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The venoms of Agkistrodon bilineatus subspecies showed the highest hemorrhagic activity and A. Compositional and toxicological analyses agree with clinical observations of envenomations by Agkistrodon in the USA and Central America. A comparative analysis of Agkistrodon shows that venom divergence tracks phylogeny of this genus to a greater extent than in Sistrurus rattlesnakes, suggesting that the distinct natural histories of Agkistrodon and Sistrurus clades may have played a key role in molding the patterns of evolution of their venom protein genes. A deep understanding of the structural and functional profiles of venoms and of the principles governing the evolution of venomous systems is a goal of venomics.

Isolated proteomics analyses have been conducted on venoms from many species of vipers and pit vipers. However, making sense of these large inventories of data requires the integration of this information across multiple species to identify evolutionary and ecological trends. Our genus-wide venomics study provides a comprehensive overview of the toxic arsenal across Agkistrodon and a ground for.

A randomized controlled trial of fresh frozen plasma for coagulopathy in Russell's viper Daboia russelii envenoming. Essentials Russell's viper envenoming is a major health issue in South Asia and causes coagulopathy. We studied the effect of fresh frozen plasma and two antivenom doses on correcting coagulopathy. Fresh frozen plasma did not hasten recovery of coagulopathy.

Low-dose antivenom did not worsen coagulopathy. Patients with suspected Russell's viper bites and coagulopathy were randomly allocated 1: Science Highlights and Final Data Release. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey VIPERS released its final set of nearly 90 galaxy redshifts in November , together with a series of science papers that range from the detailed evolution of galaxies over the past 8 Gyr to the growth rate and the power spectrum of cosmological structures measured at about half the Hubble time. These are the results of a map of the distribution of galaxies and their properties which is unprecedented in its combination of large volume and detailed sampling at 0.

Evolutionary trajectories of snake genes and genomes revealed by comparative analyses of five-pacer viper. Snakes have numerous features distinctive from other tetrapods and a rich history of genome evolution that is still obscure. Here, we report the high-quality genome of the five-pacer viper , Deinagkistrodon acutus, and comparative analyses with other representative snake and lizard genomes.

We map the evolutionary trajectories of transposable elements TEs , developmental genes and sex chromosomes onto the snake phylogeny. TEs exhibit dynamic lineage-specific expansion, and many viper TEs show brain-specific gene expression along with their nearby genes.

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We detect signatures of adaptive evolution in olfactory, venom and thermal-sensing genes and also functional degeneration of genes associated with vision and hearing. Lineage-specific relaxation of functional constraints on respective Hox and Tbx limb-patterning genes supports fossil evidence for a successive loss of forelimbs then hindlimbs during snake evolution.

Finally, we infer that the ZW sex chromosome pair had undergone at least three recombination suppression events in the ancestor of advanced snakes. These results altogether forge a framework for our deep understanding into snakes' history of molecular evolution. Both visual and infrared IR senses are utilized in prey targeting by pit vipers. Visual and IR inputs project to the contralateral optic tectum where they activate both multimodal and bimodal neurons. A series of ocular and pit organ occlusion experiments using the short-tailed pit viper Gloydius brevicaudus were conducted to investigate the role of visual and IR information during prey targeting.

Subjects with one eye and one pit occluded on the same side of the face performed as well as those with bilateral occlusion although these subjects showed a significant targeting angle bias toward the unoccluded side. Performance was significantly poorer when only a single eye or pit was available.

Interestingly, when one eye and one pit organ were occluded on opposite sides of the face, performance was poorest, the snakes striking prey on no more than half the trials. These results indicate that, visual and infrared information are both effective in prey targeting in this species, although interference between the two modalities occurs if visual and IR information is restricted to opposite sides of the brain.

Viper 's bugloss Echium spp. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper 's bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys.

Thermoregulation and microhabitat choice in the polymorphic asp viper Vipera aspis. In ectotherms, thermoregulation strongly depends on environmental conditions, as well as on intrinsic factors, such as skin colour. Indeed, due to its physical properties, melanin pigments allow melanistic morphs to benefit of a more efficient thermoregulation compared to non-melanistic ones.

Despite thermal benefits of melanism have often been highlighted under experimental conditions, such field data remain scarce. Results highlighted a difference in internal body temperature, but only within gravid females, with melanistic individuals having higher body temperatures compared to non-melanistic ones. No differences were found when considering both sexes. We also showed that melanistic and non-melanistic vipers were found in different microhabitat types, i. This result has important implications.

Indeed, besides providing a possible explanation for the lack of difference in body temperature except for gravid females , it confirms that melanistic individuals can potentially use their efficient thermoregulation in order to inhabit less exposed and thermally unfavourable microhabitats. RNA sequencing has become a ubiquitous technology used throughout life sciences as an effective method of measuring RNA abundance quantitatively in tissues and cells. The increase in use of RNA-seq technology has led to the continuous development of new tools for every step of analysis from alignment to downstream pathway analysis.

However, effectively using these analysis tools in a scalable and reproducible way can be challenging, especially for non-experts. Using the workflow management system Snakemake we have developed a user friendly, fast, efficient, and comprehensive pipeline for RNA-seq analysis. VIPER Visualization Pipeline for RNA-seq analysis is an analysis workflow that combines some of the most popular tools to take RNA-seq analysis from raw sequencing data, through alignment and quality control, into downstream differential expression and pathway analysis.

VIPER has been created in a modular fashion to allow for the rapid incorporation of new tools to expand the capabilities. This capacity has already been exploited to include very recently developed tools that explore immune infiltrate and T-cell CDR Complementarity-Determining Regions reconstruction abilities. The pipeline has been conveniently packaged such that minimal computational skills are required to download and install the dozens of software packages that VIPER uses. VIPER is a comprehensive solution that performs most standard RNA-seq analyses quickly and effectively with a built-in capacity for customization and expansion.

Toxicity of venoms from vipers of Pelias group to crickets Gryllus assimilis and its relation to snake entomophagy. The existing data indicate that snake venom is most toxic towards the natural vertebrate preys. Several species of snake include arthropods in their food.

However, there is no available data on the toxicity of venom from entomophagous snakes towards their prey. We have studied the toxicity of venom from vipers of Pelias group towards crickets Gryllus assimilis. The Pelias group includes several closely related viper species inhabiting mainly the South European part of Russia, and they differ in their feeding preferences.

Snakes from the Vipera renardi, Vipera lotievi, Vipera kaznakovi, and Vipera orlovi species feed on wide range of animals including insects, whereas snakes from Vipera berus and Vipera nikolskii species do not include insects in their diet.

Gaboon viper

We have found that the venom from vipers that include insects in their diet possesses greater toxicity towards crickets. The greatest toxicity was observed for the venom from V. Therefore, based on our data, we suggest that the viper entomophagy is not a result of behavior plasticity, but is probably determined at a genetic level. Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma envenomation is a major health problem in South East Asia.

During envenomation, venom components mainly affect the hemostatic system. The sera from the North American Virginia opossums Didelphis virginiana were able to neutralize the venom of the Malayan pit viper. These natural inhibitors could be explored as potential therapeutics against envenomations of a variety of venomous snake species in different geographical habitats. Star formation history of passive red galaxies.

The detailed spectral analysis of stellar populations of intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies allows the build up of their stellar content to be followed over the last 8 billion years. We extracted a sample of passive red galaxies in the redshift range 0. The sample was selected using an evolving cut in the rest-frame U-V color distribution and additional cuts that ensured high quality.

The spectra of passive red galaxies were stacked in narrow bins of stellar mass and redshift. These spectral features are used as indicators of the star formation history of passive red galaxies. We compare the results with a grid of synthetic spectra to constrain the star formation epochs of these galaxies. We characterize the formation redshift-stellar mass relation for intermediate-redshift passive red galaxies. We find that at z 1 stellar populations in low-mass passive red galaxies are younger than in high-mass passive red galaxies, similar to what is observed at the present epoch.

Over the full analyzed redshift range 0. Background Snake bite causes greater mortality than most of the other neglected tropical diseases. Snake antivenom, although effective in minimizing mortality in developed countries, is not equally so in developing countries due to its poor availability in remote snake infested areas as, and when, required. An alternative approach in this direction could be taken by making orally deliverable polyvalent antivenom formulation, preferably under a globally integrated strategy, for using it as a first aid during transit time from remote trauma sites to hospitals.

Structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, swelling study, in vitro pH sensitive release, acid digestion, mucoadhesive property and venom neutralization were studied in in vitro and in vivo models. Results showed that alginate retained its mucoadhesive, acid protective and pH sensitive swelling property after entrapping antivenom. After pH dependent release from alginate beads, antivenom ASVS significantly neutralized phospholipaseA2 activity, hemolysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity and lethality of venom.

In ex vivo mice intestinal preparation, ASVS was absorbed significantly through the intestine and it inhibited venom lethality which indicated that all the components of antivenom required for neutralization of venom lethality were retained despite absorption across the intestinal layer. Results from in vivo studies indicated that orally delivered ASVS can significantly neutralize venom effects, depicted by protection against lethality, decreased hemotoxicity and renal toxicity caused by russell viper venom.

Single-phase materials that combine electric polarization and magnetization are promising for applications in multifunctional sensors, information storage, spintronic devices, etc. Following the idea of a percolating network of magnetic ions e. In this work, a 0. Both the ferroelectricity and the magnetism were characterized at room temperature. Large polarization and a large piezoelectric effective coefficient d 33 were obtained.

Multifield coupling of the thin film has been characterized by scanning force microscopy. Ferroelectric domains and magnetic domains could be switched by magnetic field H , electric field E , mechanical force F , and, indicating that complex cross-coupling exists among the electric polarization, magnetic ordering and elastic deformation in 0. This work also shows the possibility of writing information with electric field, magnetic field, and mechanical force and then reading data by magnetic field. We expect that this work will benefit information applications.

Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design. This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the ' Viper ' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed.

The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well.

In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components.

To determine whether the current set of evaluation criteria used for dilute Russel Viper Venom Time dRVVT investigations in the routine laboratory meet expectation and identify possible shortcomings. The raw data panels were compared with the new reference interval, established in , to determine the sequence of assays that should have been performed.

The interpretive comments were audited, and false-negative reports identified. Interpretive comments according to three interpretation guidelines were compared. The reagent cost per assay was determined, and reagent cost wastage, due to redundant tests, was calculated. There is a significant statistical difference in interpretive comments between the three interpretation methods. Redundant mixing tests resulted in R We managed to demonstrate very evident deficiencies in our own practice and managed to establish a standardized workflow that will potentially render our service more efficient and cost effective, aiding clinicians in making improved treatment decisions and diagnoses.

Furthermore, it is essential that standard operating procedures be kept up to date and executed by all staff in the laboratory. Screening test for direct oral anticoagulants with the dilute Russell viper venom time. There were 44 samples from patients taking dabigatran, 83 with rivaroxaban, 18 with apixaban and 55 controls. The TCT was increased in patients taking dabigatran and normal in controls and patients on FXa inhibitors.

Hybridization at an ecotone: The formation of stable genetic boundaries between emerging species is often diagnosed by reduced hybrid fitness relative to parental taxa. Although detecting exogenous barriers in nature is difficult, we can estimate the role of ecological divergence in driving species boundaries by integrating molecular and ecological niche modelling tools.

Here, we focus on a three-way secondary contact zone between three viper species Vipera aspis, V. Both the nuclear and mitochondrial data show that all taxa are genetically distinct and that the sister species V. We find that the three taxa have diverged ecologically and meet at a hybrid zone coincident with a steep ecotone between the Atlantic and Mediterranean biogeographical provinces.

Integrating landscape and genetic approaches, we show that hybridization is spatially restricted to habitats that are suboptimal for parental taxa. Together, these results suggest that niche separation and adaptation to an ecological gradient confer an important barrier to gene flow among taxa that have not achieved complete reproductive isolation.

Impact of cool versus warm temperatures on gestation in the aspic viper Vipera aspis. These results challenged the widespread notion that both elevated temperatures e. Here, we investigated the impact of constant cool temperatures on another physiological performance that is crucial to population persistence: At the time when reproductive females were midway through vitellogenesis, we placed ten reproductive and two non-reproductive female aspic vipers at each of two contrasted constant temperature conditions: Conversely, none of the cool females gave birth to healthy offspring.

A blister disease affected exclusively cool pregnant females. Apparently, the combination of cool temperatures plus gestation was too challenging for such females. Our results suggest that reproduction is more thermally sensitive than digestion or growth, indeed gestation faltered under moderately cool thermal constraints. This sensitivity could be a crucial factor determining the capacity of this species to colonize different habitats. Bites by the white-lipped pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris and other species in Hong Kong.

A survey of 4 years' experience at the Prince of Wales Hospital. The case records of snake bite victims admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital in Hong Kong between September and October were studied retrospectively. When the snake was identified, the White-lipped pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris was by far the commonest species involved. Since such abnormality was not always sought the true figure is likely to be higher. Three fatalities occurred, one of which was secondary to a probable White-lipped pit viper bite, one to a bite by Chinese cobra and one to a bite by Russell's viper.

The reconstruction of the bias relation is performed through a novel method that accounts for Poisson noise, redshift distortions, inhomogeneous sky coverage. The mean biasing function is close to linear in regions above the mean density. The mean slope of the biasing relation is a proxy to the linear bias parameter. This slope increases with luminosity, which is in agreement with results of previous analyses.

gaboon viper bitis: Topics by

The amplitude of non-linearity depends on redshift, luminosity, and scale, but no clear trend is detected. The results of our work confirm the importance of going beyond the over-simplistic linear bias hypothesis showing that non-linearities can be accurately measured through the applications of the appropriate statistical tools to existing datasets like VIPERS.

The distinct build-up of dense and normal massive passive galaxies. This has enabled us to investigate how the population of these objects was built up over cosmic time. Also based on observations.

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Environmental effects shaping the galaxy stellar mass function. The large number of spectroscopic redshifts more than 50 over an area of about 10 deg2 provides a galaxy sample with high statistical power. We find that the galaxy stellar mass function in the densest regions has a different shape than was measured at low densities, with an enhancement of massive galaxies and a hint of a flatter less negative slope at z VIPERS galaxies in high densities, while the low-density one is nearly constant.

We compare these results to semi-analytical models and find consistent environmental signatures in the simulated stellar mass functions. The evolution of our low-density regions is described well by the formalism introduced by Peng et al. The same formalism could also describe the evolution of the mass function in the high density regions, but only if a significant contribution from dry mergers is considered.

Acute hypopituitarism complicating Russell's viper envenomation: Chronic hypopituitarism following Russell viper envenomation RVE is a rare but well-recognized syndrome. The clinical features, associations, management and outcomes of RVE associated-acute hypopituitarism AHP are not well described. AHP occurred after a median of 9 range, days after severe envenomation and was associated with multi-organ dysfunction, lower platelet counts, more bleeding and transfusions when compared to patients with RVE alone.

The presence of clinically defined capillary leak syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and mortality were not different from those without AHP. Our systematic search yielded 12 cases of AHP related to RVE; data on associated clinical manifestations, therapy and ASV administration were not available in most reports. For Permissions, please email: Whether this increase in is mainly due to the size-growth of individual galaxies through dry mergers, or to the fact that newly quenched galaxies have a larger size, is still matter of debate. A promising approach to shed light on this issue is to investigate the evolution of the number density of passive galaxies as a function of their mass density.

Venoms of most Russian viper species are poorly characterized. Here, by quantitative chromato-mass-spectrometry, we analyzed protein and peptide compositions of venoms from four Vipera species V. Altogether, enzyme content in venom of V. In total, proteins and endogenous peptides were identified in the four viper venoms. They represented 14 snake venom protein families, most of which were found in the venoms of Vipera snakes previously.

However, phospholipase B and nucleotide degrading enzymes were reported here for the first time. Phospholipases A2 are the Main Venom Components. First report of the characterization of a snake venom apyrase Ruviapyrase from Indian Russell's viper Daboia russelii venom. A novel apyrase from Russell's viper venom RVV was purified and characterized, and it was named Ruviapyrase Russell's viper apyrase. It is a high molecular weight Temperate ectotherms are expected to benefit from climate change e. Milder winters are expected to decrease body condition upon emergence, and thus to affect crucial life-history traits, such as survival and reproduction.

Mild winter temperature could also trigger a state of chronic physiological stress due to inadequate thermal conditions that preclude both dormancy and activity. We tested these hypotheses on a typical temperate ectothermic vertebrate, the aspic viper Vipera aspis. We simulated different wintering conditions for three groups of aspic vipers cold: We found that mild wintering conditions induced a marked decrease in body condition, and provoked an alteration of some hormonal mechanisms involved in emergence.

Such effects are likely to bear ultimate consequences on reproduction, and thus population persistence. We emphasize that future studies should incorporate the critical, albeit neglected, winter season when assessing the potential impacts of global changes on ectotherms. Viper and cobra venom neutralization by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of Pluchea indica Less. We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. Asteraceae could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.

Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus and P. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. The active fraction containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis EIMS, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR. Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA 2 activity.

Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA 2 activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.

The decline of cosmic star formation: We characterise local environment in terms of the density contrast smoothed over a cylindrical kernel, the scale of which is defined by the distance to the fifth nearest neighbour. The model correctly reproduces fap in low-density environments, but underpredicts it at high densities. The discrepancy is particularly strong for the lowest-mass bins. We find that this discrepancy is driven by an excess of low-mass passive satellite galaxies in the model. In high-density regions, we obtain a better although not perfect agreement of the model fap with observations by studying the accretion history of these model galaxies that is, the times when they become satellites , by assuming either that a non.

Effects of snake venom from Saudi cobras and vipers on hormonal levels in peripheral blood. The aim of the present study is to investigate the acute and chronic envenomation from 4 snakes out of 8 species of Saudi Cobras and Vipers on the tissues of endocrine glands and peripheral hormonal levels in male rats. The peripheral blood levels of 4 hormones mainly testosterone, cortisol, insulin and thyroxin were investigated in male Wistar rats following acute and chronic treatment of the rats with poisonous snake venoms at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September to May Using radio immunoassay for hormonal analysis, a rise in testosterone levels in peripheral blood was obtained following acute treatment, which is due to the effect of the venoms on vascular permeability and increased blood flow.

In contrast, the chronic treatment with venoms resulted in a delayed effect on vascular permeability and testicular degeneration resulting in a decreased blood flow and a significant drop in testosterone concentration. Cortisol levels were no different from the controls during acute treatment but it demonstrates gradual rise following chronic treatment to withstand the stress imposed on the animals. Similar results were obtained for insulin, which showed normal values with acute treatment but decreased levels of chronic treatment suggesting insulin insufficiently.

Likewise, the thyroxin levels were decreased with chronic treatment suggesting a toxic effect of the poison on the rich blood supply of the thyroid follicles with a subsequent decrease in blood flow to the tissues and therefore, decreased thyroid hormone levels. The effects of venom toxicity on testosterone levels were either normal or stimulatory with acute treatment or inhibitory with chronic treatment depending on the vascular blood flow and testicular degeneration.

Cortisol levels were normal at. Pharmacokinetic behavior of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in urutu pit vipers Bothrops alternatus after intramuscular administration. Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution.

The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration MIC90 values of 0. Fritz, Alexander; Abbas, U.

Using different selection criteria, we define several samples of early-type galaxies and explore their impact on the evolution of the red-sequence RS and the effects of dust. Our results suggest a rapid build-up of the RS within a short time scale. In contrast, low-mass galaxies indicate a different mass assembly history and cause a slow build-up of the CMR over cosmic time. Molecular cloning, expression and purification of L-amino acid oxidase from the Malayan pit viper Calloselasma rhodostoma.

Upon induction soluble and active LAAO is produced and exported into the culture supernatant at a concentration of up to 0. Recombinant LAAO was purified from this by ion exchange and molecular sieve chromatography to yield apparently homogeneous protein in quantities of approximately 0. Catalytic properties and substrate specificity of recombinant LAAO are similar to those of native enzyme.

Isolation, purification and partial characterization of viper venom inhibiting factor from the root extract of the Indian medicinal plant sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R. An organic acid, isolated and purified from the root extract of an Indian medicinal plant sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R. Br, possessed viper venom inhibitory activity. The compound designated HI-RVIF was isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and thin layer chromatography, and was homogeneous in nature.

The white needle-shaped crystals were soluble in water, methanol and chloroform and had a melting point of degrees C and lambda max nm. Spectral analysis confirmed the presence of a benzene ring, methoxy group, and hydroxyl group; the mol. HI-RVIF significantly antagonized viper venom-induced lethal, haemorrhagic, coagulant and anticoagulant activity in experimental rodents. It is present in about 1,—3, copies per genome, depending on the strain, and it is distributed in all chromosomes.

An initial analysis of SIRE sequences from 21 genomic fragments allowed us to derive a consensus nucleotide sequence and structure for the element, consisting of three regions I, II, and III each harboring distinctive features. Analysis of transcribed SIREs demonstrates that the consensus is highly conserved. This study led to the characterization of VIPER vestigial interposed retroelement , a 2,bp-long unusual retroelement.

We present the general real- and redshift-space clustering properties of galaxies as measured in the first data release of the VIPERS survey. VIPERS is a large redshift survey designed to probe in detail the distant Universe and its large-scale structure at 0. Quantitative assessment of protein activity in orphan tissues and single cells using the meta VIPER algorithm. Office of Cancer Genomics. We and others have shown that transition and maintenance of biological states is controlled by master regulator proteins, which can be inferred by interrogating tissue-specific regulatory models interactomes with transcriptional signatures, using the VIPER algorithm.

Yet, some tissues may lack molecular profiles necessary for interactome inference orphan tissues , or, as for single cells isolated from heterogeneous samples, their tissue context may be undetermined. Production of high titre antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice immunized with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. The aim of the study was to assess the production of antibody response against Russell's viper venom in mice after prophylactic immunization with ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L.

The mice sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against Russell's viper venom by in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. Polyvalent anti-snake venom serum antivenom manufactured by Haffkine Bio-Pharmaceutical Corporation Ltd. Further confirmation of presence of antibodies against the venom in sera of mice immunized with PLE and piperine was done using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and double immunodiffusion test.

Treatment with PLE-treated mice serum and piperine-treated mice serum was found to inhibit the lethal action of venom both in the in vitro lethality neutralization assay and in vivo lethality neutralization assay. ELISA testing indicated that there were significantly high p viper venom in mice. The antibodies against PLE and piperine could be useful in antivenom therapy of Russell's viper bites.

PLE and piperine may also have a potential interest in view of the development of antivenom formulations used as antidote against snake bites. The coevolution of galaxy morphology and colour to z 1. The study of the separation of galaxy types into different classes that share the same characteristics, and of the evolution of the specific parameters used in the classification are fundamental for understanding galaxy evolution.

We explore the evolution of the statistical distribution of galaxy morphological properties and colours combining high-quality imaging data from the CFHT Legacy Survey with the large number of redshifts and extended photometry from the VIPERS survey. Galaxy structural parameters were combined with absolute magnitudes, colours and redshifts in order to trace evolution in a multi-parameter space. Using a new method we analysed the combination of colours and structural parameters of early- and late-type galaxies in luminosity-redshift space.

We find that both the rest-frame colour distributions in the U-B vs. Within the Neotropical pit vipers , a lineage of primarily Middle American snake species referred to as the "Porthidium group" includes the genera Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Porthidium. In this study, the venom proteomes of Porthidium nasutum, P. Proteins belonging to nine P. Final cataloging of proteins and their relative abundances confirmed the close relationship between venoms of P. Since the latter species had been taxonomically classified as Porthidium godmani previously, our venomic analyses agree with its current generic status.

The latter induced strong myotoxicity in mice, which correlates with its high proportion of phospholipases A 2 , whereas venoms from the two Porthidium species, containing lower amounts of these enzymes, induced only mild muscle damage. Complex longitudinal diversification across South China and Vietnam in Stejneger's pit viper , Viridovipera stejnegeri Schmidt, Reptilia: Viridovipera stejnegeri is one of the most common pit vipers in Asia, with a wide distribution in southern China and Vietnam.

We investigated historical demography and explored how the environment and climatic factors have shaped genetic diversity and the evolutionary history of this venomous snake. A total of samples from 47 localities were sequenced and analysed for two mitochondrial gene fragments and three nuclear genes. Gene trees reveal the existence of two well-supported clades Southwest China and Southeast China with seven distinct and strongly supported, geographically structured subclades within V.

Estimation of divergence time and ancestral area suggests that V. The estimated date of origin and divergence of the island populations of Taiwan and Hainan closely matches the geological origin of the both islands. The mtDNA gene tree reveals the presence of west-east diversification in V. Complex orogenesis and heterogeneous habitats, as well as climate-mediated habitat differentiation including glacial cycles, all have influenced population structure and the distribution of this taxon.

The validity of V. Crystal structure of the disintegrin heterodimer from saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus at 1. Disintegrins constitute a family of potent polypeptide inhibitors of integrins. Integrins are transmembrane heterodimeric molecules involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They are involved in many diseases such as cancer and thrombosis. Thus, disintegrins have a great potential as anticancer and antithrombotic agents. A novel heterodimeric disintegrin was isolated from the venom of saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus and was crystallized.

The crystals diffracted to 1. The data indicated the presence of a pseudosymmetry. The structure was solved by applying origin shifts to the disintegrin homodimer schistatin solved in space group I4 1 22 with similar cell dimensions. The notable differences are observed between the loops, GlnAsp48 containing the important ArgGlyAsp44, of the present heterodimer and schistatin.

These differences are presumably due to the presence of two glycines at positions 43 and 46 that allow the molecule to adopt variable conformations. A comparative analysis of the surface-charge distributions of various disintegrins showed that the charge distribution on monomeric disintegrins occurred uniformly over the whole surface of the molecule, while in the dimeric disintegrins, the charge is distributed only on one face.

Such a feature may be important in the binding of two integrins to a single dimeric disintegrin. The phylogenetic analysis developed on the basis of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structures indicates that the protein diversification and evolution presumably took place from the medium disintegrins and both the dimeric and short disintegrins evolved from them. The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.

Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal 1: In in vitro antioxidant activities sample extracts showed free radical scavenging effects in dose dependent manner. Computational drug design and docking studies were carried out to predict the neutralizing principles of type I phospholipase A2 PLA2 from Indian common krait venom.

This confirmed that aristolochic acid and leucasin can neutralize type I PLA2 enzyme. Results suggest that these plants could serve as a source of natural antioxidants and common antidote for snake bite. However, further studies are needed to identify the lead molecule responsible for antidote activity. High genetic differentiation among French populations of the Orsini's viper Vipera ursinii ursinii based on mitochondrial and microsatellite data: The Orsini's viper Vipera ursinii is one of the most threatened snakes in Europe due to its highly fragmented distribution and specific open environment steppic habitat requirement.

Mitochondrial sequences cytochrome b and 6 microsatellite loci have been used to estimate the levels of genetic diversity and isolation within and among 11 French fragmented populations a total of individuals. Eleven cytochrome b haplotypes with a limited divergence were observed mean divergence between haplotypes: Results indicate that 3 populations possibly went through a bottleneck and 1 population showed low genetic diversity compared with the others. Although a significant isolation by distance was detected for both markers, strong differentiation was also observed between geographically close populations, probably due to the ragged landscape that constitutes a serious barrier to gene flow owing to the limited dispersal capability of the viper.

Despite some discrepancies between the 2 markers, 8 Management Units have been identified and should be considered for future management projects. Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting.

Methods We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language medical literature to identify all publications to July, containing data about the administration of FabAV. Two trained reviewers separately extracted case-level data concerning the administration of FabAV to patients with severe envenomation by North American crotaline snakes to a standardized form.

Descriptive statistics were used. In addition, we hand-searched the US National Poison Data System reports for the years — to identify and describe any reports of death that occurred after FabAV administration. Results The literature review found unique publications regarding FabAV. Twenty-four evaluable cases of severe human envenomation treated with FabAV were identified in 19 publications. Seven cases were described in five cohort studies, and 17 cases were described in 14 single patient case reports or non-cohort case series. The median dose of Fab. The matter density and baryon fraction from the galaxy power spectrum at redshift 0.

We apply a fast Fourier transform technique to four independent subvolumes comprising a total of 51 galaxies at 0. Protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract pretreatment against cardiovascular and respiratory depressant effects of Calloselasma rhodostoma Malayan pit viper venom in rats. The protective effects of Mucuna pruriens seed extract MPE against the cardio-respiratory depressant and neuromuscular paralytic effects induced by injection of Calloselasma rhodostoma Malayan pit viper venom in anaesthetized rats were investigated.

Luminosity and stellar mass dependence of galaxy clustering at 0. We investigate the dependence of galaxy clustering on luminosity and stellar mass in the redshift range 0. We considered both threshold and binned galaxy samples, with median B-band absolute magnitudes - We assessed the real-space clustering in the data from the projected correlation function, which we model as a power law in the range 0. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programmes Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's vipers Daboia siamensis and D.

Russell's vipers Daboia russelii and D. People envenomed by these snakes suffer coagulopathy, bleeding, shock, neurotoxicity, acute kidney injury and local tissue damage leading to severe morbidity and mortality. An unusual complication of Russell's viper bite envenoming in Burma D. Here, we describe the first case of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite in Sri Lanka, review the literature on this subject and make recommendations for endocrine investigation and management.

A year-old man was bitten and seriously envenomed by D. He was treated with antivenom but although he recovered from the acute effects he remained feeling unwell. Hypopituitarism, with deficiencies of gonadal, steroid and thyroid axes, was diagnosed 3 years later. He showed marked improvement after replacement of anterior pituitary hormones.

We attribute his hypopituitarism to D. Russell's viper bite is known to cause acute and chronic hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus, perhaps through deposition of fibrin microthrombi and haemorrhage in the pituitary gland resulting from the action of venom procoagulant enzymes and haemorrhagins.

Forty nine cases of hypopituitarism following Russell's viper bite have been described in the English language literature. Patients with acute hypopituitarism may present with hypoglycaemia and hypotension during the acute phase of envenoming. Those with chronic hypopituitarism seem to have recovered from envenoming but present later with features of hypopituitarism. Steroid replacement in acute hypopituitarism is life saving. All 11 patients with chronic hypopituitarism in whom the outcome of treatment was reported, showed marked improvement with hormone.

Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. Piperaceae against Russell's viper venom: To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. Piperaceae and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly p Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of albolamin: Snake venom metalloproteinases SVMPs can damage vessel wall, degrade clotting factors, inhibit integrins and block platelet functions.

Studying them not only gives us deeper insights in pathogenesis of snakebites, but also potentially yields novel therapeutic agents. Sequence analysis revealed that it belonged to the P-IIa subclass of SVMP comprising signal peptide, prodomain, metalloproteinase and disintegrin. Compared with other P-II SVMPs, it contained 2 additional conserved cysteines that were predicted to prevent the release of disintegrin from the metalloproteinase domain in the mature protein.

The recombinant protein molecular weight was approximately 35 kDa on Western blot probed with anti-polyhistidine antibody. The recombinant albolamin could digest human type IV collagen starting within 15 min after incubation.

In addition, it dose-dependently inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation with the IC50 of 1. However, there was no effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Therefore, the inhibition mechanism is probably through blocking collagen receptor s. Albolamin activities probably contributed to pathology of green pit viper bites. Its disintegrin domain deserves further studies for the potential to be a useful agent affecting platelet functions.

Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, gram positive , labeled with the conjugated Proteus antibody, 40x This software graphically displays all pertinent information from a Predicted Events File PEF using the Java Swing framework, which allows for multi-platform support. This tool will provide the team with a visual way of reviewing and error-checking the sequence product. The front end of the tool contains much of the aesthetically appealing material for viewing.

The time stamp is displayed in the top left corner, and highlighted details are displayed in the bottom left corner. The time bar stretches along the top of the window, and the rest of the space is allotted for blocks and step functions. A preferences window is used to control the layout of the sections along with the ability to choose color and size of the blocks.

Double-clicking on a block will show information contained within the block. Zooming into a certain level will graphically display that information as an overlay on the block itself. The back end involves a configuration file that allows a more experienced user to pre-define the structure of a block, a single event, or a step function. The individual will have to determine what information is important within each block and what actually defines the beginning and end of a block. This gives the user much more flexibility in terms of what the tool is searching for.

In addition to the configurability, all the settings in the preferences window are saved in the configuration file as well. The design specification of the primary flight trainer are: The growth of structure at 0. We present measurements of the growth rate of cosmological structure from the modelling of the anisotropic galaxy clustering measured in the final data release of the VIPERS survey.

The analysis is carried out in configuration space and based on measurements of the first two even multipole moments of the anisotropic galaxy auto-correlation function, in two redshift bins spanning the range 0. We discuss several improvements on the non-linear modelling of redshift-space distortions RSD and perform detailed tests of a variety of approaches against a set of realistic VIPERS -like mock realisations. These tests show that we are able to measure the growth rate with negligible bias down to separations of 5 h-1 Mpc.

Interestingly, the application to real data shows a weaker sensitivity to the details of non-linear RSD corrections compared to mock results. A quiescent formation of massive red-sequence galaxies over the past 9 Gyr. This is supported by the detection of ongoing SF in early-type galaxies at 0. Downsizing of the blue cloud and the influence of galaxy size on mass quenching over the last eight billion years. We use the full VIPERS redshift survey in combination with SDSS-DR7 to explore the relationships between star-formation history using d , stellar mass and galaxy structure, and how these relationships have evolved since z 1.

The present study highlights the cellular mechanism of resistance in human adenocarcinoma Colo cells against apoptosis induction by Rusvinoxidase, an L-amino acid oxidase purified from Russell's Viper venom RVV. The significantly lower cytotoxicity as well as apoptotic activity of Rusvinoxidase towards Colo cells compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells is correlated with lower depletion of cellular glutathione content and increased down-regulation of catalase activity of Colo cells following Rusvinoxidase treatment.

Exposure to Rusvinoxidase subsequently diminished reactive oxygen species ROS production and failed to impair mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in apoptosis induction resistance in Colo cells. Further, higher expression levels of caspase 8, compared to caspase 9, indicate that Rusvinoxidase preferentially triggers the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in Colo cells. A time-dependent lower ratio of the relative expression of Bax and Bcl-xL pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in Colo cells, compared to our previous study on MCF-7 cells, unambiguously supports a higher cellular resistance mechanism in Colo cells against Rusvinoxidase-induced apoptosis.

Published by Elsevier B. Activated protein C resistance in patients following venous thromboembolism receiving rivaroxaban versus vitamin K antagonists: Activated protein C resistance APC-R is assessed as part of thrombophilia screening, preferably in patients not taking oral anticoagulants. Rivaroxaban is known to alter some APC-R assays. Patients receiving rivaroxaban or vitamin K antagonists were eligible. None of the patients on rivaroxaban were found to have false-negative or false-positive APC-R ratios. Performance of the minute whole blood clotting test in detecting venom induced consumption coagulopathy from Russell's viper Daboia russelii bites.

Northern Benin and Maritime Guinea]. We treated patients in northern Benin Atacora and in Maritime Guinea Kindia with confirmed envenomation. Treatment consisted of intravenous administration of 1 vial for uncomplicated envenomation , and 2 vials for hemorrhagic or neurotoxic envenomation. The dose was repeated when bleeding or signs of neurotoxicity persisted or appeared.

One patient bitten by a member of the Elapidae family, died despite early treatment. All these symptoms were mild and disappeared rapidly after an antihistamine or corticosteroid treatment. Clinical consequences of toxic envenomations by Hymenoptera. Many familiar Hymenoptera are brightly colored and can sting painfully-thus, their threat and clinical importance may be exaggerated. Most stinging insects only sting to defend themselves or their colonies from predators. The clinical nature of Hymenoptera envenomations contrasts that of other venomous animals, including other arthropods, primarily because allergic reaction, not direct intoxication, is the usual main concern.

This review focuses mainly on the clinical features of direct toxicity to Hymenoptera envenomations , which can induce a high incidence of acute renal failure, liver failure, multiple organ failures, and death. Toxic mass envenomations by honeybees usually entail many hundreds or more stings per victim. In contrast to honeybee toxic envenomations , hornet sting envenomations can be clinically threatening with only stings needed to cause kidney and other organ failures.

Many lethal envenomations by honeybees occur in rural areas in the New World and Africa and are not recorded or documented. In contrast, deaths by hornets occur mainly to Asia. The most frequent and important envenomating taxa are honeybees, hornets, yellowjacket wasps, paper wasps, fire ants, and jack jumper ants. Occasional envenomating taxa include bumblebees, bullet ants, harvester ants, solitary wasps, solitary bees, and various ants of lesser clinical importance.

Envenomations by Hymenoptera usually can be avoided if one considers that bees, wasps and ants "view" us as potential threats or predators, and that with information about the biology of stinging Hymenoptera, humans can minimize adverse incidents. North American snake and scorpion envenomations. Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment.

Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25, calls a year to poison centers. Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes.

Scientists believe the pits may form through a combination of sublimation and ice fracturing. Stonefish "Okoze" envenomation during food preparation. Stonefish is a dangerous and venomous fish commonly found in the shallow waters of the Pacific region. Its envenomation is reported worldwide with increasing frequency. Although envenomation usually occurs in those engaged in marine sports, chefs may suffer envenomation during cutting stonefish, which is eaten either sliced raw, boiled, or deep-fried by Japanese.

Since many people cook and eat Japanese food, it is important to know that cutting a stonefish for cooking carries the risk of envenomation. However, most primary and emergency physicians have not encountered cases of envenomation during food preparation. Here we describe a case of envenomation occurring while cooking.

The patient was a healthy year-old man working as a chef in a Japanese restaurant. He was presented to an academic emergency department after suddenly developing severe pain in his right fourth finger while cutting a stonefish. The finger was reddish, swollen, and tender.

The pain reduce d after immersing his hand in hot water, and disappeared within 18 h without any complication. In this report, we describe the history of stonefish envenomation and provide a brief review of the literature related to this form of envenomation. Predator facilitation or interference: In predator-prey foraging games, the prey's reaction to one type of predator may either facilitate or hinder the success of another predator. We ask, do different predator species affect each other's patch selection? If the predators facilitate each other, they should prefer to hunt in the same patch; if they interfere, they should prefer to hunt alone.

We performed an experiment in a large outdoor vivarium where we presented barn owls Tyto alba with a choice of hunting greater Egyptian gerbils Gerbillus pyramidum in patches with or without Saharan horned vipers Cerastes cerastes. Gerbils foraged on feeding trays set under bushes or in the open. We monitored owl location, activity, and hunting attempts, viper activity and ambush site location, and the foraging behavior of the gerbils in bush and open microhabitats.

Owls directed more attacks towards patches with vipers , and vipers were more active in the presence of owls. Owls and vipers facilitated each other's hunting through their combined effect on gerbil behavior, especially on full moon nights when vipers are more active. Owls forced gerbils into the bushes where vipers preferred to ambush, while viper presence chased gerbils into the open where they were exposed to owls. Owls and vipers took advantage of their indirect positive effect on each other.

In the foraging game context, they improve each other's patch quality and hunting success. Lionfish envenomation of the hand. Lionfish Pterois volitans envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water 45 degrees C until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins.

The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. Toxicologic information resources for reptile envenomations. The United States is the largest importer of reptiles in the world, with an estimated 1.

Envenomations by nonindigenous venomous species are a rare but often serious medical emergency. Bites may occur during the care and handling of legitimate collections found in universities, zoos, or museums. The other predominant source of exotic envenomation is from amateur collectors participating in importation, propagation, and trade of non-native species. This article provides toxicologic information resources for snake envenomations.

Lionfish envenomations in an urban wilderness. Marine envenomations are commonly encountered along coastal regions of the United States. Although less frequent, marine bites and stings do occur in landlocked locales, such as the Midwest, because of an increased interest in keeping these exotic creatures as pets. We report 33 cases of envenomations by captive lionfish Pterois volitans called to a regional Chicago poison control center over a 2-year period. The wounds were uniformly on the hand, and all presented with local, intense pain.

The majority of envenomations were responsive to prompt immersion in nonscalding water within 90 min, and all were advised on tetanus prophylaxis and local wound care. In all cases, those patients envenomated recovered without permanent sequelae. As a result of increasing encounters with lionfish as pets, health care providers. Pits such as these commonly form as a result of collapse of surface materials into a subsurface void, possibly along a fault or into an old lava tube. The layered material, exposed near the top of several of the pits , is shedding house-sized boulders which can be seen resting on the sloping sidewalls and floors of many of the pits.

Virtual Intelligent Planetary Exploration Rover. Simulation and visualization of rover behavior are critical capabilities for scientists and rover operators to construct, test, and validate plans for commanding a remote rover. This work is part of a larger vision of a science-centered rover control environment, where a scientist may inspect and explore the environment via VR tools, specify science goals, and visualize the expected and actual behavior of the remote rover. The VIPER system is constructed from three generic systems, linked together via a minimal amount of customization into the integrated system.

The complete system points out the power of combining plan execution, simulation, and visualization for envisioning rover behavior; it also demonstrates the utility of developing generic technologies. Running diagonal from middle-right toward lower left is a trough that intersects the pit. The trough is a typical graben formed by faulting as the upper crust of Mars split and pulled apart at this location.

The opening of the graben also led to formation of the collapse pits. Rattlesnake envenomation in 12 New World camelids. Rattlesnake envenomation of New World camelids is a seasonal problem with often dramatic clinical signs. The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical signs, laboratory results, treatment methods, and outcome for rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids.

Medical records from to were searched for New World camelids presented for rattlesnake bite or clinical signs suspected to be related to recent envenomation. Twelve records were identified. From these records a retrospective study was performed. Swelling of the lips, head and neck, tachypnea, dyspnea, tachycardia, and lethargy were the most common presenting signs. Common complete blood count CBC and serum biochemical abnormalities were neutrophilia, lymphopenia, increased muscle enzyme activity, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and thrombocytopenia.

Treatment included combinations of intravenous fluid therapy, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory drugs, tetanus prophylaxis, tracheostomy, supplemental oxygen, antivenom, total parenteral nutrition, and nursing care. Five of the 10 animals with acute onset of clinical signs survived, and all animals with subacute presentation died. New World camelids that sustain rattlesnake envenomation and severe facial swelling precluding prehension and mastication have a guarded prognosis for survival. Aggressive treatment is recommended to optimize the chances of survival.

Animals with less severe local tissue reaction and absence of systemic signs have a better prognosis. Stonefish envenomation with acute carpal tunnel syndrome. Stonefish envenomation is a common marine sting. Although stonefish injuries are commonly sustained during maritime activities, this local delicacy can also be considered a regional occupational hazard for chefs.

The availability and consumption of stonefish in local restaurants has increased the risk of acute carpal tunnel syndrome after a stonefish injury. This case report describes acute carpal tunnel syndrome following stonefish envenomation. An excellent recovery was achieved after surgical decompression of the carpal tunnel syndrome. Standard management of stonefish injuries should therefore take into account the possibility that this orthopaedic emergency may complicate the injury.

Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom AV is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa. We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective.

We derived inputs from the literature which included: Costs incurred by the victims include: The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1-way sensitivity analyses. In addition, the PSA showed that in the. Hamza, Muhammad; Idris, Maryam A. Background Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Methods We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. The findings were consistent even with variations of inputs in 1—way sensitivity analyses.

Bitis gabonica Gaboon viper snake venom gland: The venom gland of the snake Bitis gabonica Gaboon viper was used for the first time to construct a unidirectional cDNA phage library followed by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Hundreds of cDNAs were obtained and clustered into contigs. We found mostly novel full-length cDNA coding for metalloproteases P-II and P-III classes , Lysphospholipase A2, serine proteases with essential mutations in the active site, Kunitz protease inhibitors, several C-type lectins, bradykinin-potentiating peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, nucleotidases and nucleases, nerve growth factor, and L-amino acid oxidases.

Two new members of the recently described short coding region family of disintegrin, displaying RGD and MLD motifs are reported. In addition, we have identified for the first time a cytokine-like molecule and a multi-Kunitz protease inhibitor in snake venoms. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be identified.

This paper also reports the N-terminus of the 15 most abundant venom proteins and the sequences matching their corresponding transcripts. We have thus generated a comprehensive catalog of the B. The role of these molecules is discussed in the context of the envenomation caused by the Gaboon viper. Debunking the viper 's strike: To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy.

Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non- vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers , western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings.

We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move.

Fangs are specialised long teeth that contain either a superficial groove Gila monster, Beaded lizard, some colubrid snakes , along which the venom runs, or an enclosed canal viperid, elapid and atractaspid , down which the venom flows inside the tooth. The fangs of viperid snakes are the most effective venom-delivery structures among vertebrates and have been the focus of scientific interests for more than years.

Despite this interest the questions of how the canal at the centre of the fang forms remains unresolved. Two different hypotheses have been suggested. The mainstream hypothesis claims that the venom-conducting canal develops by the invagination of the epithelial wall of the developing tooth germ.

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  3. Clinical Social Work Practice and Regulation: An Overview.
  4. The sides of this invagination make contact and finally fuse to form the enclosed canal. The second hypothesis, known as the "brick chimney", claims the venom-conducting canal develops directly by successive dentine deposition as the tooth develops. The fang is thus built up from the tip to the base, without any folding of the tooth surface. In an attempt to cast further light on this subject the early development of the fangs was followed in a pit viper , Trimeresurus albolabris, using the expression of Sonic hedgehog Shh.

    We demonstrate that the canal is indeed formed by an early folding event, resulting from an invagination of epithelial cells into the dental mesenchyme. The epithelial cells proliferate to enlarge the canal and then the cells die by apoptosis, forming an empty tube through which the poison runs. The entrance and discharge orifices at either end of the canal develop by a similar invagination but the initial width of the invagination is very different from that in the middle of the tooth, and is associated with higher proliferation. The two sides of the invaginating epithelium never come into contact, leaving the orifice open.

    The mechanism by which the orifices form can be likened to that observed in reptiles with an open groove along. The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal 1: In in vitro antioxidant activities sample extracts showed free radical scavenging effects in dose dependent manner.

    Computational drug design and docking studies were carried out to predict the neutralizing principles of type I phospholipase A2 PLA2 from Indian common krait venom. This confirmed that aristolochic acid and leucasin can neutralize type I PLA2 enzyme. Results suggest that these plants could serve as a source of natural antioxidants and common antidote for snake bite. However, further studies are needed to identify the lead molecule responsible for antidote activity.

    Pitted keratolysis is a skin disorder that affects the stratum corneum of the plantar surface and is caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A year-old male presented with small punched-out lesions on the plantar surface. A superficial shaving was carried out for scanning electron microscopy. Hypokeratosis was noted on the plantar skin and in the acrosyringium, where the normal elimination of corneocytes was not seen.

    At higher magnification x 3, bacteria were easily found on the surface and the described transversal bacterial septation was observed. The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics.

    The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids NWC from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake Crotalus viridis viridis envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively.

    Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses.

    Poisoning, envenomation , and trauma from marine creatures. In the course of their clinical work or during leisure activity, family physicians occasionally may encounter patients with injuries from marine creatures. Poisoning, envenomation , and direct trauma are all possible in the marine environment. Ciguatera poisoning can result from ingestion of predatory fish that have accumulated biotoxins. Symptoms can be gastrointestinal or neurologic, or mixed. Management is mostly symptomatic.

    Scombroid poisoning results from ingestion of fish in which histamine-like substances have developed because of improper refrigeration. Gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms occur. Treatment is based on antihistamines. Envenomations from jellyfish in U. Household vinegar deactivates the nematocysts, and manual removal of tentacles is important. Heat immersion may help with the pain. Stingrays cause localized damage and a typically severe envenomation.

    The venom is deactivated by heat. The stingray spine, including the venom gland, typically is difficult to remove from the victim, and radiographs may be necessary to localize the spine or fragment. Direct trauma can result from contact with marine creatures. Hemorrhage and tissue damage occasionally are severe. Infections with organisms unique to the marine environment are possible; antibiotic choices are based on location and type of injury. Shark attacks, although rare, require immediate attention. TRPA1 and the thermal sensitivity of the snake pit organ.

    The pit organs of pit vipers , pythons, and boas are remarkable sensory devices that allow these snakes to detect infrared radiation emitted by warm-blooded prey. It has been theorized that this capacity reflects the pit organ's exceptional sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in temperature, but the molecules responsible for this extreme thermal resolution have been unknown. New evidence shows that pit organs respond to temperature using the warmth-activated cation channel TRPA1 transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 , a finding that provides a first glimpse of the underlying molecular hardware.

    The properties of these snake TRPA1s raise intriguing questions about the mechanisms responsible for the exceptional sensitivity of many biological thermoreceptors and about the evolutionary origins of these warmth-activated TRP channels. Compared with other crotaline envenomations , copperhead envenomations have historically been reported as having less severe hematologic venom effects and rarely hemorrhage. We report a case of clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding after a copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix envenomation.

    A year-old woman with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus was bitten on her right medial ankle after which hypofibrinogenemia and hematochezia developed. The symptoms resolved after repeated administration of Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab ovine antivenom. She was discharged without further complications 2 days later. Although copperhead envenomations are classically considered less severe than other crotaline envenomations , this case demonstrates the potential of the venom to produce clinically significant hematologic effects.

    Pediatric jellyfish envenomation in the Mediterranean Sea. Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism.

    A retrospective chart review was performed of all children presenting after jellyfish envenomations to the pediatric emergency department during the jellyfish swarming seasons June-August between and Extracted data included age, location of envenomation , pain scores, local and systemic manifestations, treatment provided in the emergency department and hospital, and disposition. Forty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; their ages ranged from 1 to 16 years and the median age was 9.

    Clinical manifestations were evident in all patients. The majority of 'burns' associated with jellyfish stings were first and second degree. One patient suffered a sting to the abdomen and three patients suffered a sting to the face. Treatment in the emergency department included pain control, with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, and antihistamines and topical corticosteroids in some cases. Reasons for hospitalization included systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, tachycardia, and muscle spasms. Two patients developed severe cellulitis, one patient had an anaphylactic reaction, and one was admitted to the.

    Envenomation by Bothrops punctatus in southwestern Colombia. We describe two patients bitten by B. Patients quickly improved their clinical and laboratory abnormalities after polyvalent antivenom application. The experiment consisted of selecting a control law, writing the control law algorithm for the VIPER processor, and providing real time, dynamic inputs into the processor and monitoring the outputs.

    The control law selected and coded for the VIPER processor was the yaw damper function of an automatic landing program for a aircraft. Heat in evolution's kitchen: Crotalinae possess thermal radiation receptors, the facial pits , which allow them to detect modest temperature fluctuations within their environments. It was previously thought that these organs were used solely to aid in prey acquisition, but recent findings demonstrated that western diamondback rattlesnakes Crotalus atrox use them to direct behavioral thermoregulation, suggesting that facial pits might be general purpose organs used to drive a suite of behaviors.

    To investigate this further, we conducted a phylogenetic survey of viperine thermoregulatory behavior cued by thermal radiation. We assessed this behavior in 12 pitviper species, representing key nodes in the evolution of pitvipers and a broad range of thermal environments, and a single species of true viper Viperidae: Viperinae , a closely related subfamily of snakes that lack facial pits but possess a putative thermal radiation receptor.

    All pitviper species were able to rely on their facial pits to direct thermoregulatory movements, while the true viper was unable to do so. Our results suggest that thermoregulatory behavior cued by thermal radiation is a universal role of facial pits and probably represents an ancestral trait among pitvipers.

    Further, they establish behavioral thermoregulation as a plausible hypothesis explaining the evolutionary origin of the facial pit. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets. Data for — suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for — using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: Between and these data conservatively show a total of full consultation episodes, admissions and 2, hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets.

    Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems.

    Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients. A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians for example, frogs and toads , reptiles turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes , birds, mammals for example, primates, civets, and lions , and invertebrates for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes , and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal.

    We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers Serpentes, Viperidae from southern Brazil.

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity daily and seasonal and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B.

    We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

    Roads are associated with a blunted stress response in a North American pit viper. Whereas numerous studies have examined roads as anthropogenic stressors in birds and mammals, comparatively few studies have been undertaken on reptiles. We investigated plasma corticosterone CORT levels at baseline and following 30min of restraint stress in free-ranging copperhead snakes Agkistrodon contortrix captured within the forest interior or while in contact with public roads. There was no difference in baseline CORT levels between snakes in the forest and on roads. Copperheads responded to restraint stress by increasing plasma levels of CORT; however snakes on roads exhibited a lower CORT stress response compared to forest snakes.

    Our results suggest that roads are associated with a blunted stress response in copperheads. Reduced stress responses may be indicative of acclimation, the inhibited ability to mount a stress response in the face of prolonged chronic stress, or that road environments select for individuals with lower CORT responsiveness. Either scenario could result in increased road mortality if snakes do not perceive roads as a potential threat. Incidence, clinical features and management. Black widow spider Latrodectus mactans envenomation is found throughout both the temperate and tropical latitudes, and is one of the leading causes of death from arthropod envenomations worldwide.

    The venom is highly neurotoxic, affecting the presynaptic motor endplate to allow massive noradrenaline norepinephrine and acetylcholine release into synapses causing excessive stimulation and fatigue of the motor end plate and muscle. Clinically, patients develop a bite site lesion and pain, abdominal pain and tenderness, and lower extremity pain and weakness within minutes to hours of envenomation.

    Symptoms progress over several hours, then subside over 2 to 3 days. Brown recluse spider Loxosceles reclusa envenomations are seen in the Americas and in Europe, and are endemic to the south and central United States. The venom contains at least 8 enzymes, consisting of various lysins facilitating venom spread and sphingomyelinase D, which causes cell membrane injury and lysis, thrombosis, local ischaemia, and chemotaxis. Local envenomations begin as pain and itching that progresses to vesiculation with violaceous necrosis and surrounding erythema, and ultimately ulcer formation.

    Systemic envenomations may be life threatening, and present with fever, constitutional symptoms, petechial eruptions, thrombocytopenia, and haemolysis with haemoglobinuric renal failure. Treatment of local envenomations is conservative local wound care, cryotherapy, elevation, tetanus prophylaxis, and close follow-up ; systemic envenomation requires supportive care and treatment of arising complications, corticosteroids to stabilise red blood cell membranes, and support of renal function.

    Dapsone mg daily has emerged. Envenomations by venomous aquatic vertebrates]. Epidemiological information on marine envenomation is generally less extensive in Europe than in tropical regions where these injuries are more severe and the need for medical advice is more frequent. For these reasons use of regional Poison Control Centers in the area where the injury occurs must be encouraged. The purpose of this review is to describe envenomation by bony fish lion fish, stone fish, and catfish , cartilaginous fish stingrays and poisonous sharks , or other venomous aquatic vertebrates moray-eels and marine snakes.

    Understanding of these envenomation syndromes is important not only in tropical areas but also in Europe where importation of dangerous species has increased in recent years. Martian Central Pit Craters. Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors floor pits as well as on top of central peaks summit pits.

    Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km.

    Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations.

    They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings. Unfortunately, the proof became too complex and unmanageable within the given time and funding constraints, and is thus incomplete as of the date of this report.

    Deriving from recent results in hardware verification research at UC Davis, the approach has been to redesign the electronic block model to make it microcoded and to structure the proof in a series of decreasingly abstract interpreter levels, the lowest being the electronic block level. Owing to the new approach and some results on the proof of generic interpreters as applied to simple microprocessors, this attempt required an effort approximately an order of magnitude less than the previous one.

    Documented envenomations by the pygmy rattlesnake Sistrurus miliarius barbouri are rare. While there have been no documented fatalities, several older case reports describe significant morbidity. A year-old man with no significant past medical history presented after being envenomated on the right hand by his friend's pet pygmy rattlesnake. He developed swelling and pain in his hand and forearm. He responded well to a ten vial loading dose and a 18 h maintenance protocol of CroFab and was discharged the following day without developing any hematological or electrolyte derangements.

    This is the first documented use of CroFab for S. The outcome of this case suggests that CroFab is a safe treatment modality in this setting. Hydrodynamics of Reptilian Envenomation. Here we focus on two key aspects of the grooved delivery system: We show that the surface tension of the venom is the driving force underlying the envenomation dynamics. In so doing, we explain not only the efficacy of the open groove, but also the prevalence of this mechanism among reptiles. Introduction The psychological impact of snakebite on its victims, especially possible late effects, has not been systematically studied.

    Objectives To assess delayed somatic symptoms, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , and impairment in functioning, among snakebite victims. Methods The study had qualitative and quantitative arms. Persons with no history of snakebite, matched for age, sex, geograpical location and occupation, acted as controls. In the qualitative arm, focus group discussions among snakebite victims explored common somatic symptoms attributed to envenoming.

    Results Previous snakebite victims cases had more symptoms than controls as measured by the modified Beck Depression Scale mean The aim of the present study is to investigate the acute and chronic envenomation from 4 snakes out of 8 species of Saudi Cobras and Vipers on the tissues of endocrine glands and peripheral hormonal levels in male rats.

    The peripheral blood levels of 4 hormones mainly testosterone, cortisol, insulin and thyroxin were investigated in male Wistar rats following acute and chronic treatment of the rats with poisonous snake venoms at the Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September to May Using radio immunoassay for hormonal analysis, a rise in testosterone levels in peripheral blood was obtained following acute treatment, which is due to the effect of the venoms on vascular permeability and increased blood flow.

    In contrast, the chronic treatment with venoms resulted in a delayed effect on vascular permeability and testicular degeneration resulting in a decreased blood flow and a significant drop in testosterone concentration. Cortisol levels were no different from the controls during acute treatment but it demonstrates gradual rise following chronic treatment to withstand the stress imposed on the animals. Similar results were obtained for insulin, which showed normal values with acute treatment but decreased levels of chronic treatment suggesting insulin insufficiently.

    Likewise, the thyroxin levels were decreased with chronic treatment suggesting a toxic effect of the poison on the rich blood supply of the thyroid follicles with a subsequent decrease in blood flow to the tissues and therefore, decreased thyroid hormone levels. The effects of venom toxicity on testosterone levels were either normal or stimulatory with acute treatment or inhibitory with chronic treatment depending on the vascular blood flow and testicular degeneration.

    Cortisol levels were normal at. Performance of the minute whole blood clotting test in detecting venom induced consumption coagulopathy from Russell's viper Daboia russelii bites. The minute whole blood clotting test WBCT20 is used as a bedside diagnostic test for coagulopathic snake envenoming. Adult patients admitted with suspected snake bites were recruited from two hospitals. WBCT20 was done by trained clinical research assistants using 1 ml whole blood in a 5 ml borosilicate glass tube with a 10 mm internal diameter.

    The PT was measured by a semi-automated coagulation system and international normalised ratio INR calculated. Using trained clinical staff, the WBCT20 test had a relatively good sensitivity for the detection of VICC, but still missed almost one fifth of cases where antivenom was potentially indicated. This study compares maintenance with clinical- and laboratory-triggered as-needed [PRN] antivenom dosing strategies with regard to patient-centered outcomes after rattlesnake envenomation.

    This is a retrospective cohort study of adult rattlesnake envenomations treated at a regional toxicology center. Data on demographics, envenomation details, antivenom administration, length of stay, and laboratory and clinical outcomes were compared between the PRN and maintenance groups.

    Primary outcomes were hospital length of stay and total antivenom used, with a hypothesis of no difference between the two dosing strategies. Three-hundred ten adult patients envenomated by rattlesnakes between and were included. This is a retrospective study of rattlesnake envenomations treated with and without maintenance antivenom dosing.

    One-hundred forty-eight in the maintenance group and in the PRN group were included. There was no difference in demographics or baseline envenomation severity or hemotoxicity Comparing the PRN with the maintenance group, less antivenom was used 8 [interquartile range, ] vs 16 [interquartile range, ] vials, respectively; p envenomation. An instructive case of presumed brown snake Pseudonaja spp. Several species of medically important Australian elapid snakes are frequently involved in human envenoming.

    The brown snake group Pseudonaja spp. Pseudonaja envenoming is typically diagnosed by history, clinical assessment including occasional active clinical bleeding noted on physical examination e. Lack of verified identity of the envenoming snake species is a common problem in Australia and elsewhere. Identification and confirmation of the envenoming Australian snake taxon is often attempted with enzyme sandwich immunoassay venom detection kits SVDKs. However, the SVDK has limited utility due to unreliable specificity and sensitivity when used to detect venoms of some Australian elapids.

    Antivenom AV remains the cornerstone of treatment, although there is debate concerning the recommended dose 1 vs. Envenomed patients receiving timely treatment uncommonly succumb, but a proportion of seriously envenomed patients may exhibit clinical or laboratory evidence of myocardial insult.

    An year-old woman presented her dog to a veterinarian after it had sustained a bite by a witnessed snake, reportedly an eastern brown snake Pseudonaja textilis, Elapidae. The woman became suddenly confused, and lost consciousness at the veterinary office. After transport to hospital, she denied any contact with the snake, but developed large haematomas at.

    Microvasculature of crotaline snake pit organs: The infrared sensory membranes of the pit organs of pit vipers have an extremely rich capillary vasculature, which has been noted passim in the literature, but never illustrated or studied in detail. We rendered the pit vasculature visible in various ways, namely, by microinjection of India ink, by a combination of ink and succinate dehydrogenase staining, and by making resin casts for scanning electron microscope study.

    We also used transmission electron microscopy for identifying the types arterioles, venules, capillaries of blood vessels. Then we compared the pit vasculature with that of the retina and the dermis. Good visualization of the vasculature was obtained with both ink and resin injection. Arterioles, venules, and capillaries could be distinguished with all methods used. The monolayer vasculature was denser in the pit membrane than in the retina or skin.

    Each loop of the network enclosed a small number of infrared receptors so that all receptors were in contact with a capillary on at least one side. The forward-looking areas of the pit had a denser network than side-looking areas. Since infrared rays cause nerve impulses by raising the temperature of individual receptors, the capillary network functions not only as a supplier of energy but also as a cooling mechanism to reduce afterimages.

    Thus the denser network in the forward-looking areas causes these areas to be more sensitive and have better image resolution than the rest of the membrane.

    1. Herbert Butterfield: Historian as Dissenter?
    2. pit viper envenomation: Topics by!
    3. American Pilgrim:A Post-September 11th Bus Trip and Other Tales of the Road;
    4. .
    5. Habanera?
    6. Recurrent coagulopathy with delayed significant bleeding after crotaline envenomation. Report of delayed significant coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding after Crotaline envenomation. Recurrent coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia have been described after treatment of Crotaline envenomation with Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab CroFab. Until now, there have been no reports of significant spontaneous bleeding despite these abnormalities.

      Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab has a relatively short half-life compared with previous antivenoms used to treat snake bite. This shorter half-life allows for recurrence of venom effects. Therefore, patients with Crotaline envenomation should undergo close monitoring for recurrence of coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia after treatment with CroFab. If coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia recurs, retreatment with CroFab should be considered to prevent significant bleeding. Marine Scorpaenidae Envenomation in Travelers: Epidemiology, Management, and Prevention. The Scorpaenidae are a large family of venomous marine fish that include scorpionfish, lionfish, and stonefish.

      Although most stonefish are confined to the Indo-Pacific, scorpionfish are distributed in the tropics worldwide, and two species of Indo-Pacific lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the Eastern Atlantic in the s. All of these regions are popular travel destinations for beachcombing, fishing, swimming, and scuba diving-recreational activities that increase risks of Scorpaenidae envenomation. To meet the objectives of describing species-specific presenting clinical manifestations, diagnostic and treatment strategies, and outcomes of Scorpaenidae envenomation in travelers, Internet search engines were queried with the key words.

      Well-conducted, retrospective epidemiological investigations of Scorpaenidae envenomation case series concluded: Travel medicine practitioners should counsel their patients about Scorpaenidae envenomation risks in endemic regions and maintain a high index of suspicion regarding Scorpaenidae envenomation in all travelers returning from tropical beach and ocean holidays and.

      At the lowest level are the gate-level models in proprietary CAD languages. The block-level and gate-level specifications are also given in the ELLA simulation language. Among VIPER 's deficiencies are the fact that there is no notion of external events in the top-level specification, and it is impossible to use the top-level specifications to prove abstract properties of programs running on VIPER computers. There is no complete proof that the gate-level specifications implement the top-level specifications. Cohn's proof that the major-state machine correctly implements the top-level specifications has no formal connection with any of the other proof attempts.

      None of the latter address resetting the machine, memory timeout, forced error, or single step modes. Tracheal intubation prevented with administration of Fab antivenom after severe crotaline envenomation. Crotaline snake envenomations are common, but severe crotaline envenomations are infrequent. Death from severe envenomation is usually from upper airway edema and respiratory failure. Published reports of severe respiratory compromise and anaphylactoid reactions are rare. We describe a case of a male with severe systemic effects and airway compromise after crotaline envenomation.

      The patient's systemic effects and upper airway edema substantially improved after antivenom infusion and before epinephrine administration. Endotracheal intubation was averted, clinical deterioration was avoided, and improvement occurred after prompt FabAV use. Fab antivenom likely prevented endotracheal intubation in our case of severe crotaline envenomation. Crater floors can have a range of features, from flat to a central peak or a central pit.

      This unnamed crater in Terra Sabaea has a central pit. The different floor features develop do due several factors, including the size of the impactor, the geology of the surface material and the geology of the materials at depth. Mass envenomation of a mare and foal by bees. The clinical course of toxic envenomation of a mare and her foal after an attack by a swarm of bees in the Upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales is described. Early agitation and urticaria were followed by more severe systemic clinical signs within 18 h. There was severe, generalised angioedema, rhabdomyolysis, hypovolaemia, gastrointestinal stasis and renal injury.

      A particular feature in the mare was almost maniacal behaviour during the first 48 h. Clinical pathological examination showed evidence of haemoconcentration, intravascular haemolysis, thrombocytopenia, azotaemia, rhabdomyolysis and hypoproteinaemia. Symptomatic treatment was initiated using intravenous fluids, anti-inflammatory drugs, histamine antagonists, analgesia and antibiotics. The foal responded within 12 h, but management of the mare was complicated by severe pain, generalised oedema, intrauterine haemorrhage, renal injury and later, recurrent fever.

      The most severe, acute effects of mass envenomation lasted for days. Neither mare nor foal suffered any known lasting systemic effects of envenomation , although localised dermal necrosis resulted in white hairs at some sting sites and deformed ear tips in the foal. Early recognition of clinical signs and treatment of toxic envenomation with an understanding of the physiological effects of hymenoptera venom can lead to a favourable outcome in horses receiving a non-lethal dose.

      Further case reports of the treatment of affected horses are needed to expand knowledge of how best to approach this rare, but serious intoxication. Struan Sutherland--Doyen of envenomation in Australia. Struan Sutherland was the doyen of medical research in the field of envenomation and the ultimate authority on the medical management of envenomated victims in Australia for almost 3 decades. Struan also invented the pressure-immobilisation technique of first-aid for snake bite. This ingenious, simple but safe and effective technique revolutionised first-aid management of snake bite and of some other types of envenomation.

      It made redundant the use of tourniquets and other dangerous first-aid treatments. Similarly, he helped to develop a snake venom detection kit, which enables doctors working at a victim's bedside to ascertain which snake was responsible and which antivenom should be administered. He had a very wide range of research interests and was a prodigious researcher publishing over scientific and medical articles, numerous chapters in books and the standard Australian medical textbook on the management of envenomation , Australian Animal Toxins.

      He made major contributions to the understanding of the venoms of Australia's remarkable range of fauna including snakes, spiders, Blue-ringed octopus, ants, jellyfish and stinging fish. Struan served the medical fraternity and the public selflessly. He was always available to doctors, or to anybody, to give advice at any hour of the day or night, on management of envenomated victims.

      Members of the Australian Venom Research Unit, which he founded in at The University of Melbourne, now continue this h advisory service. Prospective evaluation of pain, swelling, and disability from copperhead envenomation. In light of the existing controversy regarding antivenin treatment for copperhead envenomation , a more detailed analysis of the disability from this species is needed.