bel Accueil invited the imitator to wonderful, free variations.
Image, Influence and Sensibility," YFS, II , , that the unperceived "stylistic influences, not the evident ones, must be analyzed. Edition des Artistes, had the ingenious idea of tracing back the single elements of the famous novel to decisive passages in Fournier's correspondence, which elucidate details such as his preference for sea and music metaphors, the language of the peasants, the motifs of "la petite fille," of "la jeune fille ideale" fit for a castle, and of "la revelation d'un monde nouveau" taken from the then recent aviation.
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Finally there is in this cor- respondence Fournier's whole poetics on the roman-reve, its realism, its sensibility and their insertion into life, and the stress on atmosphere inherent in the single hours of the day. Precise information lies hidden under the vague title of a comprehensive study of D. Je suis dans un salon comme line mandoline Oubliee en passant sur le bord d'un coussin, etc. Consejo, , has worked out to what extent the poems of this Saint, so highly original, are definitely rooted in the Canticle of Canticles, in Spanish folk poetry and in Garcilaso de la Vega, but less directly than indirectly through the spiritual travesty of the eglogvs by Sebastian de Cordoba see also nos.
Colegio trilingue, , , underlines that Clarin's common interest with Flaubert in overcoming the bourgeois romanticism entirely removes from him the brand of a slavelike imitation of Madame Bovary, the more so because a transposition of the milieu certainly belongs to original creation. The same holds true for the relation Bovary: Quatrains of iambic tetrameters and trimeters alternating ab ab, are replaced by 8-line stanzas, each containing an average of 8 syllables, with the pattern abbe decc. Con toscos instrumentos nos aproximamos a una tierna misteriosa criatura: The artistic relation between San Francesco's Cantico del Sole and its biblical sources, Psalm and the Hymn of Daniel, has been carefully established, as to form and movement, by J.
To observe how Ariosto digested and used Virgil was the concern of P. It is interesting to know how the lyrical genius of Camoes, though opposed to the rank and file of the sixteenth century Petrarchists, achieved an artistic recast of Petrarch's motifs ; for that reason Camillo GUERRIERI explained — — La trasfigurazione di motivi petrarcheschi, on pp. Ruben Dario y Miguel Angel," N Buenos Aires, 25 de septiembre de shows Ruben Dario's "Lo fatal," expression of the modern pathological fear of death, to be Michelangelo's "Caro m'e '1 sonno e piu l'esser di sasso," expression of a Renaissance-scher- zando, with a quite different psychology.
Amado Alonso comes to the conclusion that a reasonable imitation as opposed to pla- giarism leads the imitating poet to reveal his most intimate originality. Stylistically Related Topics Style investigation, like ordinary philology, tries to find out — with artistic implications — a relation between two texts, one of which does not depend directly on the other, but is related to it rather through a common source, remote affinity, or cultural en- vironment.
In this sense Donald F. A particular type, two different stylistic variations of the same theme in poetry and prose is the problem of G. This discovery encouraged Silver to establish other direct stylistic sources for Du Bellay, such as Homer, Horace, and Theocritus, together with theoretical con- siderations in his — — article "Du Bellay and Hellenic Poetry.
Certainly it was the preacher who imitated the poet in word order, themes, phrase- ology, images, and stock constructions. Paravicino, thus equipped, however, can express his thanks to El Greco for having painted his picture in a more elegant Gongoristic style than Gon- gora himself used for his own picture at a later date.
Smith College, , Source comparisons on a large scale between dramas or novels should be confined to the limbo of the "Stilforschung. Rostock, , belong to this marginal realm. The latter comparative problem was approached, how- ever, in truly stylistic fashion by G. Cirot tries to "locate" Guevara's descriptions by parallelizing them with similar ones from Cervantes, Quevedo, Gracian, Lilian and Zavaleta. But she is an even "purer" style-investiga- tor when she works on forms independent of thematic implica- tions.
Thus she found out that the famous clause at the begin- ning of Don Quijote — — "De cuyo nombre no quiero acor- darme," RFH, I , , has nothing to do with un- pleasant prison reminiscences of Cervantes, but is an old formula handed down from Herodotus through the centuries and is des- tined, it should be added, to give a certain rhythm to the sentence.
Psychological Similarities and Contrasts Reflected in Style The "source" is often negligible or non-existent if psychologi- cal affinities are at issue. Racine's artistic indebtedness to Euripides, Seneca, Ovid and others, in spite of his own originality due to a quite different psychology, has been clarified in many details by C. The Tristan-theme as nationally treated in structure and style by an Old French and a Middle High Ger- Psychological Similarities 37 man poet has been elucidated by A.
Ihre konstruktiven Sprachformen Mun- chen: The theme of the lover's abandonment as treated in the three famous French romantic poems by Lamar- tine, V. A less inspiring, rather clumsy and annoying comparative study of themes, strophes, verses and expression types in two late medieval contemporaries is J. On the style differences between Racine and Goethe we have two studies: Both authors establish fundamen- tal — but alas! Spitzer sees in Racine's style the expression of passion, in Goethe's that of moderation ; Merian-Genast finds in Racine a style of sociability, in Goethe a style of personality.
Knaeps, , compared in banal fashion the individual romantic procedure of the German writers in general with the social-classical patterns of the French. Jose Manuel BLECUA — — "Algunos aspectos del Laber- into," Ca, I , , compares this work of Juan de Mena with works of other contemporaries and with Gongora's Soledades to bring out the unique content-form relations and the definite pre-baroque character of the Laberinto.
Band , He un- derscores in this first essay only their common stylistic features, their preference for the concrete in figures of speech, vocabulary and paraphrases, with the syntactical consequence that the verb is replaced by the adjective, and that the decisive word is iso- lated by means of inversions. The domination of the substantive is here further enhanced by means of hyperbole and the use of the epithet. Description is superseded by the condensed image, and the narrative element is eliminated by a series of metamor- phoses. The sentence is an arabesque with well calculated si- lences and sensations.
El conocimiento de lo absoluto por medio de las palabras," FHC, III , , repeats his statements of with more pretentious formulas: Este continuo esfuerzo tendiente a despejar de toda cosa la realidad material instable, y esta larga frase en arabesco es lo que con- stituye el fondo comun de Gongora y Mallarme p.
Rafael LAPESA —— "La Jerusalen del Tasso y la de Lope de Vega," BAE y XXV , , sees in Tasso the last example of refined Aristotelian poetics, equilibrium and "gravita riposata," whereas he considers Lope the destroyer of this equilibrium by "el gesto espectacular," "bravatas," "rodo- montadas," "ejemplaridades hiperbolicas" and "descompostura. Kate BRDDT — — "Confronto do ponto de vista da 'ideia' e do 'estilo' entre o conto 'Mae' de 'Os meus Amores' Trindade Coelho e o conto 'Mater Dolorosa' de 'A cidade do vicio' Fialho de Almeida ," B, X , , from an aesthetic-psycho- logical angle, distinguishes in the style of Coelho the simple expression of a feminine sensibility; in the style of Fialho de Almeida, a pomposity which is striking for a naturalist.
Reconstruction of Lost Texts by Stylistic Criteria The method of reconstruction of lost medieval texts, so im- pressively wielded by Ramon Menendez Pidal, becomes style in- vestigation as soon as the philologist does not reconstruct words and lines, but characters and actions of a fragment.
Structure and details of extant works of the same poet are supposed to reveal his categorical and ne varietur disposition of any artistic material. This is the way in which the archeologist provides mutilated statues with arms and legs. Admitting these premises as correct, we may call excellent a study concerned with the stylistic reconstruction of Chretien de Troyes' fragment Perceval from the style scheme of the other preserved works: She vindicates the two clear-cut stylistic methods, of the Poema and of the Chronicle, as sufficient to reconstruct the lost original epic.
The boldest at- 40 Stylistic Comparison of Texts tempt in stylistic reconstruction is A. Witte tries to decide that Tristan versions to be good ones must coincide with the diptych structure of the original form of the legend. This vindication of structure excludes a ternary principle. The diptych actually seems best preserved in the fragments of Thomas of Bretagne. The jongleur interpola- tions of Beroul and Eilhard have obscured the situation, and the scholars' search for a tripartite scheme in Gottfried has been entirely meaningless.
Adaptations and Translations A final task of comparative style-philology is the checking on adaptations and translations from an aesthetical viewpoint, but with a more profound delving into the categorical differences between the original and its rendition into another language. Jahrhunderts als Ausdruck der Zeit, Diss.
Bonn, , has shown that the individual differences of the transla- tors of the psalter during the enlightenment period are negligible if compared with the rationalistic wording which prevails every- where in contradistinction to the text of the Vulgate. Students of Professor Raymond Lebegue Sorbonne prepare such psalter studies for earlier centuries. She has found how the genius of the Italian vernacular comes to its birthright, when absolutus a culpa appears as e as- soluto che fu dalla colpa ; magnolia as grandi cose ; ostenditur as si die a intendere. That means, as the author points out, that the abstract becomes concrete, a meditation becomes a scene, a thought a talk, a feeling a sight, an implication a slight hint, be- cause complicated Latin clauses reappear as gerunds, pale terms as savory expressions, passivity as a visualized action.
Translations of idiomatic poetry into another idiom by a congenial poetic mind can offer materials for worth-while stylis- tic studies. Certain rhythmical and musical problems in E. Champion, reveal that there are very few lieder which are genuinely translated or adapted. For the greatest part the translations offer only "une musique verbale denuee de sens" p. This does not mean an inquiry into his vocabulary and syntax as such, but their artistic use as psychological expressions and structural elements in an arte- fact. With this limitation we have to exclude from our review many excellent studies on the language of a single author.
Since they use the author's neologisms, metaphors and original con- structions as contributions to language la langue , not as creations of an individual speech parole in the sense of De Saussure, they have only linguistic and grammatical interest. Such studies are found particularly in the French periodical, he Francais Moderne, where they are done by scholars like Guerlin de Guer, Le Bidois, Gougenheim, et al. We exclude from the following pages these merely linguistic studies. Dissertations coming from the school of the lexicographer Walter von Wartburg, written in Leipzig and Basel as well as in Chicago, follow for the most part the same lexicographical-syntactic trend as those of the school of Charles Bruneau, e.
Nizet et Bastard, Of course, there are some remarks on style in the aesthetical sense too. In brief, as soon as such studies reveal the slightest aesthetical concern with the uniqueness of an individual literary language, they result in literary style studies. The particular and original patterns followed by writers and poets in choosing and combin- ing different linguistic expressions and forms in new and original stylistic compounds will be the main interest of the studies to be reviewed here.
These studies contributed by scholars of differ- ent countries embrace the following authors: All these studies, some extensive, some more sketchy, concern artistically used language of writers or works and lit- 44 The Language of Individual Authors erary schools without transcending the domain of language, i. An attempt will be made to present the material according to the development of the meth- ods in stylistic investigation and according to schools and groups of investigators in the different countries.
Earlier and Arbitrary Attempts at Style Investigation, mainly in France This chapter will consider first some older, isolated pioneer studies. Remarks will include the advantages of the different methods and their limitation to single works or their extension to groups of authors. The different Romanic literatures will be kept apart only as far as feasible and possible under the method- ological angle of approach which has been chosen as the primary viewpoint. Sainean, primarily interested in an etymological and fac- tual interpretation of the rather obscure lexicon and idiomatic forms of Rabelais, also tried to get at the psyche and mental attitudes of the author.
Embracing "les profondeurs de la pensee rabelaisienne dans la diversite infinie de ses formes ex- pressives" II, p. Champion, , tries in a psychological manner still somewhat clumsy, to derive the char- acteristics of Michelet's vocabulary from his idearium and in- clinations. Thus his numerous nomina agentis and verba facti- tiva find an explanation in his active liberalism; his arbitrary semantics, in his willful personality. Le vocabulaire et les images Nancy, , particularly the last chapter XV: Jouve, , its antecessor by four years, the linking elements between form and substance are still very weakly established.
The idiomatic usages of Daudet are scrupulously listed on pages, so that the book has value as an inventory for "Mots d'emprunt," "Creations nouvelles, ,, "Mots affectionnes," "Struc- ture et rhythme des phrases," "Prosopopees et personifications," "Metaphores et comparaisons. Champion, , looks only for the "vocabulaire berrichon" in general, Alexis FRANCOIS — — "Sur une particularite de la langue de Flaubert," ML, , deals profoundly with the stylistic im- plications of "verbes transitifs conjugues sous forme prono- minale: Tar moments ils s'echangeaient une parole'," and "Verbes intransitifs a conjugaison pronominale preferes: Gallimard, , , in a more syn- thetical approach, denies Flaubert the quality of a metaphorical style which, however, seems richly compensated by his new and personal use of all the narrative tenses, particularly the im- perfect in the style indirect libre: Picard, , is a work on a large stylistic scale.
It describes and evaluates with pre- cision the stylistic realizations of one of the founders of clas- sical French prose. The work does not stress Balzac's person- ality but an ideal envisioned as the raison d'etre for those first linguistic foundations of classical mitigation.