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Accusative is also commanded by some prepositions, and by some prepositions in conjunction with specific verb classes, which means that independent of other grammatical context, these prepositions make the referenced noun use the accusative form.


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There is a class of adverbial expressions most often telling a time of an action, or the place of a movement employing the accusative case. Accusative forms in Colognian grammar are in all instances identical to their respective nominative forms. Where needed, potential ambiguities are reduced by prosodic elements of speech, but are extremely rare, since Colognian unlike elsewhere follows a strict subject—predicate—object SPO word order for transitive sentences in active and reflexive voices, predicate—subject—object PSO for questions.

This makes it very distinct from German, where word order is almost arbitrary. Passive voice cannot have direct objects, and never goes with accusative. Arguably could be said, Colognian had a vocative the forms of which were identical to nominative with eventual articles stripped. Most commonly, this case is seen as part of nominative. Also, verbs can require an object to be using vocative. There are three grammatical genders in Colognian. They are called the feminine, masculine, and neuter gender.

A nomen most often has a fixed gender, but there is a class of them that may switch from predominant neuter to feminine on certain occasions. Colognian shares this phenomenon with a large group of local and vernacular languages almost along the entire river Rhine. Very few nouns have an unclear gender.

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Natural gender does not play an important role in Colognian grammar, though it does. While male persons or living beings customarily are referred to with the masculine gender, females are generally referred to using the neuter grammatical gender, with some exceptions mentioned below. Yet, if someone or some animal is named, or nicknamed, with a meaningful Colognian word, which happens not uncommonly, that words gender is used to determine articles going with that name, but otherwise the persons natural gender as given above is used.

There are or were very few Colognian nouns the grammatical gender of which is mor was not clearly determined, which are or were thus used with their gender varying. This may apply to neologisms for some time until a certain gender evolves for them. Singular is always used, when there is exactly one instance of something, or occasionally, depending on the ways, such figures are expressed, with magnitudes having a "one" at their end, such as Plural is used for anything else but zero.

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Depending on context and the noun, singular or plural is used with zero instances. Some nouns allow only one of them, other nouns allow that either can be chosen arbitrarily. Yet the actual choice then usually depends on aesthetic aspects of the sentence. Generally, this has little impact since most often Colognian speakers prefer wordings avoiding expressions uusing zero as a count.

Colognian conjugation has the voices: Also, there is the reflexive which combines middle voice and mediopassive. The reflexive is being used, when agent and patient of an action are identical. It can be seen as a middle voice which is both active and passive at the same time. There are few reflexive verbs that are used reflexively only. Reflexive can also be mediopassive. Since this is predominantly used in generalized speech, semantics diverge from middle voice. Prosody may help to disambiguate.

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Grammatical forms are identical, however. This article covers the phonology of modern Colognian as spoken in the city of Cologne. Article grammar — For articles in English, see English articles. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not in a valid format. Please re-enter recipient e-mail address es.

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