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The Allies produced about three times as much in munitions as the Axis powers. The Allies called themselves the " United Nations " even before that organization formed in , and pledged their support to the Atlantic Charter of The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: The sudden German invasion of neutral Belgium in May led in a matter of 18 days to the collapse of the Belgian army; King Leopold obtained an armistice that involved direct German military administration.

The King refused the government's demand that he flee with them to Britain; he remained as a puppet ruler under German control. The Belgian bureaucracy remained in place and generally cooperated with the German rulers. During the Holocaust in Belgium , the Nazis hunted down the 70, Jews living in Belgium, most of them refugees, and killed 29, of them.

The Germans expected to exploit Belgium's industrial resources to support their war machine. Their policies created severe shortages for the Belgian people, but shipped out far less than Germany had expected. However, factory production fell sharply after Although collaboration with the Nazis, especially among the Flemish, was evident in , it soon faded in importance.

Labor strikes and systematic sabotage slowed production, as did the emigration of workers to rural areas, Allied bombing, food shortages, and worker resentment of forced labor. The Allies retook all of Belgium in September as the Germans retreated. They reappeared briefly during the hard fighting of the Battle of the Bulge in December , but were finally expelled in January China suffered the second highest number of casualties of the entire war. Civilians in the occupied territories had to endure many large-scale massacres, including that in Nanjing [ citation needed ]. In a few areas, Japanese forces also unleashed newly-developed biological weapons on Chinese civilians, leading to an estimated , dead.

Millions more Chinese died because of famine during the war. Japan captured major coastal cities like Shanghai early in the war, cutting the rest of China off from its chief sources of finance and industry. Millions of Chinese moved to remote regions to avoid invasion. Cities like Kunming ballooned with new arrivals. Entire factories and universities were relocated to safe areas so society could still function.

Japan replied with hundreds of air raids on the new capital of Chongqing. Although China received much aid from the United States, China did not have sufficient infrastructure to properly arm or even feed its military forces, let alone its civilians. China was divided into three zones, with the Nationalists in the southwest and the Communists led by Mao Zedong Mao in control of much of the northwest. Coastal areas were occupied by the Japanese, and civilians were treated harshly [ citation needed ] ; young men were drafted into a puppet Chinese army.

After the stunningly quick victory in June , France was knocked out of the war; part of it, with its capital in Vichy , became an informal ally of the Germans. A powerful Resistance movement sprang up, as the Germans fortified the coast against an Allied invasion and occupied the northern half of the country. The Vichy French government cooperated closely with the Germans, sending food, machinery and workers to Germany. Several hundred thousand Frenchmen and women were forced to work in German factories, or volunteered to do so, as the French economy itself deteriorated.

Nevertheless, there was a strong Resistance movement, with fierce anti-resistance activities carried out by the Nazis and the French police. Most Jews were rounded up by the Vichy police and handed over to the Germans, who sent them to death camps. The two million French soldiers held as POWs and forced laborers in Germany throughout the war were not at risk of death in combat, but the anxieties of separation for their , wives were high.

The government provided a modest allowance, but one in ten became prostitutes to support their families. Women suffered shortages of all varieties of consumer goods and the absence of the men in POW camps. Supply problems quickly affected French stores, which lacked most items. The government responded by rationing, but German officials set the policies and hunger prevailed, especially affecting young people in urban areas.

In shops, the queues lengthened. Some people—including German soldiers who could take advantage of arbitrary exchange rates that favored Germany—benefited from the black market , where food was sold without coupons at very high prices. Farmers diverted meat to the black market, so there was much less for the open market. Counterfeit food coupons were also in circulation. Direct buying from farmers in the countryside and barter against cigarettes became common.

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Irish neutrality during World War II - Wikipedia

These activities were strictly forbidden, and carried the risk of confiscation and fines. Food shortages were most acute in the large cities. Vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition were prevalent. Advice about eating a healthier diet and home growing produce was distributed. Slogans like "Digging for Victory" and "Make Do and Mend" appeared on national posters and became a part of the war effort.

The city environment made these efforts nearly negligible. The official ration provided starvation-level diets of 1, or fewer calories a day kJ , supplemented by home gardens and, especially, black market purchases. The Dutch famine of , known as the Hongerwinter "Hunger winter" was a man-made famine imposed by Germany in the occupied western provinces during the winter of — A German blockade cut off food and fuel shipments from farm areas. A total of 4. The Nazi Hunger Plan was to kill the Jews of Poland quickly, and slowly to force the Poles to leave by threat of starvation, so that they could be replaced by German settlers.

The Nazis coerced Poles to work in Germany by providing favorable food rations for families who had members working in the Reich. The ethnic German population in Poland Volksdeutsche were given good rations and were allowed to shop for food in special stores. The German occupiers created a draconian system of food controls, including severe penalties for the omnipresent black market.

There was a sharp increase in mortality due to the general malnutrition, and a decline in birth rates. By mid , the German minority in Poland received 2, calories 11, kJ per day, while Poles received and Jews in the ghetto Only the ration allocated to Germans provided the full required calorie intake. Distribution of food in Nazi occupied Poland as of December [24]. Additionally the Generalplan Ost of the Nazis, which envisioned the elimination of the Slavic population in the occupied territories and artificial famines-as proposed in the Hunger Plan , were to be used.

On September 1, , Germany invaded Poland, conquering it in three weeks, as the Soviets invaded the eastern areas. During the German occupation, there were two distinct civilian uprisings in Warsaw, one in , the other in The Germans built high walls around the ghetto, and crowded , Polish Jews into it, many from the Polish provinces. At first, people were allowed to enter and leave the ghetto, but soon its border became an "iron curtain".

Unless on official business, Jews could not leave, and non-Jews, including Germans, could not enter. Entry points were guarded by German soldiers. Because of extreme conditions and hunger, mortality in the ghetto was high. In , the Germans moved , ghetto residents to Treblinka where they were gassed on arrival. By April 19, , when the Ghetto Uprising commenced, the population of the ghetto had dwindled to 60, individuals.

In the following three weeks, virtually all died as the Germans fought and systematically destroyed the buildings in the ghetto. The uprising by Poles began on August 1, , when the Polish underground, the "Home Army", aware that the Soviet Army had reached the eastern bank of the Vistula, sought to liberate Warsaw much as the French resistance had liberated Paris a few weeks earlier. Joseph Stalin had his own group of Communist leaders for the new Poland and did not want the Home Army or its leaders based in London to control Warsaw.

So he halted the Soviet offensive and gave the Germans free rein to suppress it. During the ensuing 63 days, , Poles of the Home Army surrendered to the Germans. After the Germans forced all the surviving population to leave the city, Hitler ordered that any buildings left standing be dynamited — 98 percent of the buildings in Warsaw were destroyed. During the invasion of the Soviet Union in the early months of the war, rapid German advances almost captured the cities of Moscow and Leningrad. The bulk of Soviet industry which could not be evacuated was either destroyed or lost due to German occupation.

Agricultural production was interrupted, with grain crops left standing in the fields. This caused hunger reminiscent of the early s. In one of the greatest feats of war logistics, factories were evacuated on an enormous scale, with 1, factories dismantled and shipped eastwards along four principal routes to the Caucasus , Central Asia , the Ural , and Siberia.

The whole of the Soviet Union become dedicated to the war effort. The people of the Soviet Union were probably better prepared than any other nation involved in World War II to endure the material hardships of the war — primarily because they were so used to shortages and economic crisis in the past, especially during wartime—World War I had brought similar restrictions on food. In Leningrad, under German siege, over a million people died of starvation and disease.

Many factory workers were teenagers, women and old people. The government implemented rationing in and first applied it to bread, flour, cereal, pasta, butter, margarine, vegetable oil, meat, fish, sugar and confectionery all across the country. The rations remained largely stable in other places [ clarification needed ] during the war.

Off-ration food was often so expensive that it could not add substantially to a citizen's food supply unless they were especially well-paid. Peasants received no rations and had to make do with any local resources they farmed themselves. Most rural peasants struggled and lived in unbearable poverty, but others sold their surplus food at a high price; a few became rouble millionaires, until a currency reform two years after the end of the war wiped out their wealth. Despite harsh conditions, the war led to a spike in Soviet nationalism and unity.

Soviet propaganda toned down extreme Communist rhetoric of the past as the people now rallied to protect their Motherland against the evils of the German invaders. Ethnic minorities thought to be collaborators were forced into exile. Religion, which was previously shunned, became a part of a Communist Party propaganda campaign to mobilize religious people.

Soviet society changed drastically during the war. There was a burst of marriages in June and July between people about to be separated by the war, and in the next few years the marriage rate dropped off steeply, with the birth rate following shortly thereafter to only about half of what it would have been in peacetime. For this reason mothers with several children during the war received substantial honors and money benefits if they had several children—mothers could earn around 1, rubles for having their fourth child and up to 5, rubles for their tenth.

Hunger, malnutrition, disease, starvation, and even cannibalism became common during the siege, which lasted from September until January Many people lost weight, and grew weaker and more vulnerable to disease. If malnutrition persisted for long enough, its effects were irreversible. People's feelings of loyalty disappeared if they got hungry enough; they would steal from their closest family members in order to survive. Only some of the citizens of Leningrad survived. Only , were evacuated before the siege began; this left 2.

Subsequently, more managed to escape; especially when the nearby Lake Ladoga froze over and people could walk over the ice road—or "road of life"—to safety. Some factory owners even looted state funds to secure transport out of the city during the first summer of the war. Most survival strategies during the siege, though, involved staying within the city and facing the problems through resourcefulness or luck: Workers received larger rations than other civilians, and factories were likely to have electricity if they produced vital goods.

Factories also served as mutual support centers, and had clinics and other services like cleaning crews and teams of women who would sew and repair clothes. Factory employees were still driven to desperation on occasion and people resorted to eating glue or horsemeat in factories where food was scarce, but factory employment was the most consistently successful method of survival, and at some food production plants not a single person died.

Irish neutrality during World War II

Survival opportunities open to the wider Soviet community included barter and farming on private land. Black markets thrived as private barter and trade became more common, especially between soldiers and civilians. Soldiers, who had more food to spare, were eager to trade with civilians who had extra warm clothes to exchange. Planting vegetable gardens in the spring became popular, primarily because citizens could keep everything grown on their own plots.

The campaign also had a potent psychological effect and boosted morale, a survival component almost as crucial as bread. Many of the most desperate Soviet citizens turned to crime to support themselves. Most common was the theft of food and of ration cards; this could prove fatal for a malnourished person if their card was stolen more than a day or two before a new card was issued. For these reasons, the stealing of food was severely punished and a person could be shot for as little as stealing a loaf of bread.

More serious crimes such as murder and cannibalism also occurred, and special police squads were set up to combat these crimes, though by the end of the siege, roughly 1, had been arrested for cannibalism. In the United States, farming and other production was increased. For example, citizens were encouraged to plant "victory gardens", personal farms that children sometimes worked on. The Philippines was an American possession on the way to independence scheduled in and controlled its own internal affairs. The Japanese invaded and quickly conquered the islands in early The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new government structure in the Philippines and established the Philippine Executive Commission.

They initially organized a Council of State , through which they directed civil affairs until October , when they declared the Philippines an independent republic. Laurel proved to be ineffective and unpopular as Japan maintained very tight controls. Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army , as well as remnants of the U.

Army Forces Far East continued to fight the Japanese in a guerrilla war. They formed an auxiliary unit of the United States Army. Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.

World War II and the shameful actions of the Republic of Ireland

One element of resistance in the Central Luzon area was furnished by the Hukbalahap , which armed some 30, people and extended their control over much of Luzon. As in most occupied countries, crime, looting, corruption, and black markets were endemic. For example, Japan had a surplus of sugar from Taiwan, and a severe shortage of cotton, so they try to grow cotton in on sugar lands with disastrous results. They lacked the seeds, pesticides, and technical skills to grow cotton. Jobless farm workers flock to the cities, where there was minimal relief and few jobs.

The Japanese Army also tried using cane sugar for fuel, castor beans and copra for oil, derris for quinine, cotton for uniforms, and abaca hemp for rope. The plans were very difficult to implement in the face of limited skills, collapsed international markets, bad weather, and transportation shortages. The program was a failure that gave very little help to Japanese industry, and diverted resources needed for food production. Living conditions were bad throughout the Philippines during the war. Transportation between the islands was difficult because of lack of fuel.

Food was in very short supply, with sporadic famines and epidemic diseases [48] [49]. The Japanese tried to remove all Western and American cultural influences. They met fierce resistance when they tried to undermine the Catholic Church by arresting Christian missionaries. The Filipinos came to feel morally superior to the brutal Japanese and rejected their advances. The Japanese tried to reshape schools and impose the Japanese language. They formed neighborhood associations to inform on the opposition.

Britain's total mobilisation during this period proved to be successful in winning the war, by maintaining strong support from public opinion. The war was a "people's war" that enlarged democratic aspirations and produced promises of a postwar welfare state. It lost aircraft in France [ when? The government decided to concentrate on only five types of aircraft in order to optimise output. These aircraft received extraordinary priority, which covered the supply of materials and equipment and even made it possible to divert from other types the necessary parts, equipment, materials and manufacturing resources.

Labour was moved from other aircraft work to factories engaged on the specified types. Cost was no object. The delivery of new fighters rose from in April to in September—more than enough to cover the losses—and Fighter Command emerged triumphantly from the Battle of Britain in October with more aircraft than it had possessed at the beginning.

Food, clothing, petrol, leather and other items were rationed.

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Perishable items such as fruit were not rationed. Access to luxuries was severely restricted, although there was also a significant black market. Families also grew " victory gardens ", and small home vegetable gardens. Many goods were conserved to turn into weapons later, such as fat for nitroglycerin production.

People in the countryside were less affected by rationing as they had greater access to locally sourced unrationed products than people in cities, and were more able to grow their own. The rationing system, which was originally based on a specific basket of goods for each consumer, was much improved by switching to a points system which allowed housewives to make choices based on their own priorities.

Food rationing also permitted the upgrading of the quality of the food available, and housewives approved—except for the absence of white bread and the government's imposition of an unpalatable wheat meal " national loaf ". Surveys of public opinion showed that most Britons were pleased that rationing brought equality and a guarantee of a decent meal at an affordable cost.

From very early in the war, it was thought that the major industrial cities of Britain, especially London, would come under Luftwaffe air attack; this did happen in The Blitz. Some children were sent to Canada, the USA and Australia, and millions of children and some mothers were evacuated from London and other major cities to safer parts of the country when the war began, under government plans for the evacuation of civilians , but they often filtered back.

When the Blitz bombing began on September 6, , they evacuated again. The discovery of the poor health and hygiene of evacuees was a shock to many Britons, and helped prepare the way for the Beveridge Report. Children were evacuated if their parents agreed; but in some cases they had no choice.

The children were only allowed to take a few things with them, including a gas mask, books, money, clothes, ration book and some small toys. An Emergency Hospital Service was established at the beginning of the war, in the expectation that it would be required to deal with large numbers of casualties. A common theme called for an expansion of the welfare state as a reward to the people for their wartime sacrifices.

It recommended that the various forms of assistance that had grown up piecemeal since be rationalised. Unemployment benefits and sickness benefits were to be universal. There would be new benefits for maternity. The old-age pension system would be revised and expanded, and require that a person retired. A full-scale National Health Service would provide free medical care for everyone. All the major political parties endorsed the principles, and they were largely put into effect when peace returned.

The themes of equality and sacrifice were dominant during the war, and in the memory of the war. Historian Jose Harris points out that the war was seen at the time and by a generation of writers as a period of outstanding national unity and social solidarity. There was little antiwar sentiment during or after the war. Furthermore, Britain turned more toward the collective welfare state during the war, expanding it in the late s and reaching a broad consensus supporting it across party lines. By the s and s, however, historians were exploring the subtle elements of continuing diversity and conflict in society during the war period.

Later historians pointed to the many localised unofficial strikes, especially in coal mining, shipbuilding, the metal trades and engineering, with as many as 3. The BBC collected 47, wartime recollections and 15, images in and put them online. Canada joined the war effort on September 10, ; the government deliberately waited after Britain's decision to go to war, partly to demonstrate its independence from Britain and partly to give the country extra time to import arms from the United States as a non-belligerent.

Canada became one of the largest trainers of pilots for the Allies through the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan. Many Canadian men joined the war effort, so with them overseas and industries pushing to increase production, women took up positions to aid in the war effort. The hiring of men in many positions in civilian employment was effectively banned later in the war through measures taken under the National Resources Mobilization Act.. Shipyards and repair facilities expanded dramatically as over a thousand warships and cargo vessels were built, along with thousands of auxiliary craft, small boats and others.

Canada expanded food production, but shipped so much to Britain that food rationing had to be imposed. The main goal was to integrate the marginalized European ethnicities—in contrast to the First World War policy of internment camps for Ukrainians and Germans. In the case of Germany, Italy and especially Japan, the government watched minorities closely for signs of loyalty to their homelands.

The fears proved groundless. Most went to the Toronto area. After the war he again called repeatedly for the ending of partition. The offer and his rejection remained secret until a biography was published in Andrews , the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. Subsequently, Menzies reported to Churchill that the complexity of the questions of Irish unity and sovereignty meant that there was little possibility of Ireland's abandoning its policy of neutrality.


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Without the Irish treaty ports which the United Kingdom had released a year prior to the war , an independent Ireland posed a serious disadvantage to the military capability and safety of British fighting and trade, risking the possibility of invasion if that disadvantage ever proved too great. If Irish sovereignty was to be maintained, then neutrality would have to be steered consciously to the benefit of British interests, as these were its own: Ireland, like other neutrals was ' Nevertheless, Churchill directed Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery to prepare plans to seize Cork and Queenstown Cobh so their harbours could be used as naval bases.

In this regard Viscount Cranborne acknowledged at the war's end that the Irish Government had '…been willing to accord us any facilities which would not be regarded as overtly prejudicing their attitude to neutrality', collaborating with the British war cabinet. The pattern of co-operation between British and Irish agencies began upon the onset of war when de Valera permitted the use of specified Irish airspace mainly for patrolling coastal points.

The use of the " Donegal Corridor ", the narrow strip of Irish territory between County Fermanagh and the sea, was significant. By the autumn of use of the corridor was a daily routine. Collins, 'more friendly than strict neutrality should have allowed. Three days after the fall of France, Irish and British defence officials met to discuss how British troops could, strictly at de Valera's invitation, occupy Ireland upon the event of a German landing there to expel foreign troops attempting to use her as a back door to later invade Britain Plan "W".

The meetings continued, as Cranborne described, throughout the war, facilitating further dialogue.

Before the war began, de Valera had held a meeting with career diplomat Dr. Eduard Hempel , the German Minister in Ireland since The meetings discussed Ireland's close trade links with the United Kingdom and the ease with which Britain could invade her if its interests were threatened. He in turn communicated to Berlin that such was the case that it 'rendered it inevitable for the Irish government to show a certain consideration for Britain' and urged war officials to avoid any action that would legitimise a British invasion of Ireland.

Lee questioned just how much of Warnock's zeal towards Hitler 's Reichstag speech on 19 July was genuine enthusiasm for the 'international justice' that could be expected after Germany's victory, as opposed to an adherence to the instructions of Dublin to please oneself to the potential victors. In that climate the Irish Government, once so ready to 'say agreeable things', Hempel remarked, had become 'unhelpful and evasive'. According to Gray, de Valera was silent for a time and then replied "I don't know". President Douglas Hyde visited Hempel separately on 3 May.

Ireland's position on Jewish refugees fleeing Europe was sceptical. Irish authorities during the war generally gave two justifications for turning away prospective immigrants: Flanagan advocated "routing the Jews out of the country". There was some official indifference from the political establishment to the Jewish victims of the Holocaust during and after the war.

This indifference would later be described by Minister for Justice, Equality and Law Reform Michael McDowell as being "antipathetic, hostile and unfeeling". Mervyn O'Driscoll of University College Cork reported on the unofficial and official barriers that prevented Jews from finding refuge in Ireland although the barriers have been down ever since:. Although overt anti-Semitism was not typical, the southern Irish were indifferent to the Nazi persecution of the Jews and those fleeing the [T]hird Reich….

A successful applicant in was typically wealthy, middle-aged or elderly, single from Austria , Roman Catholic and desiring to retire in peace to Ireland and not engage in employment. Only a few Viennese bankers and industrialists met the strict criterion of being Catholic, although possibly of Jewish descent, capable of supporting themselves comfortably without involvement in the economic life of the country.

He states that as early as the summer of both governments were worried about the "Doomsday scenario" of a successful invasion of Britain. The RAF would need at least one aerodrome to continue the fight in Ireland and both the Irish and British armies secretly scouted for a site in the south of Ireland.

The Irish Army disagreed, fearing a German invasion would overrun it quickly, so both finally agreed on a site in the south of County Tipperary , in the valley of the river Suir , east of the Galtee Mountains. This also suited the Irish army as they had built a secret command headquarters near a convent school seven miles away to be used in case of invasion.

The name "Rathduff" was chosen as a cover because such a name is to be found all over Munster. Both sites were completely out of bounds for all normal military operations. With Hitler turning towards the USSR in the chances of an invasion of Britain waned and the Irish Army decided to hold a major exercise to test the planning and training it had been undertaking for four years, in autumn As part of this, "Rathduff's" secret was partially released, with it serving as the airfield for Ireland's 2nd Division during the exercise.

After the exercises "Rathduff" slipped into obscurity, its fields returning to use as the thoroughbred stud farm they had been before. In his speech celebrating the Allied victory in Europe 13 May Winston Churchill remarked that he had demonstrated restraint towards Ireland because. Britain had occupied neutral Iceland in May In a response a few days later, de Valera acknowledged that Churchill did not add 'another horrid chapter to the already bloodstained record' of Anglo-Irish relations, but asked: These six southern counties, those, let us suppose, commanding the entrance to the narrow seas, Germany had singled out and insisted on holding herself with a view to weakening England as a whole, and maintaining the securing of her own communications through the Straits of Dover.

Let us suppose further, that after all this had happened, Germany was engaged in a great war in which she could show that she was on the side of freedom of a number of small nations, would Mr. Churchill as an Englishman who believed that his own nation had as good a right to freedom as any other, not freedom for a part merely, but freedom for the whole-would he, whilst Germany still maintained the partition of his country and occupied six counties of it, would he lead this partitioned England to join with Germany in a crusade?

I do not think Mr. Would he think the people of partitioned England an object of shame if they stood neutral in such circumstances? The implications on Victory in Europe Day and after, of having not been involved in the war and having suffered the devastation that defined the course of Europe afterwards, is the subject of historical debate.

The devastation shared by most of Europe, and Ireland's avoidance of it, was described by F. In response to which R.

Home front during World War II

Ireland's applications for membership were vetoed by the Soviet Union , a permanent member of the Security Council , from to December Costello on 15 December From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Survey of British Commonwealth affairs: The Irish State and its enemies since , Oxford: The Oxford University Press. Retrieved 23 January Archived 29 August at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 30 November Gill and MacMillan, Dublin, Alternative Views of Twentieth-Century Ireland. A History of the Port of Dublin. Richard Dean Burns, ed. Chronological History of U. So we sail past all these drowning sailors, and they call up to us, and we must sail on.

I remember one crying, 'Taxi! Documents on Irish Foreign Policy. Retrieved 27 March Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Australia. Retrieved 27 December Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 1 January A Thirty Year "Relationship " ".


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Archived from the original on 3 July University of Cambridge, pg. The Politics of Enmity — Retrieved 26 April Irish Studies in International Affairs, Vol. Retrieved 28 June Ireland's anti-communist stance was probably more responsible; the membership of the General Assembly was weighted towards the Western Bloc, and the Soviet Union did not want its position in the Assembly weakened.

Retrieved 6 November This seems unlikely, given that Yalta was held a year before Ireland's application to join the UN, and was based on press speculation. History of World War II by region and country. Australia Nauru New Zealand. Republic of Ireland topics Northern Ireland topics. Nationalism Republicanism Ulster loyalism Unionism. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links EngvarB from October Use dmy dates from October All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from July Articles with unsourced statements from May Views Read Edit View history.

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