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Treatment lasts from 4 to 12 weeks. This type of treatment clears up about 60 percent of cases. Long-term, low-dose antibiotics may help relieve symptoms in cases that won't clear up. Chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome: This disorder is the most common but least understood type of prostatitis. Found in men of any age from late teens to the elderly, its symptoms can come and go without warning. There can be pain or discomfort in the groin or bladder area.

Infection-fighting cells are often present, even though no bacteria can be found. There are several different treatments for this problem, based on your symptoms. These include anti-inflammatory medications and other pain control treatments, such as warm baths. Other medicines, such as alpha-blockers, may also be given.


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Alpha-blockers relax muscle tissue in the prostate to make passing urine easier. Some men are treated with antibiotics in case the symptoms are caused by an undetected infection. You don't have symptoms with this condition. It is often found when you are undergoing tests for other conditions, such as to determine the cause of infertility or to look for prostate cancer. If you have this form of prostatitis, your PSA test may show a higher number than normal. Men with this condition are usually not treated, but a repeat PSA test will usually be done if the PSA number is high.

BPH stands for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Benign means "not cancer," and hyperplasia means abnormal cell growth. The result is that the prostate becomes enlarged. BPH is not linked to cancer and does not increase your risk of getting prostate cancer—yet the symptoms for BPH and prostate cancer can be similar. Urine flow in a normal left and enlarged right prostate.

In diagram on the left, urine flows freely. On the right, urine flow is affected because the enlarged prostate is pressing on the bladder and urethra. At its worst, BPH can lead to: The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut when a man is in his 20s. By the time he is 40, it may have grown slightly larger, to the size of an apricot. By age 60, it may be the size of a lemon. The enlarged prostate can press against the bladder and the urethra. This can slow down or block urine flow.

Some men might find it hard to start a urine stream, even though they feel the need to go. Once the urine stream has started, it may be hard to stop. Other men may feel like they need to pass urine all the time, or they are awakened during sleep with the sudden need to pass urine. Early BPH symptoms take many years to turn into bothersome problems.

These early symptoms are a cue to see your doctor. Some men with BPH eventually find their symptoms to be bothersome enough to need treatment. BPH cannot be cured, but drugs or surgery can often relieve its symptoms. Talk with your doctor about the best choice for you. Your symptoms may change over time, so be sure to tell your doctor about any new changes. Men with mild symptoms of BPH who do not find them bothersome often choose this approach. Watchful waiting means getting annual checkups.

Treatment is started only if symptoms become too much of a problem. Some medications can make BPH symptoms worse, so talk with your doctor or pharmacist about any medicines you are taking such as:. Many American men with mild to moderate BPH symptoms have chosen prescription drugs over surgery since the early s.

Two main types of drugs are used. One type relaxes muscles near the prostate, and the other type shrinks the prostate gland. Some evidence shows that taking both drugs together may work best to keep BPH symptoms from getting worse.

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Understanding Prostate Changes - National Cancer Institute

Taking these drugs can help increase urine flow and reduce your symptoms. You must continue to take these drugs to prevent symptoms from coming back. It's important to note that taking these drugs may lower your PSA test number. There is also evidence that these drugs lower the risk of getting prostate cancer, but whether they can help lower the risk of dying from prostate cancer is still unclear.


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The number of prostate surgeries has gone down over the years. But operations for BPH are still among the most common surgeries for American men. Surgery is used when symptoms are severe or drug therapy has not worked well. Be sure to discuss options with your doctor and ask about the potential short- and long-term benefits and risks with each procedure. Prostate cancer means that cancer cells form in the tissues of the prostate.

Prostate cancer tends to grow slowly compared with most other cancers. Cell changes may begin 10, 20, or even 30 years before a tumor gets big enough to cause symptoms. Eventually, cancer cells may spread metastasize. By the time symptoms appear, the cancer may already be advanced. By age 50, very few men have symptoms of prostate cancer, yet some precancerous or cancer cells may be present.

More than half of all American men have some cancer in their prostate glands by the age of Most of these cancers never pose a problem. They may never cause symptoms or become a serious threat to health. Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes of the pelvis.

What Are the Treatments for Prostate Cancer?

Or it may spread throughout the body. It tends to spread to the bones. So bone pain, especially in the back, can be a symptom of advanced prostate cancer. Some men in this risk category monitor their prostate cancer with active surveillance. They have frequent checkups that may include:. This means that the prostate cancer is unlikely to grow or spread for several years.


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You and your doctor will consider your age and overall health when weighing treatment options, which may include:. In high-risk cases, the prostate cancer tissue looks very different from normal tissue. High risk means the cancer is likely to grow or spread within a few years. A higher Gleason score generally predicts that prostate cancer will grow more quickly. However, remember that the score alone does not predict your prognosis.

When you evaluate treatment risks and benefits with your doctor, be sure that you also understand the cancer stage and your PSA level. This knowledge will help you decide whether active surveillance is appropriate. It can also help guide you in selecting the treatment that best suits your situation. The husband of actress Kristen Bell is using his comedic skills to get the word out about the importance of older men getting screened for prostate…. While prostate cancer mainly affects men in their 50s and beyond, it's important to get screened earlier to prevent this curable cancer from becoming….

Researchers are tackling why black men are more at risk than white counterparts. Castration-resistant prostate cancer can be more difficult to treat, but the condition can be managed. What makes a carb good and what makes it bad? Turns out carbs alone can't be faulted for any weight issues - it's the combination of how and what you…. Approximately 1 in 6 U.

About the Prostate

An advanced form of radiation, known as intensity modulated radiation therapy IMRT , can increase the dose of radiation to the prostate with fewer side effects to the surrounding tissues. Proton beam therapy can increase the radiation dose to the prostate even more.

Understanding Prostate Cancer - High Risk

But proton therapy has not been proven to be superior to IMRT. A more focused form of radiation, known as stereotactic radiation, is being used for early forms of prostate cancer. This treatment also has not been shown to improve the outcome of prostate cancer. Stereotactic radiation for prostate cancer is still new. Radioactive seeds brachytherapy deliver radiation to the prostate with little damage to surrounding tissues. During the procedure, the tiny radioactive seeds, each like a grain of rice, are implanted in the prostate gland using ultrasound guidance.

The implants remain in place permanently and become inactive after many months. In some patients, brachytherapy may be used with traditional radiation.

Understanding Prostate Cancer: The Gleason Scale

In some patients, if the prostate gland is too large for brachytherapy, hormone therapy can shrink the prostate to allow brachytherapy to be done. Hormone therapy is the recommended treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Since testosterone can make prostate cancer grow, hormone therapy works by tricking the body to stop making testosterone , thus stopping or slowing the cancer's growth. Even advanced cases that cannot be cured may be controlled for many years with hormone therapy.

But there is a higher risk of heart disease with this treatment. Fractures are also a risk due to thinning of bone. Medications are given to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Testosterone can also be removed from the bloodstream by surgically removing the testicles orchiectomy or by giving female hormones such as estrogen or other drugs that block testosterone production. Estrogen therapy is no longer used routinely. Patients generally prefer the testosterone-blocking drug treatment because it is effective, less invasive, and causes fewer side effects than surgery or female hormone drugs.

When traditional hormonal treatments stop working, newer hormonal therapies may be considered. Abiraterone Zytiga blocks tissues from making testosterone.